Nowe zasoby w kolekcji Artykuły http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/ Biblioteka Politechniki Krakowskiej lipinska@biblos.pk.edu.pl 60 <![CDATA[BAED: a secured biometric authentication system using ECG signal based on deep learning techniques]]> Mon, 26 Sep 2022 13:07:55 +0200 Prakash, Allam Jaya; Patro, Kiran Kumar; Hammad, Mohamed; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Pławiak, Paweł
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Abstrakt: Biometric authentication technology has become increasingly common in our daily lives as information protection and control regulation requirements have grown worldwide. A biometric system must be simple, flexible, efficient, and secure from unauthorized access. The most suitable and flexible biometric traits are the face, fingerprint, palm print, voice, electrocardiogram (ECG), and iris. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) are difficult to falsify among these biometric traits and are less attack-prone. However, designing biometric systems based on ECG is very challenging. The major limitations of the existing techniques are that they require a large amount of training data and that they are trained and tested on an on-person database. To cope with these issues, this work proposes a novel biometric authentication scheme based on ECG detection called BAED. The system was developed based on deep learning algorithms, including a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a long-term memory (LSTM) network with a customized activation function. The authors evaluated the proposed model with on-and off-person databases including ECG-ID, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Check Your Bio-signals Here Initiative (CYBHi), and the University of Toronto Database (UofTDB). In addition to the standard performance parameters, certain key supportive identification parameters such as FMR, F NMR, FAR, and FRR were computed and compared to increase the model’s credibility.The proposed BAED system outperforms prior state-of-the-art approaches.]]>
<![CDATA[Badania eksperymentalne i symulacje komputerowe ściany osłonowej MB-SR50N HI obciążonej wiatrem]]> Mon, 26 Sep 2022 12:40:01 +0200 Juraszek, Janusz; Woźniczka, Piotr; Rusin, Dawid
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Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań i symulacji numerycznych MES ściany osłonowej MB-SR50N HI wykonanej z profili aluminiowych. Przeprowadzono badania polegające na obciążeniu wiatrem ściany osłonowej, zarówno ciśnieniem, jak i podciśnieniem o wartości 2400 Pa w specjalnej komorze badawczej. Wyznaczono wartości ugięć w wybranych punktach pomiarowych. Zbudowano model numeryczny ściany osłonowej za pomocą systemu MES Abaqus. Uwzględniono nieliniowość geometryczną oraz rzeczywiste obciążenie o wartościach analogicznych, jak w przypadku badań eksperymentalnych. Otrzymane wyniki symulacji numerycznych są porównywalne z rezultatami badań doświadczalnych. Badanie przemieszczeń i ugięć aluminiowo-szklanych ścian osłonowych ma istotne znaczenie z punktu widzenia ich bezpieczeństwa eksploatacyjnego.]]>
<![CDATA[O wpływie wysokiej temperatury na stateczność giętno-skrętną stalowych blachownic ze smukłym środnikiem]]> Mon, 26 Sep 2022 11:19:36 +0200 Woźniczka, Piotr
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Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono wybrane rezultaty badań eksperymentalnych dotyczących wpływu wysokiej wartości temperatury na stateczność giętno-skrętną stalowych blachownic ze smukłym środnikiem. Wyznaczone wartości temperatury krytycznej oraz przemieszczeń poziomych porównano z wynikami zaawansowanych symulacji komputerowych. Podano także, oszacowane eksperymentalnie wartości współczynników redukcyjnych właściwości mechanicznych stali.]]>
<![CDATA[Triterpenoid saponins from washnut (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) – a source of natural surfactants and other active components]]> Mon, 26 Sep 2022 10:58:08 +0200 Sochacki, Mateusz; Vogt, Otmar
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Abstrakt: Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn., also called the washnut, is a tropical tree of the Sapindaceae family. The plant owes its name to its cleaning and washing properties used by the local population as a natural detergent. The most important ingredients of the plant are triterpenoid saponins contained in many parts of the plant, inducing fruits, galls, or roots. The tree also contains other valuable, biologically active compounds that are obtained by extraction methods. Raw or purified extract and isolated saponins are valuable plant products that can be used in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and chemical industries. This review includes the most important biological and surfactant properties of extracts and isolated saponins obtained from various parts of the plant.]]>
<![CDATA[Pre-sowing laser light stimulation increases yield and protein and crude fat contents in soybean]]> Mon, 26 Sep 2022 10:55:20 +0200 Klimek-Kopyra, Agnieszka; Neugschwandtner, Reinhard W.; Ślizowska, Anna; Kot, Dominika; Dobrowolski, Jan Wincenty; Pilch, Zbigniew; Dacewicz, Ewa
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Abstrakt: Pre-sowing laser light stimulation is a method commonly used to increase the productivity of legume species. However, it has not been proved that single-laser light stimulation is a more effective technique for enhancing plant productivity and seed yield quality than using different laser lights in sequence, by which means synergistic relations are produced. A two-year, single-factor field experiment was performed in order to test selected combinations of light stimulation of soybean seeds, the effectiveness of which would be expressed as increased plant yield and improved quality parameters. Pre-sowing light stimulation of soybean seeds was shown to significantly influence the morphological traits of the plants. It significantly increased pod number, pod weight, seed number, and seed weight compared to the control. Coherent laser light stimulation of soybean seeds with a helium-neon laser and with an argon laser increased soybean yields by 30% on average compared to the control. The ratio of the yield from the main shoot to the yield from the lateral branches in this treatment was 40:60, indicating that pre-sowing stimulation of seeds had a significant and positive effect by increasing the yield of the lateral branches relative to the control. Stimulation of seeds (3 × 3 s) with a helium-neon laser significantly increased protein content in soybean seeds, on average by 11% compared to the control. A longer duration of pre-sowing stimulation of seeds (3 × 9 s) resulted in a significant increase in crude fat content in the seeds by an average of 5% compared to the control. The use of physical light stimulation on soybean seeds is a promising solution for increasing soybean yields.]]>
<![CDATA[Enhancement of optical telecommunication bands: Pr3+-doped halide phosphate glasses display broadband NIR photoluminescence emission]]> Mon, 26 Sep 2022 10:37:29 +0200 Charfi, Bilel; Damak, Kamel; Maâlej, Ramzi; Alqahtani, Mohammed S.; Hussein, Khalid I.; Alshehri, Ali M.; Hussain, Abdulrahman M.; Burtan-Gwizdala, Bozena; Reben, Manuela; Yousef, El Sayed
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Abstrakt: In the optical energy gap, visible and near-IR emission of halide phosphate glasses with a composition of 40P2O5 -30ZnO-20LiCl-10BaF2 in mol% doped with 3.5 × 104 ppm Pr2O3 , referred to as PZLBPr, were synthesized. The UV-VIS-NIR and spectroscopic properties of these glasses were also predicted. The current glasses had broadband emission photoluminescence covering a wavelength range of 1250 to 1700 nm when excited at 455 nm. These bands for near-infrared emission luminescence relate to the transitions 1G4 → 3H5 , 1D2 → 1G4 , and 3H4 → 3F3, 3F4 in the optical telecommunication window. The significant PL emission wideband was caused by the radiative transition from Pr3+: 1D2 to 1G4. At 445 nm excitation, these glasses exhibited emission bands that corresponded to blue/reddish orange spectral ranges in visible ranges. The prepared glass has a high lasing quality factor (Ω4/Ω6 = 0.9), high optical energy (4.72 eV), and quantum efficiency = 87.3% with FWHM = 156 nm of transition emission from the 1D2 → 1G4 level. As a result, broadband near infrared optical amplifiers can be fabricated from the prepared glasses.]]>
<![CDATA[Hydration and glass transition of hybrid non-isocyanate polyurethanes with POSS inclusions]]> Mon, 26 Sep 2022 09:11:38 +0200 Raftopoulos, Konstantinos N.; Łukaszewska, Izabela; Bujalance Calduch, Carlos; Stachak, Piotr; Lalik, Sebastian; Hebda, Edyta; Marzec, Monika; Pielichowski, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: A non-isocyanate poly (hydroxyurethane) network was synthesized by reaction of a tricyclic carbonate compound with diamines. The system was modified by two types of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) molecules, one retaining the crosslinked nature of the system, and another effectively loosening it. We studied water absorption as a function of environmental humidity and observed that all systems are extremely hydrophilic, absorbing up to 65% of water when exposed to 97% environmental humidity. In parallel, using differential scanning calorimetry and dielectric spectroscopy, we studied the effects of POSS and the significant plasticization caused by absorbed water on the glass transition and charge mobility. In dry materials, crosslinking POSS seems to reinforce the matrix and at least initially slow down mobility while the opposite effect is observed for the moiety that loosens the network. Both POSS inhibit plasticization, both indirectly by inhibiting water absorption, and directly, by stiffening the network, especially in the case of crosslinking POSS.]]>
<![CDATA[Quantum current algebra in action: linearization, integrability of classical and factorization of quantum nonlinear dynamical systems]]> Mon, 26 Sep 2022 08:58:32 +0200 Prykarpatski, Anatolij K.
