Nowe zasoby w kolekcji Artykuły http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/ Biblioteka Politechniki Krakowskiej lipinska@biblos.pk.edu.pl 60 <![CDATA[Mobilny bibliotekarz = mobilny pracownik? Wstęp do analizy zagadnienia]]> Thu, 26 Jan 2023 12:56:11 +0100 Dudek, Katarzyna
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Abstrakt: W artykule przytoczono definicje mobilności zawodowej oraz przedstawiono ogólną sytuację zawodu bibliotekarza i aktualny stan badań dotyczący mobilności polskich bibliotekarzy. Artykuł stanowi przyczynek do tematu mobilności zawodowej bibliotekarzy w Polsce.]]>
<![CDATA[Sprawozdanie z ILIDE International Conference 2022]]> Thu, 26 Jan 2023 12:49:17 +0100 Dudek, Katarzyna
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Abstrakt: Sprawozdanie z międzynarodowej konferencji ILIDE (Innovative Library In Digital Era) 2022, która odbyła się w dniach 5-7 września 2022 r. w słowackiej miejscowości Jasná. Już po raz 23. wydarzenie zgromadziło bibliotekarzy, wydawców, specjalistów IT i AI oraz ekspertów digitalizacji z całego świata. Celem konferencji było przybliżenie tematów dotyczących: kształtowania i funkcjonowania repozytorium bibliotecznego, otwartych danych badawczych, publikacji OA, wykorzystania sztucznej inteligencji w bibliotece oraz szeroko pojętej komunikacji i doradztwa w bibliotece (platformy współpracy). Prezentacje wygłosili czołowi przedstawiciele najważniejszych instytucji zajmujących się bibliotekarstwem, archiwizacją, informatyką i działalnością kulturalną w kraju i za granicą.]]>
<![CDATA[Miejscowy Plan Rewitalizacji „Jabłkowskiego–Podgórze” w Kaliszu – nadzieja zmian w kreacji polityki przestrzennej w Polsce]]> Thu, 26 Jan 2023 09:36:56 +0100 Korbel, Wojciech
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Abstrakt: Z końcem 2021 r. Rada Miasta Kalisza uchwaliła Miejscowy Plan Rewitalizacji „Jabłkowskiego-Podgórze”. Po raz pierwszy w Polsce stworzono nowy instrument polityki przestrzennej oparty o ustanowione w 2015 r. fakultatywne zapisy ustawy o rewitalizacji. Na tle przyczyn jakie legły u podstaw stworzenia przedmiotowego planu, rodzajów wykorzystanych w nim narzędzi systemowych oraz osiągniętych rezultatów, prezentowana praca skupia uwagę na roli nowych narzędzi urbanistyki operacyjnej i potencjale ich oddziaływania na kształtowaną lokalnie przestrzeń. Praca podejmuje też problem dotychczasowej marginalizacji znaczenia miejscowego planu rewitalizacji w polityce przestrzennej polskich gmin i daleko idącej potrzeby zmian w sposobie jej kształtowania.]]>
<![CDATA[Czesław Jan Grycz (1944-2021)]]> Thu, 26 Jan 2023 09:33:38 +0100 Marcinek, Marzena; Śliwińska, Maria
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<![CDATA[Green hybrid polyethylene composites for biomedical application]]> Thu, 26 Jan 2023 09:21:51 +0100 Kufel, Anna; Kuciel, Stanisław
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Abstrakt: The aim of the research was to study green polyethylene hybrid composites reinforced with natural fillers. In our study the green high-density polyethylene produced from sugarcane-based ethanol was used as a matrix. The basalt fibers, corncob granules, coffee, hazelnut shells and tuff were added to the matrix. The influence of the temperature on the mechanical properties were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to assess the quality of adhesion of the natural fillers to the polymer matrix.]]>
<![CDATA[Composites based on polylactide reinforced with basalt fiber with the addition of antibacterial nanoparticles for biomedical applications]]> Thu, 26 Jan 2023 09:18:41 +0100 Rusin-Żurek, Karina; Kuciel, Stanisław
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Abstrakt: W pracy oceniono wpływ dodatku włókien bazaltowych oraz antybakteryjnych nanocząstek metali, nanotlenku miedzi (CuO) i nanotlenku cynku (ZnO) na właściwości wytrzymałościowe, a także wpływ degradacji hydrolitycznej na spadek właściwości wytrzymałościowych kompozytów wytworzonych metodą wtryskiwania na osnowie polilaktydu. W celu przeprowadzenia badań wytworzono 9 kompozycji z zawartością 5 i 15% mas. włókien bazaltowych oraz 2-proc. dodatkiem nanocząstek metali. Dodatkowo każdy z kompozytów posiadał 2% dodatku kompatybilizatora – promotora mieszalności. W celu oceny właściwości wytrzymałościowych kompozyty zostały poddane próbom rozciągania, zginania oraz udarności. Przeprowadzono także degradację hydrolityczną w roztworze soli fizjologicznej w temp. 40°C. Wykonano również mikrofotografie SEM na przełomach po rozciąganiu w celu oceny efektów wzmocnienia oraz stopnia homogenizacji. Wyniki badań wykazały, że dodatek włókien bazaltowych zwiększył wytrzymałość na rozciąganie i zginanie, a także zwiększył sztywność kompozycji. W warunkach degradacji hydrolitycznej po 7 tygodniach nastąpił znaczący 30–50-proc. spadek wytrzymałości i sztywności materiałów. Dodatek antybakteryjnych nanocząstek tlenków metali zmniejszył właściwości wytrzymałościowe. Na zdjęciach z mikroskopii elektronowej po rozciąganiu kompozytów z dodatkiem nanocząstek tlenku cynku zaobserwowano przełomy kruche z obszarami silnie rozwiniętymi. Na zdjęciach SEM kompozytów z dodatkiem nanotlenku miedzi wyraźniej obserwowane były powierzchnie ugrupowań krystalicznych z włóknami bazaltowymi w osnowie. Wytworzone kompozyty z włóknem bazaltowym i antybakteryjnymi nanocząstkami metali mogą poprawić właściwości użytkowe wtryskiwanych elementów do zastosowań biomedycznych.]]>
<![CDATA[Zawód bibliotekarza w centrum uwagi (bibliotekarzy)]]> Wed, 25 Jan 2023 13:21:16 +0100 Marcinek, Marzena; Broniarczyk, Joanna
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Abstrakt: Felieton wstępny dot. zawodu bibliotekarza i innych tematów poruszanych w 203 numerze Biuletynu EBIB, w tym mobilności bibliotekarzy, roli performera i wypalenia zawodowego.]]>
<![CDATA[Sposób zagospodarowania terenów centrów handlowych Krakowa na tle wybranych dokumentów planistycznych]]> Wed, 25 Jan 2023 13:14:32 +0100 Blazy, Rafał; Łabuz, Rita
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Abstrakt: Centra handlowe stanowią stosunkowo nowy element przestrzeni polskich miast, który wpływa na kształtowanie tkanki urbanistycznej. Problemem badawczym niniejszego artykułu jest ustalenie, w jaki sposób są zagospodarowywane tereny krakowskich centrów handlowych i jakie przyjmuje się w dokumentach planistycznych wartości podstawowych wskaźników urbanistycznych dla tych terenów. Przedmiot badań stanowią obszary wszystkich centrów handlowych zlokalizowanych w Krakowie. Celem jest określenie tendencji w sposobie ich zagospodarowania na tle obowiązujących dokumentów planistycznych. W pierwszej kolejności w oparciu o analizy GIS obliczono wartości 3 parametrów: wskaźnika powierzchni zabudowy, wskaźnika intensywności zabudowy i wskaźnika terenu biologicznie czynnego. Następnie zestawiono je z wartościami przyjmowanymi w miejscowych planach zagospodarowania przestrzennego. Z przeprowadzonych badań wynika, że budynki centrów handlowych w Krakowie zajmują średnio mniej niż 50% powierzchni terenu inwestycji. Tylko niewielka część działki jest zagospodarowana w formie zieleni (średnio 14,92%). W dokumentach planistycznych wartości wskaźnika intensywności zabudowy często dopuszczają powstanie inwestycji o bardzo zróżnicowanej kubaturze.]]>
<![CDATA[Enhanced emission of tellurite glass doped with Pr3+/Ho3+ and their applications]]> Wed, 25 Jan 2023 13:03:23 +0100 Burtan-Gwizdala, Bozena; Reben, Manuela; Cisowski, Jan; Lisiecki, Radosław; Jarząbek, Bożena; Alshehri, Ali; Hussein, Khalid I.; Yousef, El Sayed