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Abstrakt: This review is devoted to the universal algebraic and geometric properties of the nonrelativistic quantum current algebra symmetry and to their representations subject to applications in describing geometrical and analytical properties of quantum and classical integrable Hamiltonian systems of theoretical and mathematical physics. The Fock space, the non-relativistic quantum current algebra symmetry and its cyclic representations on separable Hilbert spaces are reviewed and described in detail. The unitary current algebra family of operators and generating functional equations are described. A generating functional method to constructing irreducible current algebra representations is reviewed, and the ergodicity of the corresponding representation Hilbert space measure is mentioned. The algebraic properties of the so called coherent states are also reviewed, generated by cyclic representations of the Heisenberg algebra on Hilbert spaces. Unbelievable and impressive applications of coherent states to the theory of nonlinear dynamical systems on Hilbert spaces are described, along with their linearization and integrability. Moreover, we present a further development of these results within the modern Lie-algebraic approach to nonlinear dynamical systems on Poissonian functional manifolds, which proved to be both unexpected and important for the classification of integrable Hamiltonian flows on Hilbert spaces. The quantum current Lie algebra symmetry properties and their functional representations, interpreted as a universal algebraic structure of symmetries of completely integrable nonlinear dynamical systems of theoretical and mathematical physics on functional manifolds, are analyzed in detail. Based on the current algebra symmetry structure and their functional representations, an effective integrability criterion is formulated for a wide class of completely integrable Hamiltonian systems on functional manifolds. The related algebraic structure of the Poissonian operators and an effective algorithm of their analytical construction are described. The current algebra representations in separable Hilbert spaces and the factorized structure of quantum integrable many-particle Hamiltonian systems are reviewed. The related current algebra-based Hamiltonian reconstruction of the many-particle oscillatory and Calogero-Moser-Sutherland quantum models are reviewed and discussed in detail. The related quasi-classical quantum current algebra density representations and the collective variable approach in equilibrium statistical physics are reviewed. In addition, the classical Wigner type current algebra representation and its application to non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics are described, and the construction of the Lie-Poisson structure on the phase space of the infinite hierarchy of distribution functions is presented. The related Boltzmann-Bogolubov type kinetic equation for the generating functional of many-particle distribution functions is constructed, and the invariant reduction scheme, compatible with imposed correlation functions constraints, is suggested and analyzed in detail. We also review current algebra functional representations and their geometric structure subject to the analytical description of quasi-stationary hydrodynamic flows and their magnetohydrodynamic generalizations. A unified geometric description of the ideal idiabatic liquid dynamics is presented, and its Hamiltonian structure is analyzed. A special chapter of the review is devoted to recent results on the description of modified current Lie algebra symmetries on torus and their Lie-algebraic structures, related to integrable so-called heavenly type spatially many-dimensional dynamical systems on functional manifolds.]]>
<![CDATA[On the integrability of a new generalized Gurevich-Zybin dynamical system, its Hunter-Saxton type reduction and related mysterious symmetries]]> Mon, 26 Sep 2022 08:55:34 +0200 Blackmore, Denis; Prykarpatsky, Yarema; Prytula, Mykola M.; Dutykh, Denys; Prykarpatski, Anatolij K.
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Abstrakt: There is studied the integrability of a generalized Gurevich-Zybin dynamical system based on the differential-algebraic and geometrically motivated gradient-holonomic approaches. There is constructed the corresponding Lax type represenation, compatible Poisson structures as well as the integrability of the related Hunter-Saxton reduction. In particular, there are constructed its Lax type repreentation, the Hamiltonian symmetries as flows on a functional manifold endowed with compatible Poisson structures as well as so called new mysterious symmetries, depending on functional parameter. Similar results are also presented for the potential-KdVdynamical system, for which we also obtained its new mysterious symmetries first presented in a clear, enough short and analytically readable form.]]>
<![CDATA[Assessing participatory urban planning instruments in Krakow, Poland]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 21:11:27 +0200 Szymczyk, Ewa
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Abstrakt: This study analyzes a few case studies showing bottom-up urban initiatives in Krakow, Poland to assess the sustainability of the dominating planning process and participatory planning instruments used. Study shows possible ways of improving the participatory planning instruments used in Krakow by utilising the principles of the process-based planning model.]]>
<![CDATA[On the dynamics of matrix models for immune clonal networks]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 13:02:40 +0200 Balinsky, A. A.; Gafiychuk, V. V.; Kyshakevych, B. Yu.; Prykarpatsky, A. K.
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Abstrakt: We propose some new matrix models for clonal network dynamics that are typical for simulating various biological clonal-type networks and study their dynamics to stable states. We present a detailed description and deduce the corresponding matrix equations governing the dynamics of immune systems on the basis of the general gradient-type principles that can be inherent to a wide class of real living objects. Clonal networks of special type are modeled by symmetric projector matrix variables, which simultaneously take into account both the asymmetry of mutual interaction and adaptation states that can be realized owing to possible idiotypic clonal suppressions. We perform computer simulations of the model dynamics for some simple cases of relatively low dimension paying special attention to the dynamics of the amounts of activated receptor strings within the clonal network.]]>
<![CDATA[Dark type dynamical systems: the integrability algorithm and applications]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 12:59:29 +0200 Prykarpatsky, Yarema A.; Urbaniak, Ilona; Kycia, Radosław A.; Prykarpatski, Anatolij K.
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Abstrakt: Based on a devised gradient-holonomic integrability testing algorithm, we analyze a class of dark type nonlinear dynamical systems on spatially one-dimensional functional manifolds possessing hidden symmetry properties and allowing their linearization on the associated cotangent spaces. We described main spectral properties of nonlinear Lax type integrable dynamical systems on periodic functional manifolds particular within the classical Floquet theory, as well as we presented the determining functional relationships between the conserved quantities and related geometric Poisson and recursion structures on functional manifolds. For evolution flows on functional manifolds, parametrically depending on additional functional variables, naturally related with the classical Bellman-Pontriagin optimal control problem theory, we studied a wide class of nonlinear dynamical systems of dark type on spatially one-dimensional functional manifolds, which are both of diffusion and dispersion classes and can have interesting applications in modern physics, optics, mechanics, hydrodynamics and biology sciences. We prove that all of these dynamical systems possess rich hidden symmetry properties, are Lax type linearizable and possess finite or infinite hierarchies of suitably ordered conserved quantities.]]>
<![CDATA[A hybrid approach of a deep learning technique for real-time ECG beat detection]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 11:07:30 +0200 Patro, Kiran Kumar; Prakash, Allam Jaya; Samantray, Saunak; Pławiak, Joanna; Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard; Pławiak, Paweł
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Abstrakt: This paper presents a new customized hybrid approach for early detection of cardiac abnormalities using an electrocardiogram (ECG). The ECG is a bio-electrical signal that helps monitor the heart’s electrical activity. It can provide health information about the normal and abnormal physiology of the heart. Early diagnosis of cardiac abnormalities is critical for cardiac patients to avoid stroke or sudden cardiac death. The main aim of this paper is to detect crucial beats that can damage the functioning of the heart. Initially, a modified Pan–Tompkins algorithm identifies the characteristic points, followed by heartbeat segmentation. Subsequently, a different hybrid deep convolutional neural network (CNN) is proposed to experiment on standard and real-time long-term ECG databases. This work successfully classifies several cardiac beat abnormalities such as supra-ventricular ectopic beats (SVE), ventricular beats (VE), intra-ventricular conduction disturbances beats (IVCD), and normal beats (N). The obtained classification results show a better accuracy of 99.28% with an F1 score of 99.24% with the MIT–BIH database and a descent accuracy of 99.12% with the real-time acquired database.]]>
<![CDATA[Structure of optimal control in optimal shaping of the steel arch]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 11:02:22 +0200 Mikulski, Leszek; Jasińska, Dorota; Dąbrowska, Olga
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Abstrakt: The paper presents the problem of optimal shaping of the H-bar cross-section of a steel arch that ensures minimal mass. Nineteen combinations of nine basic load states are considered simultaneously in the problem formulation. The optimal shaping task is formulated as a control theory problem within the formal structure of the maximum Pontriagin’s principle. Since the ranges of constraint activity defining the control structure are a priori unknown and must be determined numerically, assuming the proper control structure plays a key role in the task solution. The main achievement of the present work is the determination of a solution of the multi-decision and multi-constraint optimization problem of the arch constituting a primary structural system of the existing building assuring the reduction of the structure mass up to 42%. In addition, the impact of the assumed state constraint value on the solution structure is examined.]]>
<![CDATA[From hazardous waste to fertilizer: Recovery of high-value metals from smelter slags]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 10:43:47 +0200 Mikula, Katarzyna; Skrzypczak, Dawid; Izydorczyk, Grzegorz; Baśladyńska, Sylwia; Szustakiewicz, Konrad; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Witek-Krowiak, Anna
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Abstrakt: This work proposes a method to valorize lead slag for fertilizer purposes. The research concept was to selectively recover valuable microelements (Cu(II), Fe(II), Zn(II) in an amount of at least 0.2% m/v of each) by chemical leaching while retaining toxic elements in the slag (i.e. As and Pb). Among acids, hydroxides, salts and their mixtures tested for slag treatment, it was potassium hydrogen sulfate and ammonia liquor under strongly oxidizing conditions (in the presence of hydrogen peroxide) that proved to be the most effective leaching agents. Response Surface Methodology applied to optimize the slag leaching conditions set the most favorable process parameters (concentration of leaching agents, slag to reagent weight ratio, and temperature). As a result, the concentration of Cu(II) in the extract was 3751 mg/L (for ammonia liquor) and Fe(II) and Zn(II) concentrations in potassium hydrogen sulfate were 4738 mg/L and 6102 mg/L, respectively. To close the life cycle of the waste, immobilization in polyethylene and binding to cement were indicated as methods to manage the solid waste material after leaching. The mixed extracts rich in Cu(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II) ions were tested in germination tests on cucumber. No phytotoxic effect was observed, which raises the possibility of utilizing the solutions after chemical leaching of slag as an alternative source of micronutrients for the production of multicomponent fertilizers. The results are promising and fit in the assumptions of circular economy.]]>
<![CDATA[Nanohybrids of oxides nanoparticles-chitosan and their antimicrobial properties]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 10:40:03 +0200 Matyjasik, Wiktoria; Długosz, Olga; Lis, Kinga; Banach, Marcin
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Abstrakt: Growing international problem with pathogens acquiring resistance to antibiotics is the reason for the search for bactericidal substances against which microorganisms cannot become resistant. The aim of this study was to synthesize inorganic–organic nanohybrids and obtain materials with antimicrobial effects. Chitosan (CS) was deposited on nanocomposite carriers such as calcium oxide with titanium dioxide (CaO-TiO2), magnesium oxide with titanium dioxide (MgO-TiO2) and copper(II) oxide with titanium dioxide (CuO-TiO2). The efficiency of the process was examined at varying concentrations of chitosan and temperature. The parameters for nanohybrids synthesis were selected based on the highest amount of nano-chitosan deposited on the nanohybrids—for each carrier, the process conditions were as follows: chitosan solution at 5 g l−1 and 20 °C. The materials were obtained using these parameters and were used for microbiological tests against E. coli ATCC 25922, S. aureus ATCC 25923 and C. albicans ATCC 10231. The growth inhibitory activity of the obtained materials was qualitatively defined. These results suggest that the synthesized nanohybrids and nanocomposites exhibit biostatic action. The material with the broadest effect was the CuO-TiO2-CS hybrid, which had biostatic properties against all tested strains at a minimal concentration of 1250 μg ml−1. Further research is required to find eco-friendly, non-toxic, and more effective antimicrobials with a broad action to prevent the acquisition of resistance.]]>
<![CDATA[Multifractal cross-correlations of bitcoin and ether trading characteristics in the post-COVID-19 time]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 07:46:48 +0200 Wątorek, Marcin; Kwapień, Jarosław; Drożdż, Stanisław
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Abstrakt: Unlike price fluctuations, the temporal structure of cryptocurrency trading has seldom been a subject of systematic study. In order to fill this gap, we analyse detrended correlations of the price returns, the average number of trades in time unit, and the traded volume based on highfrequency data representing two major cryptocurrencies: bitcoin and ether. We apply the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis, which is considered the most reliable method for identifying nonlinear correlations in time series. We find that all the quantities considered in our study show an unambiguous multifractal structure from both the univariate (auto-correlation) and bivariate (crosscorrelation) perspectives. We looked at the bitcoin-ether cross-correlations in simultaneously recorded signals, as well as in time-lagged signals, in which a time series for one of the cryptocurrencies is shifted with respect to the other. Such a shift suppresses the cross-correlations partially for short time scales, but does not remove them completely. We did not observe any qualitative asymmetry in the results for the two choices of a leading asset. The cross-correlations for the simultaneous and lagged time series became the same in magnitude for the sufficiently long scales.]]>
<![CDATA[Preparation and characteristics of alginate microparticles for food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 07:20:44 +0200 Łętocha, Anna; Miastkowska, Małgorzata; Sikora, Elżbieta
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Abstrakt: Alginates are the most widely used natural polymers in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Usually, they are applied as a thickening, gel-forming and stabilizing agent. Moreover, the alginate-based formulations such as matrices, membranes, nanospheres or microcapsules are often used as delivery systems. Alginate microparticles (AMP) are biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic carriers, applied to encapsulate hydrophilic active substances, including probiotics. Here, we report the methods most frequently used for AMP production and encapsulation of different actives. The technological parameters important in the process of AMP preparation, such as alginate concentration, the type and concentration of other reagents (cross-linking agents, oils, emulsifiers and pH regulators), agitation speed or cross-linking time, are reviewed. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of alginate microparticles as delivery systems are discussed, and an overview of the active ingredients enclosed in the alginate carriers are presented.]]>
<![CDATA[Phosphorus recovery from wastewater and bio-based waste: an overview]]> Fri, 23 Sep 2022 07:08:03 +0200 Witek-Krowiak, Anna; Gorazda, Katarzyna; Szopa, Daniel; Trzaska, Krzysztof; Moustakas, Konstantinos; Chojnacka, Katarzyna
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Abstrakt: Phosphorus is one of the most important macronutrients needed for the growth of plants. The fertilizer production market uses 80% of natural, non-renewable phosphorus resources in the form of phosphate rock. The depletion of those deposits forces a search for other alternatives, including biological waste. This review aims to indicate the most important ways to recover phosphorus from biowaste, with particular emphasis on wastewater, sewage sludge, manure, slaughter or food waste. A comparison of utilized methods and directions for future research based on the latest research is presented. Combining biological, chemical, and physical methods with thermal treatment appears to be the most effective way for the treatment of wastewater sludge in terms of phosphorus recovery. Hydrothermal, thermochemical, and adsorption on thermally treated adsorbents are characterized by a high phosphorus recovery rate (over 95%). For animal by-products and other biological waste, chemical methods seems to be the most optimal solution with a recovery rate over 96%. Due to its large volume and relatively low phosphorus content, wastewater is a resource that requires additional treatment to recover the highest possible amount of phosphorus. Pretreatment of wastewater with combined methods seems to be a possible way to improve phosphorus recovery. A compressive evaluation of combined methods is crucial for future research in this area.]]>
<![CDATA[Mechanochemical synthesis of nanodispersed compositions on the base of Zn, Ce and Mo oxides]]> Wed, 21 Sep 2022 08:07:55 +0200 Sachuk, O.; Zazhigalov, V.; Shcherbakov, S.; Wieczorek-Ciurowa, K.; Bacherikov, I.