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Abstrakt: The shielding and spectroscopic properties of Pr+3 and Pr3+/Ho3+-codoped tellurite glass were investigated. The intensity parameters (Ω2 = 3.24-, Ω4 = 1.64-, Ω6 = 1.10 × 10−20 cm2 ) as well as the radiative lifetimes of 3F4 + 5S2 and 5 I6 excited states of Ho3+ ions were equal to 301 µs and 3.0 µs, respectively. The former value appears to be much higher than that obtained from the lifetime measurement, indicating the presence of various energy transfer processes. The NIR spectrum of Pr3+/Ho3+-co-doped tellurite glass is dominated by strong Ho3+: 5 I6 emission at around 1200 nm, being the result of the energy transfer from Pr3+ to Ho3+ ions. The shielding effectiveness of the prepared glasses showed good performance against high-energy photons. These findings suggest that the prepared glasses could be used in laser technology such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) treatment procedures and as shielding for radiation protection.]]>
<![CDATA[Single-point and surface quality assessment algorithm in continuous production with the use of 3D laser Doppler scanning vibrometry system]]> Wed, 25 Jan 2023 13:00:07 +0100 Scislo, Lukasz
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Abstrakt: In the current economic situation of many companies, the need to reduce production time is a critical element. However, this cannot usually be carried out with a decrease in the quality of the final product. This article presents a possible solution for reducing the time needed for quality management. With the use of modern solutions such as optical measurement systems, quality control can be performed without additional stoppage time. In the case of single-point measurement with the Laser Doppler Vibrometer, the measurement can be performed quickly in a matter of milliseconds for each product. This article presents an example of such quality assurance measurements, with the use of fully non-contact methods, together with a proposed evaluation criterion for quality assessment. The proposed quality assurance algorithm allows the comparison of each of the products’ modal responses with the ideal template and stores this information in the cloud, e.g., in the company’s supervisory system. This makes the presented 3D Laser Vibrometry System an advanced instrumentation and data acquisition system which is the perfect application in the case of a factory quality management system based on the Industry 4.0 concept.]]>
<![CDATA[Review: On the complex magnetic phase diagram of the MnRuxRh1−xAs system, crystal, a.c. susceptibility, magnetization and electronic structure characterizations]]> Mon, 23 Jan 2023 14:42:45 +0100 Szymański, D.; Zach, R.; Tobola, J.; Chajec, W.; Duraj, R.; Gondek, Ł.; Baran, S.; Michalec, M.; Chaudouet, P.; Haj-Khlifa, S.; Hlil, E. K.; Fruchart, D.
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Abstrakt: The crystal structure of MnRuxRh1−xAs system belongs to the hexagonal Fe2P-type structure (SG: P ̅ 2 m). Mn atoms locate at pyramidal (3 g) sites, Ru and Rh atoms occupy tetrahedral (3 f) sites and As atoms occupy 1b and 2c positions. For x > 0.75 the compounds exhibits ferromagnetic (F) ordering with a maximum magnetization saturation value of 3.96 μB/f.u. for MnRuAs. Increase of the Rh concentration results in a marked drop of the Curie temperature. At the opposite side, for x 0.2, the MnRuxRh1−xAs system undergoes successive AF arrangements. For x < 0.1 complex AF2 followed by a non collinear (AF2 +F) arrangements when cooling down, followed by a pure antiferromagnetic state AF1 at the lowest temperatures. Systematic XRD data collected in the 80–550 K temperature range were used to refine the crystal structure for intermediate compositions. Since the magnetic phase transitions are accompanied by structural changes, systematically the thermal variations of both cell parameters and atomic positions were analyzed in terms of magneto-elastic trends. It results that a local anisotropic distortion parameter δ affects the (3 f) tetrahedral site, depending on temperature and composition, i.e. magnetic state. Effectively, both low field a.c. susceptibility and high field (up to 10 T) magnetization measurements, have allowed evidence new phase transitions in the intermediate range of compositions, all exhibiting a magneto-elastic character. Electronic structure calculations were performed using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method in the coherent potential approximation (KKR-CPA) to account for the Ru/Rh disorder. Special attention was paid to the total energy difference between AF and F orderings versus the Ru to Rh content. On the basis of the present experimental and theoretical characterizations, a more detailed (x,T) phase diagram was built for the MnRuxRh1−xAs system. It was found that a small magnetic polarization of the 4d states related to the marked anisotropic distorsion affecting the TET site, appears to play a significant role on the sucessive magnetic arrangements Ferro dominant with Ru-rich, AF and complex with Rh-rich compounds.]]>
<![CDATA[Manufacturing of phosphoric acid from hydroxyapatite, contained in the ashes of the incinerated meat-bone wastes]]> Mon, 23 Jan 2023 11:46:25 +0100 Krupa-Żuczek, Kinga; Kowalski, Zygmunt; Wzorek, Zbigniew
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Abstrakt: The results of the investigations concerning phosphoric acid manufacturing, by the extraction method, from the ashes containing hydroxyapatite, obtained through the thermal treatment of bone sludge have been presented. The incinerated bone sludge with ~16% P content and the minimal amount of impurities can be an alternative source for phosphoric acid production. The process consists in two stages. In the 1st stage, reaction of hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid resulting in monocalcium phosphate formation in the solution obtained is carried out. The tests revealed that overall hydroxyapatite dissolution in phosphoric acid takes place when the concentration is 37% H3 PO4 . In the 2nd stage monocalcium phosphate is converted into calcium sulphate using concentrated sulphuric acid at the recommended temperature of 95°C. The principles of the technological idea of the process of phosphoric acid manufacturing from HA-containing ashes, obtained by bone wastes incineration, as well as a preliminary economic analysis for the production of 10 000 t/year of food-grade phosphoric acid have been developed.]]>
<![CDATA[Uszkodzenia i naprawy balkonów i galerii wspornikowych]]> Mon, 23 Jan 2023 11:10:54 +0100 Matysek, Piotr; Koziński, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono przyczyny uszkodzeń oraz sposoby naprawy balkonów i galerii wspornikowych o różnej konstrukcji i różnym okresie użytkowania. Na podstawie badań stwierdzono, że głównymi przyczynami uszkodzeń były błędy wykonawcze oraz projektowe, a także niewłaściwe użytkowanie i zaniedbania remontowe. Podano sposoby napraw umożliwiające poprawę stanu technicznego i bezpieczne użytkowanie balkonów i galerii.]]>
<![CDATA[Elewacje Veture jako rozwiązanie ocieplenia na istniejącej warstwie ocieplenia – symulacje obliczeniowe]]> Fri, 20 Jan 2023 08:49:26 +0100 Byrdy, Aleksander; Imiołek, Karolina; Kotliński, Jakub
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Abstrakt: Przedmiotem artykułu są symulacje obliczeniowe dotyczące elewacji Veture jako rozwiązania ocieplenia na istniejącej warstwie ocieplenia. Autorzy omawiają metody montażu płyty Veture oraz dokonują analizy statycznej i termicznej tej płyty.]]>