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<![CDATA[Arbitrary prestrain values for ligaments cause numerical issues in a multibody model of an ankle joint]]> Tue, 20 Sep 2022 13:35:30 +0200 Ciszkiewicz, Adam
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Abstrakt: Experimental studies report that ligaments of the ankle joint are prestrained. The prestrain is an important aspect of modern biomechanical analysis, which can be included in the models by: applying symmetrical, arbitrary prestrains to the ligaments, assuming a strain-free location for the joint or by using experimental prestrain data. The aim of the study was to comparatively analyze these approaches. In total, 4 prestraining methods were considered. In order to do so, a symmetrical model of the ankle with six nonlinear cables and two sphere–sphere contact pairs was assumed. The model was solved in statics under moment loads up to 5 Nm. The obtained results showed that the arbitrary prestrains caused an unbalanced load for the model at rest, and in turn modified its rest location in an unpredictable way. Due to the imbalance, it was impossible to enforce the assumed prestrains and thus cartilage prestrain was required to stabilize the model. The prestraining had a significant effect on the angular displacements and the load state of the model. The findings suggest that the prestrain values are patient specific and arbitrary prestrains will not be valid for most models.]]>
<![CDATA[Energy-balanced and effective adsorption-catalytic multilayer bed system for removal of volatile organic compounds]]> Tue, 20 Sep 2022 13:19:02 +0200 Jarczewski, Sebastian; Barańska, Katarzyna; Drozdek, Marek; Michalik, Marek; Bizon, Katarzyna; Kuśtrowski, Piotr
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Abstrakt: A dual-functional adsorption-catalytic system for elimination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a cyclic mode, consisting of various configurations of three components, i.e. carbon adsorbent, inert silica separator and Pt/ZrO2 catalyst, was developed. Both adsorbent and ZrO2 support were synthesized by the nanoreplication method using spherical silica as a template, whereas the Pt active phase was deposited by the polyol approach. Properties of the functional materials were studied by several techniques, including N2 adsorption, SEM-EDS, TGA, XRD, XRF and XPS. It was shown that the inert silica separator played an essential role protecting the carbon adsorbent from undesirable partial oxidation. The highest possible effectiveness of the toluene removal (conversion of 94.5%) was obtained for the configuration with 150 mg of Pt/ZrO2 per 40 mg of the adsorbent. A fair stability of the optimal dual-functional system was proved by performing five consecutive adsorption–desorption-oxidation cycles. The experimental study was complemented by energy demand calculations, which confirmed the superiority of the hybrid system over a classic catalytic flow reactor in terms of energy requirements for the desorption-oxidation step. It was demonstrated that the system might operate autothermally due to a substantial amount of generated heat. Additionally, a simplified dynamic mathematical model of the system was developed, which enabled the identification of key aspects, including directions towards more complex mathematical description, to be taken into account in further research aimed at optimization of the hybrid system. The proposed hybrid dual-functional system can therefore be a step forward in developing cost-effective elimination technologies of VOCs from lean waste gases.]]>
<![CDATA[Garden cities and heritage of the Howard’s idea in Europe with particular consideration of Poland]]> Tue, 20 Sep 2022 11:35:18 +0200 Blazy, Rafał; Hrehorowicz-Gaber, Hanna; Sandu, Ioan Gabriel; Hrehorowicz-Nowak, Alicja
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Abstrakt: European urbanization trends at the beginning of the last century were the results of an economic and social situation that had a major impact on the formation of urban structures and the development of peri-urban areas. The concept of an ideal city and the search for its model have gained in importance. Also in Poland, the influence of 19th century though on the formation of cities is visible and numerous references to model cities – in particular Ebenezer Howard’s “Garden City”. The background for these changes was the industrial revolution in the 19th century, intensifying the railway industry, which resulted in the introduction of the Electric Commuter Railway into the areas of the Warsaw agglomeration and laid the foundations for the location of Podkowa Leśna. The article analyses the phenomenon of the “Garden City” on the example of Podkowa Leśna case study, showing the identity of the place and the transformation of the structure over time.]]>
<![CDATA[Investigation of structural, physical, and attenuation parameters of glass: TeO2-Bi2O3-B2O3-TiO2-RE2O3 (RE: La, Ce, Sm, Er, and Yb), and applications thereof]]> Tue, 20 Sep 2022 11:27:02 +0200 Elkhoshkhany, Nehal; Marzouk, Samir; El-Sherbiny, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Heba; Burtan-Gwizdala, Bozena; Alqahtani, Mohammed S.; Hussien, Khalid I.; Reben, Manuela; Yousef, El Sayed
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Abstrakt: A novel series of glass, consisting of B2O3 , Bi2O3 , TeO2 , and TiO2 (BBTT) containing rare earth oxide RE2O3 , where RE is La, Ce, Sm, Er, and Yb, was prepared. We investigated the structural, optical, and gamma attenuation properties of the resultant glass. The optical energy bands, the linear refractive indices, the molar refractions, the metallization criteria, and the optical basicity were all determined for the prepared glass. Furthermore, physical parameters such as the density, the molar volume, the oxygen molar volume, and the oxygen packing density of the prepared glass, were computed. Both the values of density and optical energy of the prepared glass increased in the order of La2O3 , Ce2O3 , Sm2O3 , Er2O3 , and then Yb2O3 . In addition, the glass doped with Yb2O3 had the lowest refractive index, electronic polarizability, and optical basicity values compared with the other prepared glass. The structures of the prepared glass were investigated by the deconvolution of infrared spectroscopy, which determined that TeO4 , TeO3 , BO4 , BO3 , BiO6 , and TiO4 units had formed. Furthermore, the structural changes in glass are related to the ratio of the intensity of TeO4/TeO3 , depending on the type of rare earth. It is also clarified that the resultant glass samples are good attenuators against low-energy radiation, especially those that modified by Yb2O3 , which exhibited superior shielding efficiency at energies of 622, 1170, and 1330 keV. The optical and gamma ray spectroscopy results of the prepared glass show that it is a good candidate for nonlinear optical fibers, laser solid material, and optical shielding protection.]]>
<![CDATA[Modeling of strengthening mechanisms of surface layers in burnishing process]]> Tue, 20 Sep 2022 11:13:25 +0200 Teimouri, Reza; Grabowski, Marcin; Bogucki, Rafał; Ślusarczyk, Łukasz; Skoczypiec, Sebastian
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Abstrakt: In the present work, a physic-based analytical model has been developed to find the hardening mechanism contributed to surface property enhancement during burnishing process. The model takes into account the effects of grain size evolution, phase change and plasticity-induced twinning. Here, the deformation parameters were firstly modeled using the expanding cavity model and theory of incremental plasticity. Then, the strengthening mechanism are identified based on developed physics based material model. Series of experiments were carried out to confirm the hardness values obtained from the model. Finally, the developed multiphysics model were utilized to identify the influence of burnishing parameters on hardness distribution and contributed mechanisms. The obtained results indicated that the there is good agreement between the measured and predicted values of hardness. On the other hand, it was found that the twinning-induced plasticity followed by phase change (from austenite to ferrite) have more dominant influence on hardening compared to grain size evolution; however, the latter only affects the hardening up to limited depth. In addition, the burnishing depth has been identified as most influential parameter that affects hardness and hardened depth.]]>
<![CDATA[Simulation of gradient grain size and hardness in ultrasonic burnishing process through multi-physics of contact mechanic and microstructure evolution]]> Tue, 20 Sep 2022 09:56:33 +0200 Teimouri, Reza; Skoczypiec, Sebastian
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Abstrakt: Hardening of surface layers are one of main goals of surface sever plastic deformation (SSPD) process. Grain refinement is majorly a dominant mechanism that results in hardening of surface layers when the material is subjected to room temperature SSPD. Accordingly, development of predictive models of microstructure refinement is gaining interest. In the present study, analytical predictive model is developed to predict the through depth grain size and hardness in one of famous SSPD technique namely ultrasonic burnishing process. Here, firstly the deformation parameters (i.e. strain and strain rate) are modeled by means of the concept of elasto-plastic contact mechanics taken into account the superposition of static and dynamic loads. Then, grain refinement is predicted through sequence of dislocation density evolution (DDE) followed by dynamic recrystallization (DRX). In order to verify the results derived by analytical model, series of confirmatory experiments were carried out on aluminum 6061-T6. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) method was utilized to obtain the grain size in different layers from the surface of the burnished sample. The obtained results indicated that the developed model of microstructure evolution were consistent well with experimental measurement in terms of gradient grain size and micorhardness distribution. The confirmed simulation model was further utilized to understand how the process factors i.e. static force, vibration amplitude and ball size influence the evolution of microstructure. It was found the finer grain structures distributed at further depth can be obtained while static force and vibration amplitude adopt their maximum range value; while the ball diameter and feed rate are set on minimal values.]]>
<![CDATA[Inteligentne budynki wysokie]]> Tue, 20 Sep 2022 09:18:33 +0200 Gyurkovich, Mateusz
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<![CDATA[Arata Isozaki architekt z Japonii]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 14:00:44 +0200 Węcławowicz-Gyurkovich, Ewa; Gyurkovich, Jacek
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<![CDATA[Porównanie sprzęgła magnetoreologicznego 1- i 2-tarczowego z punktu widzenia wymiarów gabarytowych, współczynników wykorzystania materiałów czynnych, poboru mocy elektrycznej oraz rozkładu przestrzennego temperatury]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 13:41:36 +0200 Kluszczyński, Krzysztof; Pilch, Zbigniew