<![CDATA[Use of diatomite from Polish fields in sustainable development as a sorbent for petroleum substances]]> Thu, 19 Jan 2023 14:00:26 +0100 Łach, Michał; Pławecka, Kinga; Marczyk, Joanna; Ziejewska, Celina; Hebdowska-Krupa, Maria; Nykiel, Marek; Hebda, Marek; Miernik, Krzysztof; Mierzwiński, Dariusz; Korniejenko, Kinga; Mikuła, Janusz; Smoroń, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: Diatomites are one of the most interesting materials found in various regions of the world. In Poland, there is the only active diatomite mine in Jawornik Ruski in the Podkarpacie region. Diatomite fields in Poland with an average SiO2 content of 72% are found in the Carpathian Mountains, in the Leszczawka region. Geological data indicate the existence of at least 4 large deposits of this material, but one deposit (Jawornik) is being exploited. The diatomite from the Polish deposit differs from other raw materials of similar origin. It has recently been the subject of intensive scientific research aimed at its extensive use in industry, breeding, and agriculture. This locally occurring material has different properties from other such materials existing in other regions, which is why its research is important in terms of its potential use. The balance resources are estimated at about 10 million tons, so its economic use can have an impact not only locally but globally. In spite of the different chemical and phase composition in relation to competing diatomites, it was hypothesized that it would be possible to select appropriate processing parameters on the basis of a series of investigations into the properties, so that even from the raw material of not the best quality, products could be obtained which were superior to those of competitors in terms of sorption parameters. In the presented research we used, among other things, the Westinghouse method to determine the degree of absorption of diatomite, as well as such research methods as particle size analysis, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Specific surface area measurements were determined using the single-point and multi-point Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods. Results of physicochemical analyses of diatomite and results of absorption of petroleum substances are presented in the article. As a result of the research, it was found that diatomite of Polish origin may have an absorption capacity of oil derivatives at the level of about 130% by weight. This result is of great commercial importance because the degree of absorption is superior to other competing materials. This material can be successfully used to remove various oil spills and eliminate environmental hazards. The results of the investigations are also of economic importance, as the production of the best quality sorbents from locally available raw materials reduces transport costs and thus the environmental impact. In addition, the production of highly efficient sorbents reduces the consumption of raw materials as well as the waste of sorbents impregnated with petroleum-derived substances. It is estimated that the savings from producing sorbents with the parameters described in the article will be about 30% in comparison to popular competitive materials of other origins.]]>
<![CDATA[Energy retrofit optimization for social building in temperate climate zone]]> Thu, 19 Jan 2023 11:36:22 +0100 Vallati, A.; Fiorini, C.V.; Grignaffini, S.; Ocłoń, P.; Di Matteo, M.; Kobylarczyk, J.
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Abstrakt: This study analyses the energy consumption of a social housing built in the 800 s. This typology is widely diffused in the building stock of Rome and of the city’s suburbs and for this its improvement represents a dutiful effort for the Italian national scene, where the energy efficiency of public social housing is a major concern. Public funding is significantly reduced compared to the past and the conditions of the buildings are deteriorating over time, resulting in an increase in energy consumption for air conditioning and in indoor comfort conditions very far from the standards. Often it is also very difficult to act on the passive system, with the insertion of a thermal insulation, as well as inside the apartments, with the replacement of terminal units. For this reason a good way is to evaluate the possibility of modifying the thermal energy generation system, preserving as much as possible the distribution and supply system inside the apartments. In general, where the boiler is not obsolescent, the idea is to propose a hybrid generation system with the inclusion of a heat pump (HHP), which could be implemented with renewable energy equipment, properly installed in the building. The results show that a hybrid system can lower the primary energy consumption up to 28%, thus allowing the employment of renewable energies within the social housing building stock.]]>
<![CDATA[Polar [3+2] cycloaddition between N-methyl azomethine ylide and trans-3,3,3-trichloro-1-nitroprop-1-ene]]> Thu, 19 Jan 2023 08:33:28 +0100 Żmigrodzka, Magdalena; Sadowski, Mikołaj; Kras, Jowita; Dresler, Ewa; Demchuk, Oleg M.; Kula, Karolina
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Abstrakt: Pyrrolidines are important heterocyclic organic compounds which show biological effects. Many of them are successfully used in medicine. These compounds can also be applied in industry, for example as dyes or agrochemical substances. Therefore, the study of pyrrolidines chemistry is important for modern science. In this paper the pyrrolidines synthesis in [3+2] cycloaddition between Nmethyl azomethine ylide and trans-3,3,3-trichloro-1-nitroprop-1-ene was studied. The reaction was carried out experimentally and based on computational research. The obtained results show the reaction may be of a polar nature, and proceed under mild conditions leading to (3SR,4RS)-1-methyl-3-nitro-4-(trichloromethyl)pyrrolidine as a single reaction product. Probably, a similar protocol can be applied for analogous reactions involving other 2-substituted nitroethene analogues.]]>
<![CDATA[Strategie odbudowy dzielnicy Al-Midan w Aleppo]]> Wed, 18 Jan 2023 13:57:12 +0100 Tylecka, Agnieszka
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Abstrakt: Obecnie na świecie rozgrywają się różne konflikty zbrojne. Niniejszy artykuł porusza zagadnienie możliwości odbudowy jednego z obszarów syryjskiego miasta Aleppo – dzielnicy Al Midan. Przedstawiono wnioski oparte na analizach projektu miasta, a w szczególności ww. dzielnicy z okresu przed wybuchem wojny oraz w stanie obecnym (powojennym). Badania uzupełniono o wywiad środowiskowy i mapę mentalną sporządzoną przez jednego z mieszkańców Aleppo zgodnie z wytycznymi autorki artykułu. Na tej podstawie opracowano wnioski, które pozwalają na zaprojektowanie nowej wizji dzielnicy Al-Midan.]]>
<![CDATA[Development corridors of the city spatial structure – selected issues of delimitation. Case study]]> Wed, 18 Jan 2023 12:36:45 +0100 Ogrodnik, Daniel; Klepak, Marzena
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Abstrakt: The author deals with the model interpretation of the city's spatial structure. This approach empha- sizes the role of the urban structure based on nodes and development corridors. Continuing the research on the spatial structure of Krakow, the author considers the criteria appropriate for the delimitation of areas with the highest crystallization potential of the urban tissue. Against this back- ground, presents the results of a case study of one of the main development axes of Krakow.]]>
<![CDATA[Studying of the temperature influence on stability of fibrinogen macromolecules in aqueous solution: A literature mini-review]]> Wed, 18 Jan 2023 12:31:30 +0100 Nahatskyi, Roman
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Abstrakt: A review of the literature, multiple authors in order to systematize information on the effect of temperature in the range of 25-42 ° C on blood proteins, to conduct further studies of the effect of temperature on the stability of fibrinogen molecules in aqueous solution. Study of works on the determination of conformation and stability of protein molecules in the temperature range of living organisms.]]>
<![CDATA[Instalacja do wytwarzania proszku ferromagnetycznego metodą elektrolizy w warunkach laboratoryjnych]]> Wed, 18 Jan 2023 09:59:26 +0100 Sołtys, Krzysztof; Bartel, Sebastian; Kluszczyński, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: Artykuł prezentuje koncepcję własnej metody wytwarzania proszku ferromagnetycznego w warunkach laboratoryjnych na małą skalę przy wykorzystaniu procesu elektrolizy chemicznej. Autorzy opracowali projekt i zbudowali stanowisko badawcze, którego kluczowym elementem jest separator magnetyczny, analizowany z wykorzystaniem programów FEMM i CFD. Proszki ferromagnetyczne, uzyskane z użyciem dwóch różnych elektrolitów: wodnego roztworu NaCl oraz wodnego roztworu FeSO4 poddano testom potwierdzających ich magnetyczne właściwości.]]>