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Abstrakt: Artykuł jest poświęcony sprzęgłom magnetoreologicznym i w centrum uwagi stawia problem kompleksowego porównania rozwiązania konstrukcyjnego 1- i 2- tarczowego z punktu widzenia różnych kryteriów: masy, objętości, charakterystycznych współczynników Tc/m i Tc/V (gdzie: Tc - moment sprzęgający, m - masa sprzęgła, V - objętość sprzęgła), poboru mocy elektrycznej (niezbędnej do podtrzymania stanu sprzężenia), strat w miedzi cewki wzbudzenia oraz maksymalnego wzrostu temperatury cieczy magnetoreologicznej w strefie roboczej sprzęgła. Porównania dokonano na przykładzie 6 zaprojektowanych sprzęgieł dla wybranego ciągu momentów sprzęgających: Tc = 20, 35 i 50Nm. Wskazano, że rekomendowanym rozwiązaniem konstrukcyjnym jest sprzęgło 2-tarczowe.]]>
<![CDATA[Conservation of the late romanesque sandstone portal of the Church of the Premonstratensian Convent in Kraków, Poland]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 13:22:34 +0200 Pachuta, Karolina; Bojęś-Białasik, Anna; Łyczak, Monika; Bromowicz, Jan; Wedekind, Wanja; Szyma, Marcin; Czechowicz, Jacek
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Abstrakt: The church of the Premonstratensian Convent in Kraków is an early brick structure with stone detail, dating to the mid-13th century. One of the most precious elements preserved of the original church is the monumental late-Romanesque portal made of sandstone. In the wake of the accrual of cultural layers outside the church in the following centuries, what used to be the main portal leading into the church found itself sunk in the ground up to half of its height. Additionally, the portal was covered by a baroque tower in the 17th century. That had a highly negative impact on the condition of the portal which currently urgently required undertaking interdisciplinary research and conservation works. The archaeological digs made it possible to uncover the complete portal, while the research aimed at defining the reasons and degree of damage to the stone. The research consisted in petrographic examinations, examination of the structure of decay caused by dampness and salt, and electric conductivity tests of the sandstone. The conclusions from the research provided the foundation for designing and implementing a conservation works strategy to save, preserve, and show this exceptional work to the public.]]>
<![CDATA[Practical issues concerning two-component equilibria of strongly adsorbing species in porous solids]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 13:01:37 +0200 Bizon, Katarzyna; Boroń, Dominika; Tabiś, Bolesław
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Abstrakt: The study addresses one of the fundamental issues in the area of mathematical modeling and quantitative analysis of the process of multicomponent diffusion in microporous materials. One of the elements of mathematical models of such processes is the thermodynamic equilibrium between the bulk phase and the solid. This results from the fact that surface diffusion takes place in the adsorbed phase. It is illustrated what kind of change occur in the isotherms of pure strongly adsorbable species in comparison with isotherms of these species in binary mixtures. The reason of these changes are explained by analyzing isotherms with different values of affinity coefficients. The RAS (Real Adsorption Solution) method was used to compute sorption isotherms for selected binary mixtures of strongly adsorbable organic compounds on activated carbon. The methods of approximate determination of isotherms of components in mixture for weakly and strongly adsorbable species obtained according to IAS (Ideal Adsorption Solution) and RAS methods are proposed. The results are illustrated by several examples of mixtures of some common hydrocarbons and for two kinds of porous material. Thermodynamic calculations were performed for mixtures of two components subject to adsorption and at high excess of inerts.]]>
<![CDATA[A hierarchical approach for building distributed quantum systems]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 12:57:31 +0200 Davarzani, Zohreh; Zomorodi, Mariam; Houshmand, Mahboobeh
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Abstrakt: In this paper, a multi-layer hierarchical architecture is proposed for distributing quantum computation. In a distributed quantum computing (DQC), different units or subsystems communicate by teleportation in order to transfer quantum information. Quantum teleportation requires classical and quantum resources and hence, it is essential to minimize the number of communications among these subsystems. To this end, a two-level hierarchical optimization method is proposed to distribute the qubits among different parts. In Level I, an integer linear programming model is presented to distribute a monolithic quantum system into K balanced partitions which results in the minimum number of non-local gates. When a qubit is teleported to a destination part, it can be used optimally by other gates without being teleported back to the destination part. In Level II, a data structure is proposed for quantum circuit and a recursive function is applied to minimize the number of teleportations. Experimental results show that the proposed approach outperforms the previous ones.]]>
<![CDATA[Współczesne lotniska : architektura portów lotniczych]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 12:29:40 +0200 Węcławowcz-Gyurkovich, Ewa; Styrm-Bartkowicz, Krystyna
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<![CDATA[Nowoczesne parki końca XX wieku w Paryżu]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 12:24:13 +0200 Węcławowicz-Gyurkovich, Ewa
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<![CDATA[Przerwany wyścig? : drapacze chmur w Nowym Jorku]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 12:22:48 +0200 Węcławowicz-Gyurkovich, Ewa
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<![CDATA[Kierunki w architekturze najnowszej]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 12:22:04 +0200 Węcławowicz-Gyurkovich, Ewa
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<![CDATA[Nowości z oferty firmy Herz. Rozdzielacze do wody użytkowej systemu Herz T-Less]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 10:51:12 +0200 Muniak, Damian
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<![CDATA[Improving mechanical properties of lean Mg–Zn–Ca alloy for absorbable implants via Double Equal Channel Angular Pressing (D-ECAP)]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 10:26:09 +0200 Horky, J.; Bryła, K.; Krystian, M.; Mozdzen, G.; Mingler, B.; Sajti, L.
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Abstrakt: Mg alloys are suitable materials for biodegradable osteosynthesis implants which stabilize bone fractures as long as the fracture is healing but are absorbed by the human body after they have fulfilled this purpose. However, high degradation rates and/or low strength values can be seen as drawbacks of such alloys. The present study deals with a lean Mg–Zn–Ca alloy which exhibits a desired, low degradation rate and explores the possibilities to improve its mechanical properties by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) via Double Equal Channel Angular Pressing (D-ECAP). The effects of different D-ECAP process parameters on the microstructure, mechanical properties and degradation behavior are investigated in detail. The results show that grain refinement during D-ECAP occurs via dynamic recrystallization. Lowering the processing temperature leads to a reduction of the size of the smaller grains of the initial bimodal grain size distribution while a higher degree of deformation (higher number of D-ECAP passes) reduces almost only the area fraction of the larger grains. While the increase in hardness is mainly due to the small size of the recrystallized grains, the tensile strength is additionally determined by the remaining larger grains. Thus, the mechanical properties of the lean Mg–Zn–Ca alloy can be tailored by D-ECAP according to the requirements of the final application. For example, the tensile strength can be increased to more than 370 MPa while maintaining the elongation at fracture at 7%. The degradation rate is not affected by D-ECAP as the process does not change the number or size of intermetallic particles. The optimized mechanical properties, in combination with the low degradation rate, make the D-ECAP-processed alloy very suitable for biomedical applications as absorbable material for osteosynthesis implants.]]>
<![CDATA[Microstructure and properties of tib2 composites produced by spark plasma sintering with the addition of Ti5Si3]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 10:09:46 +0200 Twardowska, Agnieszka; Podsiadło, Marcin; Sulima, Iwona; Bryła, Krzysztof; Hyjek, Paweł
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Abstrakt: Titanium diboride (TiB2) is a hard, refractory material, attractive for a number of applica-tions, including wear-resistant machine parts and tools, but it is difficult to densify. The spark plasma sintering (SPS) method allows producing TiB2-based composites of high density with different sinter-ing aids, among them titanium silicides. In this paper, Ti5Si3 is used as a sintering aid for the sintering of TiB2/10 wt % Ti5Si3 and TiB2/20 wt % Ti5Si3 composites at 1600◦C and 1700◦C for 10 min. The phase composition of the initial powders and produced composites was analyzed by the X-ray diffraction method using CuKα radiation. The microstructure was examined using scanning electron microscopy, accompanied by energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The hardness was determined using a diamond indenter of Vickers geometry loaded at 9.81 N. Friction–wear properties were tested in the dry sliding test in a ball-on-disc configuration, using WC as a counterpart material. The major phases present in the TiB2/Ti5Si3 composites were TiB2 and Ti5Si3. Traces of TiC were also identified. The hardness of the TiB2/Ti5Si3 composites was in the range of 1860–2056 HV1 and decreased with Ti5Si3 content, as well as the specific wear rate Wv. The coefficient of friction for the composites was in the range of 0.5–0.54, almost the same as for TiB2 sinters. The main mechanism of wear was abrasive.]]>
<![CDATA[From Florence to Warsaw]]> Mon, 19 Sep 2022 08:40:20 +0200 Kuśmierski, Jacek
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Abstrakt: In the 'Citri et Aurea' project the Uffizi Gallery in Italy and the Wilanów Museum in Warsaw are collaborating on their historic citrus collections.]]>
<![CDATA[On predicting of some consequences of planned dam construction in a pristine sand-gravel river large catchment: Rio San Pedro, Nayarit, Northwest Mexico]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 13:33:49 +0200 Rivera-Trejo, F.; Radecki-Pawlik, A.; Filipczyk, J.; Priego-Hernandez, G.; Soto-Cortes, G.