<![CDATA[Aproksymacja funkcji siły elektrodynamicznej działającej w tłokowej pompie elektromagnetycznej]]> Wed, 18 Jan 2023 09:53:26 +0100 Bartel, Sebastian; Kluszczyński, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: Celem artykułu jest znalezienie opisu analitycznego siły elektrodynamicznej działającej na tłok liniowej pompy elektromagnetycznej nowego typu. Ten nowy typ pompy to pompa elektromagnetyczna zintegrowana z liniowym silnikiem synchronicznym z magnesem trwałym w biegniku, stanowiącym równocześnie tłok pompy. Rozważono aproksymację tej funkcji siły przy pomocy różnicy 2 funkcji Gauss’a i funkcji Kloss’a. Ostatecznie wykazano, że przebieg siły elektrodynamicznej najlepiej odwzorowuje zmodyfikowana funkcja Kloss’a.]]>
<![CDATA[Properties and recyclability of abandoned fishing net-based plastic debris]]> Wed, 18 Jan 2023 08:03:40 +0100 Kozioł, Anna; Paso, Kristofer Gunnar; Kuciel, Stanisław
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Abstrakt: Plastics in marine environments undergo molecular degradation via biocatalytic and photocatalytic mechanisms. Abandoned, lost, or discarded fishing gear (ALDFG) damages marine and coastal environments as well as plant and animal species. This article reviews ghost fishing, ecological damage from marine plastics, recommended recycling practices and alternative usages of derelict fishing gear. Material mixing techniques are proposed to counteract the effect of biocatalytic and photocatalytic biodegradation within the context of plastic fish net recycling. There is a need for a new and rapid “multidimensional molecular characterization” technology to quantify, at a batch level, the extent of photocatalytic or biocatalytic degradation experienced on each recovered fishing net, comprising molecular weight alteration, chemical functional group polydispersity and contaminant presence. Rapid multidimensional molecular characterization enables optimized conventional material mixing of recovered fishing nets. In this way, economically attractive social return schemes can be introduced for used fishing nets, providing an economic incentive for fishers to return conventional fishing nets for recycling. © 2022 by the authors.]]>
<![CDATA[Characterization of selected parameters of Chlorella vulgaris microalgae after short-term exposure to gold nanoparticles with different surface properties]]> Wed, 18 Jan 2023 07:38:12 +0100 Kula-Maximenko, Monika; Gorczyca, Anna; Pociecha, Ewa; Gąstoł, Agata; Maciejewska-Prończuk, Julia; Oćwieja, Magdalena
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Enhanced production and exploitation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), among others in lateral flow assays for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, motivate for extensive studies on their environmental and biological safety. Therefore, the impact of three types of AuNPs on Chlorella vulgaris was studied after short-term exposure. The AuNPs were prepared using sodium borohydride (SB), cysteamine hydrochloride (CH) and trisodium citrate (TC). Microscopic imaging revealed that the AuNPs were characterized by quasi-spherical shape and an average size within the range 9–12 nm. CHSBAuNPs were positively charged whereas TCAuNPs and SBAuNPs were negatively charged. The results of studies showed that the exposure to each type of AuNPs led to the dose-dependent decrease of growth rate of C. vulgaris biomass. The swelling of the cells was observed especially at concentration of 5 mg L−1. For all treatments, significant changes in efficiency of the photosystem II were detected. Each type of AuNPs applied in concentration of 1 mg L−1 caused an increase and in concentration of 5 mg L−1 a decrease of photosynthetic pigments content. Based on recorded Raman spectra, it was found that the cell chemical composition was disturbed radically after the treatment with SBAuNPs and CHSBAuNPs. It was established that the changes in the morphology and physiology of C. vulgaris cells, as a result of the exposure on the AuNPs, were strongly dependent on the surface properties of AuNPs. Nevertheless, it was impossible to indicate the most harmful type of AuNPs. Obtained findings did not confirm that the stabilization of AuNPs by molecules of well-documented toxicity lead to the increase of their toxic effects. It was not confirmed that positively charged CHSBAuNPs, stabilized by cysteamine, were more harmful for C. vulgaris than negatively charged TCAuNPs and SBAuNPs.]]>
<![CDATA[Trwała i szczelna instalacja wodna oraz ogrzewcza]]> Tue, 17 Jan 2023 12:07:53 +0100 Muniak, Damian
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<![CDATA[Preparation of conjugated nitroalkenes: short review]]> Tue, 17 Jan 2023 10:38:01 +0100 Zawadzińska, Karolina; Gaurav, Gajendra Kumar; Jasiński, Radomir
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Key protocols of the preparation of conjugated nitroalkenes were reviewed and critically discussed. It was established, that optimal strategy for the obtaining of target compounds are small molecules extrusion processes from saturated nitro-compounds. Among them, the most universal methodologies based on carboxylic acids elimination have been discussed, which provide for smooth applications.]]>
<![CDATA[Influence of sintering atmosphere, temperature and the solution-annealing treatment on the properties of precipitation-hardening sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel]]> Tue, 17 Jan 2023 09:57:24 +0100 Kazior, Jan
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Abstrakt: So far, unlike metal injection molding (MIM), conventional powder metallurgy technology (PM) has not been regarded as a method for producing structural elements from 17-4 PH powders, due to the problems of obtaining almost fully compacted shapes after sintering. Nevertheless, recent research demonstrates that it is possible to manufacture sintered parts with high strength by pressing and sintering. The purpose of the study was to determine the degree of densification of 17-4 PH sintered stainless steel during sintering at different temperatures and atmospheres. As a result of the study, it was pointed out that both the temperature and the sintering atmosphere play an essential role in the process of densification of the studied powders during sintering. The formation of delta ferrite and a more pronounced degree of spheroidization of the pores is activated by a higher sintering temperature. Furthermore, after solution-annealed and age-hardened treatment, sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel exhibits high strength with moderate ductility at a level that is difficult to achieve for other sintered stainless-steel grades, such as austenitic, ferritic and martensitic. In turn, the largest improvement in the pitting corrosion resistance in 0.5 M NaCl solution is reached by sintering at 1340 °C in hydrogen and after solid solution treatment.]]>
<![CDATA[Properties of Ca(OH)2/TiO2 composites modified by mechanochemical and ultrasonic methods]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 16:16:39 +0100 Sachuk, O. V.; Zazhigalov, V. A.; Diyuk, O. A.; Dulian, P.; Starchevskyy, V. L.; Kuznetsova, L. S.; Kizyun, O. V.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: We study the influence of ultrasonic (1 h) and mechanochemical (4 h) treatments (UST and MCT, respectively) on the physicochemical properties of a Ca(OH)2/TiO2 system with molecular ratio 1:1. The effect of refinement of the source components of the mixture after UST and the formation of the calcium-titanate phase after MCT were recorded by the X-ray phase diffraction method. By analyzing the porous structure, we reveal an increase in the specific surface area and the total volume of pores caused by the activation of powders. By the SEM method, we detected the formation of much smaller crystals as a result of UST and the appearance of elongated prismatic crystals after mechanochemical activation. The catalytic properties of Ca(OH)2/TiO2 samples were studied for the reaction of selective oxidation of ethanol. It is shown that, at low temperatures, the main reaction product is acetaldehyde (S = 100% at 240°C). As the reaction temperature increases, we observe the formation of hydrogen with a maximum product yield of 32–38% and a productivity of 126 LH2/(h⋅kgcat).]]>
<![CDATA[Projekt przeprawy mostowej wyzwaniem młodego inżyniera]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 14:06:18 +0100 Spyrka, Mariusz
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Abstrakt: Projekt dźwigara łukowego części kolejowej dla zespołu mostowych obiektów inżynierskich w ciągu fragmentu magistrali kolejowo-autostradowej na linii Kraków (PL) - Koszyce (SK) wraz z zarysem przebiegu trasy i niwelety, planem sytuacyjnym oraz koncepcją architektoniczną.]]>
<![CDATA[Style as a reflection of ideology of the authorities]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 13:57:43 +0100 Żychowska, Maria; Sandu, Ion; Ivashko, Yuliа; Dmytrenko, Andrii; Ivashko, Oleksandr; Morklyanyk, Oksana
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: One aspect of style is its conformity or opposition to the ideology of the dominant au-thorities. When new authorities want to emphasize their isolation from their predecessors, they use art and architecture as ideological propaganda, by creating a new style.A striking example is ideology in the so-called "Stalinist Empire", and the architecture of Ukraine, Poland and Romania during the socialist period. The architecture did not demonstrate any continuity with previous styles and just tried to emphasize its non-identity with the "old world". At the same time in the Soviet Union, for example, socialist art was not homogeneous and radically changed in accordance with the Communist party line – from the stage of Bolshevist ideology formation in the 1920s to Stalinist authoritarianism in the 1940s and early 1950s.Ingrowth of traditional culture into socialist ideology is examplified by China with a national version of postmodernism, in contrast to European postmodernism, completely devoid of irony and aimed at revealing the dominant ideology with traditional Chinese architectural techniques. At the same time, the foreign policy task is to promote Chinese culture in a somewhat simplified, "export" version, and within the country – to emphasize the historical continuity and sacredness of authorities.]]>
<![CDATA[Polska postmodernistyczna architektura sakralna w przestrzeni osiedli mieszkaniowych]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 13:56:11 +0100 Węcławowicz-Gyurkovich, Ewa; Węcławowicz-Bilska, Elżbieta; Kryvoruchko, Olha
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule poruszono problematykę formowania i funkcjonowania monumentalnych postmodernistycznych kościołów jako form mocnych w przestrzeni osiedli mieszkaniowych z lat 70. i 80. XX wieku. Celem przedstawionych w artykule badań jest diagnoza potrzeb lokalnych społeczności dotycząca obecności kościoła w kontekście jego formy w środowisku zamieszkania. Badanie wykonano na bazie eksperymentów formalnych i przestrzennych reprezentatywnych dla polskiej architektury sakralnej tamtych lat. Wśród metod badawczych dominuje analiza porównawcza przykładów, obok kwerendy literaturowej i badań in situ. Analizie poddano trzy obiekty: w Warszawie, Wadowicach i Wrocławiu.]]>
<![CDATA[Materiały termoplastyczne wzmacniane włóknami o potencjalne do wykorzystania w wytwarzaniu addytywnym]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 13:11:29 +0100 Dyląg, Mateusz; Góra, Mateusz; Słota, Dagmara
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W pracy omówiono ostatnie doniesienia literaturowe dotyczące modyfikacji wybranych materiałów termoplastycznych, w tym m.in. polilaktydu (PLA), polieteroeteroketonu (PEEK), poli(tereftalan etylenu) (PET), poliamidu (PA) i polikaprolaktonu (PCL), włókami ciągłymi oraz ciętymi o potencjale aplikacyjnym w technologii druku 3D. Dokonano oceny zastosowania w przemyśle oraz bioinżynierii]]>
<![CDATA[Photocatalytic activity of TiO2 mechanochemically modified with carbon and/or thiourea under UV and visible irradiation in the destruction of Safranine T and Rifampicinum]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 13:11:06 +0100 Khalyavka, T. A.; Shapovalova, M. V.; Shcherban, N. D.; Shymanovska, V. V.; Dulian, P.; Khyzhun, O. Y.; Manuilov, E. V.; Camyshan, S. V.; Tarasov, V. Yu.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Titanium dioxide (anatase) powders mechanochemically modified with carbon and/or thiourea were obtained. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with an integrated system for electron microprobe analysis, transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopies were applied for the powders characterization. Mechanochemical modification with thiourea and/or carbon with carbon and/or thiourea led to a decrease of the particle size from 21 to 13 nm and formation of oblong rice-like particles. The presence of a hysteresis loop in the nitrogen ad(de)sorption isotherms for the synthesized samples proved their mesoporous structure. The features of the XPS spectra in all samples can be attributed to the fine-structure peculiarities associated with titanium, oxygen, and carbon atoms and, in the case of modification with thiourea, additionally, to sulfur and nitrogen. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated in the photodestruction of Safranine T and Rifampicinum. The modified samples showed higher photocatalytic activity in both reactions compared to unmodified anatase under UV irradiation and demonstrated activity under visible light. The reusability of the powders was investigated.]]>
<![CDATA[Virtual rhinomanometry based on computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses in patients with nasal septum deviation – a pilot study]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 13:07:41 +0100 Chrzan, Robert; Szaleniec, Joanna; Karbowski, Krzysztof; Kopiczak, Bartosz; Gawlik, Jolanta; Tomik, Jerzy; Popiela, Tadeusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the flow disturbances in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique based on computed tomography (CT) to the results of active anterior rhinomanometry (RMM), in patients with nasal septum deviation (NSD). Material and methods: In 24 patients with NSD, RMM and CT of the paranasal sinuses were performed as a part of typical clinical management. For each patient, 3D models of air-filled spaces in the nasal cavity were created, based on CT images, and air flow simulations during inhalation were performed using CFD technique. Correlations between RMM, both before and after anemization, during inspiration, and CFD were tested, independently for the left and right side. Results: The obtained correlation coefficients for the comparison of flow in RMM during inspiration and in CFD during simulated inspiration were: before anemization 0.46 for the left side and 0.52 for the right side, after anemization 0.65 for the left side and 0.61 for the right side (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Moderate correlation was found between the results of real and virtual rhinomanometry, with higher correlation coefficients obtained after anemization, compared to the values before anemization.]]>