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Abstrakt: The pressure on water and energy resources is increasing globally, particularly in emerging countries. Some of them use their rivers for electric power generation, paying little or no attention to the hydromorphological changes generated in the rivers due to the infrastructure associated. One case is the St. Pedro River in the Northwest of Mexico (Rio San Pedro), where it is planned to build a hydroelectric dam. The importance is due to its flow discharges directly to a marsh system called Marismas Nacionales, considered a Biosphere Reserve that includes approximately 20% of all mangroves in Mexico. The alteration of its natural conditions is a critical issue for the ecosystem. There are many studies about the effects of dams on rivers after their construction, but only a few related to the river characterization before intervention within its channel. In this work, we highlight the relevance of the latter. We conducted extensive fieldwork, including morphological survey, sediment transport measurement, hydrodynamics, and bathymetry over 80 km of the river. We establish a baseline with the hydromorphological parameters in the river and run a numerical simulation with 2-D HEC-RAS 6.1 model to compare natural and controlled runoff. The goal of our study was to discuss possible scenarios and some consequences that could be generated with the dam construction – alterations in the lower basin – and suggest actions that can help to minimize the detrimental consequences. The novelty of our work is the scope of fieldwork, the wide range of the data, careful modeling based on detailed field data, and finally, the possible way one might use our results in the future to minimize the adverse consequences of dam construction. The methodology presented can be used as a guide to other dam projects worldwide, which face all these issues and need to redesign the dam and consider modern techniques to preserve the riverine conditions close to the more natural possible.]]>
<![CDATA[Modern technologies in restoration of architectural monuments (on the example of St. Volodymyr’s Cathedral in Chersonesos)]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 12:56:08 +0200 Orlenko, Mykola; Ivashko, Yulia; Buzin, Ivan; Dmytrenko, Andrii; Krupa, Michał
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Abstrakt: The article is devoted to the analysis of the use of modern materials in the restoration of architectural monuments, on the example of St. Volodymyr's Cathedral in Chersonesos (in modern Sevastopol). The article structures historical facts related to the history of the cathedral and the description of its architecture, identifies problems with the state of emergency of the cathedral before the restoration work, presents a comprehensive system of the entire list of activities and analyzes the state of restored elements in the post-restoration period. This proves that in some cases the use of modern technologies and materials in the reproduction and / or restoration of architectural monuments is rational and acceptable.]]>
<![CDATA[Nowy Jork w górę]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 12:38:40 +0200 Gyurkovich, Mateusz
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<![CDATA[Tęczowy biurowiec]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 12:36:58 +0200 Gyurkovich, Mateusz
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<![CDATA[Przestrzeń możliwości, czyli raj w sercu miasta]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 12:35:46 +0200 Styrna-Bartkowicz, Krystyna; Ewa Węcławowicz-Gyurkovich
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<![CDATA[Automatic semantic segmentation for dental restorations in panoramic radiography images using U-Net model]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 09:04:54 +0200 Oztekin, Faruk; Katar, Oguzhan; Sadak, Ferhat; Aydogan, Murat; Yildirim, Tuba Talo; Plawiak, Pawel; Yildirim, Ozal; Talo, Muhammed; Karabatak, Murat
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Abstrakt: The automated segmentation of dental restorations is a critical step in diagnosing dental problems and suggesting the best treatment. Some restorations may be missed during a dental examination, depending on the number of patients, the dentist's experience, and fatigue. Automatic detection of dental restorations based on deep learning has the potential to provide a quick radiological assessment based on the patient's treatment history and pre-diagnosis. This study presents a deep learning-based method for automatic detection and classification of amalgam and composite fillings on panoramic images. A total of 250 anonymized panoramic images with amalgam and composite fillings with a resolution of 2048 × 1024 px were used. In this study, U-Net models with various backbones were employed. The ResNext50 model has achieved the highest pixel accuracy and intersection over union (IoU) performance based on the evaluation of various ResNet and ResNext backbones. The mean IoU value obtained by the model on the test images is 0.767 while the Pixel Accuracy of 99.81% was achieved. Our proposed method demonstrated superior performance compared to similarly conducted studies in the literature. The proposed method can potentially be employed in clinical settings to detect dental restorations automatically. The classification and detection of dental restorations with this model can aid dentistry education at higher institutions as an education tool and make the reporting easier for the dentist.]]>
<![CDATA[Thermal calculations of a natural circulation power boiler operating under a wide range of loads]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 07:34:47 +0200 Zima, Wiesław; Taler, Jan; Grądziel, Sławomir; Trojan, Marcin; Cebula, Artur; Ocłoń, Paweł; Dzierwa, Piotr; Taler, Dawid; Rerak, Monika; Majdak, Marek; Korzeń, Anna; Skrzyniowska, Dorota
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Abstrakt: The article presents the development of a comprehensive methodology for thermal-flow computations of a natural circulation power boiler. For this purpose, calculation methods available in the literature were used, and in several cases in-house methods were developed. These in-house methods are one of the main outputs of the work. They include a new approach to computing the heat transfer occurring in the wall superheaters and hanger tubes situated in parallel in a single combustion gas duct. A new method of calculating the heat transfer in the rotary air heater was also proposed. Based on this, an in-house computer program was created. The computations performed cover all heated surfaces of the boiler with the nominal output of 350 × 103 kg/h of superheated steam and concern several characteristic points of its steady-state operation. Additional CFD computations were performed for the boiler furnace chamber. All the obtained results were compared with the data made available by the boiler manufacturer. Small differences observed only slightly affect the heat distribution in the heated surfaces of the boiler. This confirms the correctness of the proposed calculation methodology and the in-house developed mathematical models. The models can support the power boiler design process.]]>
<![CDATA[Conversion of dihydroxyacetone to carboxylic acids on pretreated clinoptilolite modified with iron, copper, and cobalt]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 07:27:42 +0200 Sobuś, Natalia; Król, Magdalena; Piotrowski, Marcin; Michorczyk, Barbara; Czekaj, Izabela; Kornaus, Kamil; Trenczek-Zając, Anita; Komarek, Sebastian
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Abstrakt: In this paper, we present the conditions for modifying the natural clinoptilolite zeolite and giving it catalytic properties by embedding in its structure active centers in the form of metals, such as iron, copper, and cobalt. Clinoptilolite as a catalyst matrix was subjected to ammonium exchange (Me-H-CLI) and hierarchization with hydrochloric acid (Me-da-CLI). Clinoptilolite was also used without modification of its structure (Me-0-CLI). The obtained zeolite catalysts were characterized by means of XRD, BET, DRS UV-VIS and FT-IR analyzes as well as Raman spectroscopy. Zeolite catalysts were used for the conversion of dihydroxyacetone (DHA) based biomass. The catalytic process was carried out by the one-pot method. On the basis of the analysis with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the reaction products were determined together with their selectivity, yield and also conversion of raw material. During the conversion of DHA, the following organic acids were obtained: lactic acid (LAC), formic acid (FA), pyruvic acid (PAC), acetic acid (AD), and levulinic acid (LA). The highest lactic acid yield (66.2%) was achieved with Co-0-CLI, formic acid (93.6%) with Cu-H-CLI and 87.4% acetic acid with Fe-da-CLI.]]>
<![CDATA[Identification of transient steam temperature at the inlet of the pipeline based on the measured steam temperature at the pipeline outlet]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 07:26:56 +0200 Kaczmarski, Karol
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Abstrakt: A solution to the inverse heat transfer problem (IHP) occurring in steam pipelines is presented in the paper. The transient steam temperature at the pipeline inlet was determined from the steam temperature measured at the pipeline outlet. Temporary changes of steam temperature at the turbine inlet are set by the turbine manufacturer and result from the conditions of safe starting of the turbine and maintaining high durability of its components. The boiler start-up should be carried out so that the time-temperature changes at the boiler outlet equal the time-temperature changes determined using the inverse problem. In this paper, the inverse problem of heat transfer in the pipeline was solved by the finite volume method using data smoothing, future times steps, and Tikhonov regularization that stabilized the solution of the inverse problem. The determined transient steam temperature at the pipeline inlet was compared with the measured temperatures. The steam temperature at the inlet to the pipeline, which is the solution to the inverse problem, agrees very well with the measured temperature, as the absolute value of the relative difference εT between measured and calculated temperature is between 0.045% and 0.3%, and the root mean square error RMSE is within the range of 0.038 K to 0.322 K.]]>
<![CDATA[Novel formulations containing fluorescent sensors to improve the resolution of 3D prints]]> Fri, 16 Sep 2022 07:22:39 +0200 Topa-Skwarczyńska, Monika; Świeży, Andrzej; Krok, Dominika; Starzak, Katarzyna; Niezgoda, Paweł; Oksiuta, Bartosz; Wałczyk, Weronika; Ortyl, Joanna
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Abstrakt: Three-dimensional printing in SLA (stereolithography) and DLP (digital light processing) technologies has recently been experiencing a period of extremely rapid development. This is due to the fact that researchers recognise the many advantages of 3D printing, such as the high resolution and speed of the modelling and printing processes. However, there is still a search for new resin formulations dedicated to specific 3D printers allowing for high-resolution prints. Therefore, in the following paper, the effects of dyes such as BODIPY, europium complex, and Coumarin 1 added to light-cured compositions polymerised according to the radical mechanism on the photopolymerisation process speed, polymerisation shrinkage, and the final properties of the printouts were investigated. The kinetics of the photopolymerisation of light-cured materials using real-time FT-IR methods, as well as printouts that tangibly demonstrate the potential application of 3D printing technology in Industry 4.0, were examined. These studies showed that the addition of dyes has an effect on obtaining fluorescent prints with good resolution.]]>
<![CDATA[Analysis of thermal comfort in intelligent and traditional buildings]]> Wed, 14 Sep 2022 10:15:56 +0200 Orman, Łukasz J.; Majewski, Grzegorz; Radek, Norbert; Pietraszek, Jacek
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Abstrakt: The paper analyses thermal comfort in intelligent and traditional buildings in Poland. It provides a comprehensive study on the subjective assessment of indoor environment conditions as well as on parameters that influence human thermal sensations and preferences. Direct measurements of physical parameters (e.g., air and globe temperature, relative humidity) as well as simultaneously conducted anonymous questionnaire studies were used to provide the necessary data. The study covered all seasons and a large number of participants representing various age groups and body build types, who completed a total of 1778 questionnaires. The results indicate that typically smart buildings offer higher levels of thermal comfort than the traditional ones and that people tend to prefer warmer environments. Moreover, it has been observed that the BMI index, air movement and the number of people per surface area can have an impact on the perceived thermal sensations.]]>
<![CDATA[Nanomaterials by severe plastic deformation: review of historical developments and recent advances]]> Wed, 14 Sep 2022 10:10:46 +0200 Edalati, Kaveh; Bryła, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: Severe plastic deformation (SPD) is effective in producing bulk ultrafine-grained and nanostructured materials with large densities of lattice defects. This field, also known as NanoSPD, experienced a significant progress within the past two decades. Beside classic SPD methods such as high-pressure torsion, equal-channel angular pressing, accumulative roll-bonding, twist extrusion,and multi-directional forging, various continuous techniques were introduced to produce upscaled samples. Moreover, numerous alloys, glasses, semiconductors, ceramics, polymers, and their composites were processed. The SPD methods were used to synthesize new materials or to stabilize metastable phases with advanced mechanical and functional properties. High strength combined with high ductility, low/room-temperature superplasticity, creep resistance, hydrogen storage, photocatalytic hydrogen production, photocatalytic CO2 conversion, superconductivity, thermoelectric performance, radiation resistance, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility are some highlighted properties of SPD-processed materials. This article reviews recent advances in the NanoSPD field andprovides a brief history regarding its progress from the ancient times to modernity.]]>
<![CDATA[The effect of a chemical foaming agent and the isocyanate index on the properties of open-cell polyurethane foams]]> Tue, 13 Sep 2022 13:01:34 +0200 Kamińska, Klaudia; Barczewski, Mateusz; Kurańska, Maria; Malewska, Elżbieta; Polaczek, Krzysztof; Prociak, Aleksander
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Abstrakt: This article presents an ecological approach based on climate neutrality to the synthesis of open-cell polyurethane foams with modified used cooking rapeseed oils. Water was used as a chemical blowing agent in the amount of 20–28 wt.% in relation to the weight of the bio-polyol. The influence of water on the physical and mechanical properties of the synthesized foams was investigated. The resultant porous materials were tested for the content of closed cells, cell structure, apparent density, thermal conductivity, compressive strength, and dimensional stability. It was found that the apparent density decreased in the range of 11–13 kg/m3 when the amount of the foaming agent was increased. In the next step, a foam with a water content of 22% was selected as having the most favorable physico-mechanical properties among all the foams with various water contents. The isocyanate index of the selected foam was then changed from 0.6 to 1.1 and it was observed that the compressive strength increased by an average of 10 kPa. The thermal conductivity coefficients of the final materials with different water contents and isocyanate indices were comparable and in the range of 40–43 mW/m·K.]]>
<![CDATA[Antimicrobial and antiviral activity of selenium sulphide nanoparticles synthesised in extracts from spices in natural deep eutectic solvents (NDES)]]> Tue, 13 Sep 2022 12:54:53 +0200 Długosz, Olga; Ochnik, Michał; Sochocka, Marta; Franz, Dominika; Orzechowska, Beata; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Drabik, Agata; Banach, Marcin
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Abstrakt: Selenium sulphide is a well-known bioactive chemical, but its preparation in nanometric form stabilised in water has not been widely reported. In the article, extracts of cinnamon, curcumin, and pepper obtained using natural deep eutectic solvents (NDES) were used to obtain stable selenium sulphide nanoparticles. The analysis confirmed that selenium sulphide nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 28–44 nm and a particle size of approximately 500 nm were successfully synthesised. The use of NDES stabilised the SeS2 nanoparticles and increased their bioactivity towards microorganisms. The obtained systems revealed high biocidal and antiviral activity against S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans strains, Human influenza virus A/H1N1, and Betacoronavirus 1 (Human coronavirus HCoV-OC43). The SeS2 nanoparticles obtained in the NDES extract of curcuma strongly inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi and bacteria with minimum biocidal concentration (MBC) values of 117.2, 117.2, 117.2, and 468.8 mg/dm3 against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and C. albicans, respectively. The suspensions containing selenium sulphide nanoparticles stabilised by spice extracts were also highly active against influenza viruses and B-coronavirus, showing a reduction of over 99%.]]>
<![CDATA[Bioactive selenium nanoparticles synthesized from propolis extract and Quercetin Based on natural deep eutectic solvents (NDES)]]> Tue, 13 Sep 2022 12:51:33 +0200 Długosz, Olga; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Drabik, Agata; Tymczyna, Leszek; Banach, Marcin
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Abstrakt: This study presents the process of obtaining of antimicrobial selenium nanoparticles in propolis extract and quercetin using natural deep eutectic solvents (NDES). The extraction using NDES as solvent makes it possible to obtain extracts with a higher content of active compounds compared to extraction with water, especially as it concerns compounds with limited solubility in water. Based on the results, the highest content of favonoids, terpenes and antioxidant activity were found in the propolis extract with the applied NDES citric acid-propanediol-proline. The total phenolic content of propolis extracts ranged from about 30 to 200 mg/g dry weight, and the favonoid content ranged from about 3 to 70 mg quercetin equivalents. Spherical selenium nanoparticles obtained from propolis extract had a particle size of 279 nm, while Se NPs obtained from quercetin dissolved in NDES had a particle size of about 96.0 nm. Se NPs obtained in the presence of both quercetin and propolis extract had high antioxidant activity. The activity of selenium nanoparticles synthesized using propolis was confrmed against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans. The MBC of the microorganisms were 25, 100, 100 and 25 mg/l, respectively for E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans.]]>