<![CDATA[Reliability and probability of organic and biogenic pollutants removal in a constructed wetland wastewater treatment plant in the aspect of its long-term operation]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 13:05:13 +0100 Bugajski, Piotr; Mucha, Zbigniew; Jóźwiakowska, Karolina; Mucha, Marzena; Wójcik, Włodzimierz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The aim of the study was to determine the technological reliability and to forecast the efficiency of wastewater treatment in a constructed wetland wastewater treatment plant (CW WWTP) in long-term operation. The research was conducted at a facility which in the mechanical part had a 3-chamber settling tank and the biological stage consisted of 4 constructed wetland beds with horizontal sewage flow, planted with common reed (Phragmites australis). During 12 years of the study, the WWTP was hydraulically loaded up to 97.7% of the designed mean daily inflow, equal to Qd,av. = 116 m3 /d. The study showed that despite the high degree of reduction of such parameters as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 ) (90.0%), chemical oxygen demand (COD) (88.4%) and total suspended solids (TSS) (93.5%) the achieved reliability with respect to the limit values determined by the Weibull distribution model amounted to 48%, 62% and 77% for BOD5 , COD and TSS, respectively. In the case of biogenic parameters, the technological reliability with respect to permissible values was 3% for total nitrogen and 13% for total phosphorus. Based on the performed analysis, it was concluded that the analyzed technological system did not guarantee the concentrations of pollutants in treated wastewater to reach the admissible levels defined in the related Polish legal act. In order to increase the efficiency of pollutants removal in the discussed wastewater treatment plant, the application of additional constructed wetland bed with vertical sewage flow (VF) preceding the horizontal beds (HF) was suggested.]]>
<![CDATA[Mathematical modelling and model validation of the heat losses in district heating networks]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 12:58:33 +0100 Jakubek, Dariusz; Ocłoń, Paweł; Nowak-Ocłoń, Marzena; Sułowicz, Maciej; Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Today the most popular system of district heating systems is based on pre-insulated pipes arranged in parallel or twin-pipe configuration. One of the greatest difficulties with heat distribution through pipelines is thermal loss from the distribution. The most efficient solution to that problem is optimizing the insulation wall thickness layer according to the pipe diameter. Heat losses should be minimized at a relatively low investment cost to find the most suitable insulation thickness economically. Numerous studies focus on analytical (1D model) calculations and numerical simulations. However, there is a research gap related to laboratory devices that allow measuring the operation parameters (fluid flow, the temperature of the fluid in the supply pipe and the return pipe). This paper presents an analysis of the heat losses from pre-insulated pipes and twin pipes in the heating system network. This study compares the heat losses in the ground calculated by analytical solution (1D model) with the measurements on the dedicated experimental setup. The calculations have been made for several heating network pipe variants: twin pipes: DN40, DN50, DN65, and their counterparts in a single parallel pre-insulated system. The insulation thickness used in all cases is 30.85 mm for DN40 and 32.00 mm for DN50 and DN65. The insulation is made of rigid polyurethane foam that meets the requirements of the PN-EN 253 standard. During the investigation, the thermal conductivity of insulation material is examined. The obtained thermal conductivity results are used in the calculations. The results from laboratory devices and analytical models have been compared, demonstrating good agreement – with a low error level in the range of approximately 8%, depending on the type of district heating pipe. The validated mathematical model of the heating network is then used to calculate the heat losses in a heating network connecting an underground storage tank with a ground source heat pump. The economic analysis shows that after 5 y, a return on investment is expected when comparing twin-pipe systems and single-pipe pre-insulated heating networks.]]>
<![CDATA[Analysis of fMRI time series: Neutrosophic-Entropy Based Clustering Algorithm]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 12:52:18 +0100 Singh, Pritpal; Wątorek, Marcin; Ceglarek, Anna; Fąfrowicz, Magdalena; Oświęcimka, Paweł
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) time series plays a vital role in identifying the activation behaviour of neurons in the human brain. However, due to the complexity of the fMRI data, its analysis is challenging. Some studies show that the clustering methods can be beneficial in this respect. We apply a Neutrosophic Set-Based Clustering Algorithm (NEBCA) to fMRI time series datasets by this motivation. For the experimental purpose, we consider fMRI time series related to working memory tasks and resting-state. The clusters with different densities for the two analyzed cases are determined and compared. The identified differences indicate brain regions involved with the processing of the short-memory tasks. The corresponding brain areas are denoted according to Automated Anatomical Labeling (AAL) atlas. The statistical reliability of the findings is verified through various statistical tests. The presented results demonstrate the utility of the neutrosophic set based algorithm in brain neural data analysis.]]>
<![CDATA[Are natural compounds a promising alternative to synthetic cross-linking agents in the preparation of hydrogels?]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 12:39:23 +0100 Sapuła, Paulina; Bialik-Wąs, Katarzyna; Malarz, Katarzyna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The main aim of this review is to assess the potential use of natural cross-linking agents, such as genipin, citric acid, tannic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, and vanillin in preparing chemically cross-linked hydrogels for the biomedical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Chemical cross-linking is one of the most important methods that is commonly used to form mechanically strong hydrogels based on biopolymers, such as alginates, chitosan, hyaluronic acid, collagen, gelatin, and fibroin. Moreover, the properties of natural cross-linking agents and their advantages and disadvantages are compared relative to their commonly known synthetic cross-linking counterparts. Nowadays, advanced technologies can facilitate the acquisition of high-purity biomaterials from unreacted components with no additional purification steps. However, while planning and designing a chemical process, energy and water consumption should be limited in order to reduce the risks associated with global warming. However, many synthetic cross-linking agents, such as N,N’-methylenebisacrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylates, epichlorohydrin, and glutaraldehyde, are harmful to both humans and the environment. One solution to this problem could be the use of bio-cross-linking agents obtained from natural resources, which would eliminate their toxic effects and ensure the safety for humans and the environment.]]>
<![CDATA[History of the development of analytical models of cracking of restrained walls on a given edge since 1968]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 11:40:08 +0100 Zych, Mariusz
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Abstrakt: This research paper presents and comments on analytical models for calculating the widths of cracks formed as a result of imposed deformations generating tensile stresses in reinforced concrete base-restrained members. This issue regarding the mechanics of concrete structures has been presented on the basis of calculation models since 1968. In accordance with the current regulations of the European standard, the mechanics of the cracking of base-restrained members have been presented in a very simplified way, which was justified by a limited number of research studies performed on such members as well as in a few subject publications. The main purpose of this work was to present especially those models that had the greatest practical significance within a specific period of time or formed the basis for further studies of other authors. In addition, future trends in the development of computational tools are presented. The chronologically presented development of design ideas, which takes into account varying degrees of advancement of the mechanics of cracking due to the distinctly different design consequences, is a valuable source of information and an inspiration for subsequent researchers. In the second part of the paper, a few of the most important issues connected with the calculation of the crack width in base-restrained walls are presented. It is shown that currently, on the basis of the up-to-date knowledge, there are possibilities to create more complementary standard guidelines, which is already taking place in the case of European guidelines.]]>
<![CDATA[Cu2O nanoparticles deposited on Y2O3 and CuO: synthesis and antimicrobial properties]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 10:59:00 +0100 Długosz, Olga; Lis, Kinga; Matyjasik, Wiktoria; Radomski, Piotr; Pulit-Prociak, Jolanta; Banach, Marcin
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper reports the preparation of copper(I) oxide nanoparticles deposited on yttrium oxide and copper(II) oxide in the presence of acerola and white willow extracts. Through the use of natural compounds, it was possible to modify the surface of the Y2O3 and CuO carriers allowing Cu2O to be deposited to a greater extent, thus improving the antibacterial properties of the materials. Cu2O nanoparticles, by being deposited on a carrier, enable an increase in the contact surface of the nanoparticles with microorganisms, which react to form reactive oxygen species. Cu2O nanoparticles with sizes of about 38 nm and 76 nm were obtained for Y2O3- and CuO-deposited nanoparticles, respectively. The Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli shown a greater sensitivity to the degree of inhibition compared to Staphylococcus Aureus already at a concentration of 250 mg/L. For almost all materials, the inhibition level remained above 50% after 48 h. Analysis of the efect of the antimicrobial properties of the materials against Candida albicans fungus shown high activity which was obtained only at the highest concentrations of 8000 mg/L, for which the degree of growth inhibition was 100% also after 48 h for both Y2O3–Cu2O and CuO–Cu2O.]]>
<![CDATA[Modelling the impact of electronic auction on the tender procedure for the construction of railway infrastructure with the Bayesian networks]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 10:25:45 +0100 Janowiec, Filip
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The numerous overruns of the investor’s budget during tenders for the construction of railway infrastructure in Poland resulted in the widespread use of a new procedure for awarding public contracts – electronic auction. This procedure has many advantages and potential risks. One of the biggest benefits for an investor is the potential gains from reducing bids. Contractors competing against each other allow for the achievement of optimal prices for the planned construction investment. However, this may cause the originally calculated risks, should they materialize, lead to significant budget overruns. This, in turn, may imply further negative consequences, including exceeding the assumed investment deadlines. The article presents a method of modeling the influence of an electronic auction on a tender procedure with the use of a Bayesian network. Data from completed tender procedures announced by the PKP Polskie Linie Kolejowe S.A. were used to build the network. The created network was then validated, verified and calibrated using new data from 8 tender procedures.]]>
<![CDATA[Dystrybucja przestrzenna miejsc kultu religijnego w środowisku mieszkaniowym współczesnego Krakowa]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 09:32:36 +0100 Dudzic-Gyurkovich, Karolina; Mroczek, Arkadiusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Obecność obiektów sakralnych w strukturze miasta jest zazwyczaj dobrze widoczna. Świątynie i kaplice dopełniają przestrzenie publiczne, stanowiąc o ich wyjątkowości. Prócz reprezentacji wymiaru duchowego i religijności, wszystkie działające zgodnie z przeznaczeniem obiekty sakralne należą do grupy budynków użyteczności publicznej, zatem powinny cechować się dobrym dostępem i logiczną dystrybucją w tkance miasta. Obecnie badania poświęcone dostępności obiektów usługowych w Krakowie są wycinkowe i nie tworzą kompleksowego obrazu. Celem niniejszej pracy jest uzupełnienie istniejącej luki badawczej przez wyjaśnienie, w jaki sposób kształtuje się dostępność obiektów kultu religijnego w relacji do środowiska mieszkaniowego Krakowa. Metoda badawcza opiera się na koncepcji stref buforowych w celu wskazania obszarów o różnym stopniu dostępności do badanych obiektów. Rezultaty analiz ukazują aktualną dystrybucję obiektów sakralnych w tkance miasta. Dodatkowo wyniki badań umożliwiły identyfikację obszarów mieszkaniowych o bardzo dobrej i akceptowalnej dostępności, jak również tych, znajdujących się poza wyznaczonymi buforami.]]>
<![CDATA[Traditional vs. automated computer image analysis—a comparative assessment of use for analysis of digital SEM images of high-temperature Ceramic Material]]> Mon, 16 Jan 2023 09:14:32 +0100 Jastrzębska, Ilona; Piwowarczyk, Adam
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Image analysis is a powerful tool that can be applied in scientific research, industry, and everyday life, but still, there is more room to use it in materials science. The interdisciplinary cooperation between materials scientists and computer scientists can unlock the potential of digital image analysis. Traditional image analysis used in materials science, manual or computer-aided, permits for the quantitative assessment of the coexisting components at the cross-sections, based on stereological law. However, currently used cutting-edge tools for computer image analysis can greatly speed up the process of microstructure analysis, e.g., via simultaneous extraction of quantitative data of all phases in an SEM image. The dedicated digital image processing software Aphelion was applied to develop an algorithm for the automated image analysis of multi-phase high-temperature ceramic material. The algorithm recognizes each phase and simultaneously calculates its quantity. In this work, we compare the traditional stereology-based methods of image analysis (linear and planimetry) to the automated method using a developed algorithm. The analysis was performed on a digital SEM microstructural image of high-temperature ceramic material from the Cu-Al-Fe-O system, containing four different phase components. The results show the good agreement of data obtained by classical stereology-based methods and the developed automated method. This presents an opportunity for the fast extraction of both qualitative and quantitative from the SEM images.]]>
<![CDATA[Graphical approaches to facilitate low carbon emissions economy]]> Fri, 13 Jan 2023 13:25:23 +0100 Wang, Bohong; Van Fan, Yee; Guo, Lianghui; Zhang, Sheng; Ocłoń, Paweł; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: User-friendly approaches or methods that could facilitate communication effectively with policymakers and the public have been a target in developing models for a low carbon emissions economy. Graphical tools offer physical insight and a better understanding of the advantages of the proposed solution or system design, as well as the constraint of the proposed strategies. This article reviews the classical and existing graphical approaches, showing the timeline and trend of some tool series and implementation methods for climate change mitigation. The discussion surrounded the approaches for low carbon buildings and renewable energy development. The future and emerging direction for a low carbon emissions economy are also discussed to tackle the flexibility and reliability issues of the graphical tool for better applicability.]]>