<![CDATA[Catalytic performance of mixed MxCo3−xO4 (M = Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) spinels obtained by combustion synthesis for preferential carbon monoxide oxidation (CO-PROX): insights into the factors controlling catalyst selectivity and activity]]> Tue, 13 Sep 2022 12:47:13 +0200 Hudy, Camillo; Długosz, Olga; Gryboś, Joanna; Zasada, Filip; Krasowska, Aneta; Janas, Janusz; Sojka, Zbigniew
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Abstrakt: A series of mixed cobalt spinel catalysts (MxCo3−xO4 (M = Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn)) was synthesized and tested in the CO-PROX reaction and in sole CO oxidation and H2 oxidation as references. The catalysts were thoroughly characterized by XRF, XRD, XPS, Raman, and IR spectroscopy, by TEM/STEM/EDX and with SEM techniques. Depending on the u parameter value (oxygen centricity between the tetra- and octahedral cations), two types of mixed spinel catalyst with distinctly different catalytic behavior in the CO-PROX reaction were distinguished. The A-type spinels (Co, Ni, Cu) with u ∼ 0.2625 exhibited overall higher activity in CO and H2 oxidation and lower selectivity in the high-temperature range (T > 180 °C), whereas B-type spinels (Cr, Fe, Mn) with u < 0.2625 were less active yet more selective in the high-temperature range. The work function of the spinel catalysts was found to be a useful concise parameter in accounting for their CO-PROX performance, supporting the proposed categorization of the mixed spinels. Two heuristic descriptors, EO2p + kΔ|<χM> − χO| and ΔEM–O = (EM3d − EO2p), based on the position of the oxygen 2p (EO2p) and the metal 3d (EM3d) band centers and on the average metal <χM> and oxygen (χO) electronegativity difference, were proposed for the rationalization of the mixed spinel performance in terms of their intrinsic electronic properties. It was established that the activity depends on the volcano-type fashion of the ΔEM–O values, whereas the selectivity is correlated with the EO2p + kΔ|<χM> − χO| parameter in a monotonous fashion. The unique behavior of the Zn–Co spinel results from the lifting of the O2p center above the 3d band center of the redox Co3+ cations, in contrast to the other mixed spinel catalysts.]]>
<![CDATA[Synergistic effect of sorption and photocatalysis on the degree of dye removal in single and multicomponent systems on ZnO-SnO2]]> Tue, 13 Sep 2022 11:13:15 +0200 Długosz, Olga; Staroń, Anita; Brzoza, Paulina; Banach, Marcin
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Abstrakt: The paper presents the photodegradation process of one-, two- and three-component dye mixtures by ZnO-SnO2 nanoparticles. After 60 min of running the processes, the dye removal efficiencies of 76.44, 72.69, 62.43, 77.00 and 92.46% for MB, RB, TB, MO and YQ degradation, respectively, were obtained. For binary and ternary systems, dye removal efficiencies for all cases exceeded 70%. When the binary and ternary dye mixtures were tested, the photodegradation efficiencies of ZnO-SnO2 were similar to those of the single mixtures, indicating that this material could be used in industrial applications in the future. The focus of the study was to investigate the effect of sorption on photodegradation efficiency and the presence of both cationic and anionic dyes on their degradation efficiency under UV light. The significance of the effect of sorption on the degradation efficiency allowing the interaction of the catalyst with the dyes removed was confirmed. The main factor influencing sorption and consequently photocatalysis was the nature of the dye. It was confirmed that the positively charged ZnO-SnO2 surface effectively sorbs the dyes and causes their degradation.]]>
<![CDATA[Synthesis of metalloporphyrin complexes based on chlorophyllin]]> Tue, 13 Sep 2022 07:02:37 +0200 Długosz, Olga; Banach, Marcin
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Abstrakt: The production of active metal complexes as a source of micronutrients is still highly desirable. In this study, metalloporphyrin compounds (i.e., iron, magnesium, and zinc) were obtained by modifying sodium-copper chlorophyllin. Metalloporphyrins were prepared by a multi-step process involving protonation of sodium-copper chlorophyllin, followed by complexation of porphyrin with selected metal salts in a DMSO solution. The selected metalloporphyrins were analysed in terms of stability, metal content, and process yield using UV-Vis, FT-IR, and ASA methods. Analysis of the influence of the pH of the complexing system and the molar ratio of chlorophyllin and metals showed that it is possible to obtain metalloporphyrins of Mg, Zn, and Fe with metal bonding efficiencies of 20, 40, and 90%, respectively. The type of acid, its concentration, and the type of salt used in the processes were also critical factors in the protonation of porphyrin as well as the efficiency of metal-porphyrin bonding.]]>
<![CDATA[Multioxide-superoxide dismutase enzyme-nanocomplexes and their antioxidant activity]]> Tue, 13 Sep 2022 06:54:36 +0200 Matysik, Julia; Długosz, Olga; Loureiro, Joana; do Carmo da Silva Pereira, Maria; Banach, Marcin
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Abstrakt: Growth of bionanotechnology requires functional materials, which can lower the costs and can be modified to the specific reaction. Conjugations of nanoparticles and enzymes form efficient products of multi-material enzyme-nanocomplexes, which can be controlled from synthesis to application and can provide predicted results. Multimetallic nanooxides of ZnO–CuO, ZnO–MnO, ZnO–MnO–CuO were obtained by precipitation method with sonication, followed by microwave process. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was immobilized on the surface of the nanoparticles. Obtained nanomaterial-enzyme complexes had antioxidant properties. Particles were characterised by XRD, SEM and TEM methods and ATR spectroscopy which proved enzyme-nanooxides conjugation. Scavenging activity of the materials was on average 85% in DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method and 20 mg/l in TROLOX (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid) concentration, where pure SOD enzyme presented around 90% and 10 mg/l activity, respectively. Conjugation of the highest antioxidant power is ZnO–MnO with SOD, however all three types of materials could be used in further applications.]]>
<![CDATA[The generalized Hashin–Shtrikman approach to Al/nano-TiC composite]]> Mon, 12 Sep 2022 13:26:34 +0200 Cherkaev, Andrej; Mityushev, Vladimir; Rylko, Natalia; Kurtyka, Pawel
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Abstrakt: The Hashin–Shtrikman approach is generalized and applied to a class of two-phase two-dimensional random macroscopically isotropic composites. The classic theory of the coated Hashin–Shtrikman assemblage (HSA) is extended to inhomogeneous complicated geometric structures. The first model is developed to the inhomogeneous core. The second model is constructed by introduction of the coating envelope considered as an HSA in another scale. The simulation explicitly demonstrates the dependence of the macroscopic properties of nanocomposites manufactured by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis in Bath on their geometrical structure. The models can be applied to optimal design problems to control the composite crystallization and solidification process by adding the moderator.]]>
<![CDATA[Properties of 3D printed concrete–geopolymer hybrids reinforced with aramid roving]]> Mon, 12 Sep 2022 09:31:28 +0200 Marczyk, Joanna; Ziejewska, Celina; Korniejenko, Kinga; Łach, Michał; Marzec, Witold; Góra, Mateusz; Dziura, Paweł; Sprince, Andina; Szechyńska-Hebda, Magdalena; Hebda, Marek; Ziejewska, Celina
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Three-dimensional concrete printing (3DCP) is an innovative technology that can lead to breakthrough modifications of production processes in the construction industry. The paper presents for the first time the possibility of 3D printing concrete–geopolymer hybrids reinforced with aramid roving. Reference concrete samples and concrete–geopolymer hybrids composed of 95% concrete and 5% geopolymer based on fly ash or metakaolin were produced. The properties of the samples without reinforcement and samples with 0.5% (wt.) aramid roving were compared. The frost resistance tests, UV radiation resistance, and thermal conductivity were evaluated for samples that were 3D-printed or produced by the conventional casting method. Compressive strength tests were carried out for each sample exposed to freeze–thaw cycles and UV radiation. It was observed that after the frost resistance test, the samples produced by the 3D printing technology had a minor decrease in strength properties compared to the samples made by casting. Moreover, the thermal conductivity coefficient was higher for concrete–geopolymer hybrids than concrete reinforced with aramid roving.]]>