<![CDATA[Testing of asphalt mixtures containing an addition of reclaimed asphalt shingles]]> Fri, 13 Jan 2023 09:40:30 +0100 Zieliński, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The article presents test results of chosen properties of asphalt concrete mixtures with addition of asphalt shingle offcuts (reclaimed asphalt shingles, RAS). The presented research supplements previous works on the subject. Asphalt concrete AC 16 W 50/70 was adopted as the reference mixture. Results obtained for laboratory-produced mixture containing 4% RAS and plant-produced mixture containing 1% RAS were compared with the results of the reference mixture. Statistical analysis of void content in asphalt mixtures did not indicate significant differences; therefore, performance properties of mixtures may be compared without concern about the influence of physical properties. The research confirmed a significant increase in mixture stiffness with an increase in RAS content, especially at medium (15°C) and high (30°C) service temperatures. Compared to the reference mixture, mixtures incorporating RAS displayed an increase in indirect tensile strength as well. Lower temperature sensitivity of mixtures with RAS was also observed, both in terms of stiffness modulus and indirect tensile strength. Fatigue tests confirmed the positive effect of RAS on the obtained value of strain corresponding to fatigue life of 1 million load cycles.]]>
<![CDATA[Influence of P3HT:PCBM ratio on thermal and transport properties of bulk heterojunction solar cells]]> Fri, 13 Jan 2023 09:25:42 +0100 Korte, Dorota; Pavlica, Egon; Klančar, Domen; Bratina, Gvido; Pawlak, Michal; Gondek, Ewa; Song, Peng; Liu, Junyan; Derkowska-Zielinska, Beata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The influence of P3HT:PCBM ratio on thermal and transport properties of solar cells were determined by photothermal beam deflection spectrometry, which is advantageous tool for nondestructively study of bulk heterojunction layers of organic solar cells. P3HT:PCBM layers of different P3HT:PCBM ratios were deposited on top of PEDOT:PSS/ITO layers which were included in organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells. The thermal diffusivity, energy gap and charge carrier lifetime were measured at different illumination conditions and with a different P3HT:PCBM ratios. As expected, it was found that the energy band gap depends on the P3HT:PCBM ratio. Thermal diffusivity is decreasing, while charge carrier lifetime is increasing with PCBM concentration. Energy band gap was found to be independent on illumination intensity, while thermal diffusivity was increasing and carrier lifetime was decreasing with illumination intensity. The carrier lifetime exhibits qualitatively similar dependence on the PCBM concentration when compared to the open-circuit voltage of operating solar cells under AM1.5 illumination. BDS and standard I-V measurement yielded comparable results arguing that the former is suitable for characterization of organic solar cells.]]>
<![CDATA[Fault diagnosis strategy for a standalone photovoltaic system: a residual formation approach]]> Fri, 13 Jan 2023 09:07:51 +0100 Alam, Zaheer; Khan, Malak Adnan; Khan, Zain Ahmad; Ahmad, Waleed; Khan, Imran; Khan, Qudrat; Irfan, Muhammad; Nowakowski, Grzegorz
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Abstrakt: The search for sustainability and green energy, in electricity production, has lead many researchers to study and improve photovoltaic (PV) systems. The PV systems, being a combination of power electronic modules and PV array, have high tendency of faults in sensors, switches, and passive devices. Thus, a reliable fault diagnosis (FD) scheme plays a significant role in protecting PV systems. In this article, a sliding mode observer (SMO)-based FD scheme is presented to figure out the sensor faults in a standalone PV system. The proposed FD scheme makes use of residual formation which in turn helps in detection of faults on the basis of a defined threshold. In addition to the functionality of fault detection, the SMO provides the benefit of reduction in number of sensors required in the PV system. This feature can be utilized as software redundancy in fault-tolerant control (FTC). The test bench, standalone PV system, is equipped with a buck–boost converter for maximum power transfer (MPT) to the connected load. Moreover, the FD scheme is backed by a backstepping (BS) analogy-based control scheme for extraction of maximum power from the PV panel. The simulations are performed in the MATLAB/Simulink platform under varying environmental conditions (temperature and irradiance) and resistive load. These simulations, subjected to varying operating conditions, confirm the efficacy, in terms of robustness, chattering (oscillations about the reference), and steady-state error, of the proposed scheme.]]>
<![CDATA[Removal of zinc from concentrated galvanic wastewater by sodium trithiocarbonate: process Optimization and toxicity assessment]]> Fri, 13 Jan 2023 08:23:29 +0100 Thomas, Maciej; Melichová, Zuzana; Šuránek, Matej; Kuc, Joanna; Więckol-Ryk, Angelika; Lochyński, Paweł
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Abstrakt: In the present research, the removal of zinc from concentrated galvanic wastewater (pH 3.1, conductivity 20.31 mS/cm, salinity, 10.16 g/L, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) 2900 mg O2/L, Total Organic Carbon (TOC) 985 mg/L, zinc (Zn) 1534 mg/L and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) 70 mg/L) by combination of lime (Ca(OH)2) and sodium trithiocarbonate (Na2CS3) as precipitation agents is studied. Central Composite Design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were applied for modelling and optimizing the designed wastewater treatment process. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and the experimental verification of the model confirmed the consistency of the experimental and estimated data calculated from the model (R2 = 0.9173, R2adj. = 0.8622). The use of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CS3 in the optimal condition calculated from the model (pH = 10.75 ± 0.10, V Na2CS3 dose 0.043 mL/L and time = 5 min) resulted in a decrease in the concentration of Zn in treated wastewater by 99.99%. Other physicochemical parameters of wastewater also improved. Simultaneously, the application of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CS3 reduced the inhibition of activated sludge dehydrogenase from total inhibition (for raw wastewater) to −70% (for treated wastewater). Under the same conditions the phytotoxicity tests revealed that the seed germination index for the raw and treated wastewater increased from 10% to 50% and from 90% to 100% for white mustard (Sinapis alba) and garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.), respectively. The parameters of root and shoot growth showed a statistically significant improvement. Treated wastewater (1:10) showed a stimulating effect (shoot growth) compared to the control sample (GI = −116.7 and −57.9 for S. alba and L. sativum L., respectively). Thus, the use of Na2CS3 is a viable option for the treatment of concentrated galvanic wastewater containing zinc.]]>
<![CDATA[Nonlinear modelisation of Cd(II) and Pb(II) removal from aqueous solution by Helichrysum arenarium]]> Fri, 13 Jan 2023 08:14:53 +0100 Staroń, Paweł; Chwastowski, Jarosław
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Abstrakt: The aim of the work was to establish the possibility of using dwarf everlast (Helichrysum arenarium) as a natural sorbent for the removal of cadmium and lead ions. The research carried out allowed to select nonlinear equilibrium and kinetic models. Additionally conducted experiments enabled to perform tests for metal ions recovery from the surface of the sorbent. The material had a sorption capacity equal to 80.1 mg/g for lead ions and 23.3 mg/g for cadmium ions. The Freundlich isotherm model has the best fit for the lead ion sorption, while cadmium sorption is best described by the Temkin, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. The kinetic experiments showed that process is of chemical nature and that the course of sorption is in accordance with the Elovich model for both chosen elements. Desorption studies confirmed the possibility of recovery of cadmium and lead ions at a level of ~76% and ~85% using acetic acid, respectively.]]>