Nowe zasoby w Repozytorium PK http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/ Biblioteka Politechniki Krakowskiej lipinska@biblos.pk.edu.pl 60 <![CDATA[Park Lotników Polskich : od zieleni fortecznej i lotniska Rakowice-Czyżyny do Lotniczego Parku Kulturowego]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 13:27:24 +0200 Środulska-Wielgus, Jadwiga; Wielgus, Krzysztof
rodzaj: książka
]]>
<![CDATA[Vibration serviceability of footbridges: classical vs. innovative material solutions for deck slabs]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 12:20:53 +0200 Drygala, Izabela Joanna; Dulinska, Joanna Maria; Ciura, Rafał; Lachawiec, Kamil
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this study, the human-induced dynamic performance of modern footbridges equipped with either classical reinforced concrete (RC) or innovative glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite deck slabs were investigated and compared. The numerical studies were carried out for two bridges: a three-span cable-stayed footbridge and a three-span continuous beam structure. Two variants of both bridges were taken into consideration: the footbridges equipped with traditional RC slabs and the structures benefitted with GFRP slabs. The risk of resonance as well as the vibration serviceability and the comfort criteria assessment of the footbridges with different slab materials were assessed. The investigation revealed that the footbridges, both cable-stayed and beam, benefitted with the GFRP slabs had higher fundamental frequency than those with the traditional RC slabs. The footbridges with the GFRP slabs were less exposed to the resonance risk, having fundamental frequencies above the limit of the high risk of resonance. The effect of shifting up the natural frequencies by introducing GFRP slabs was more remarkable for the lightweight beam structure than for the cable-stayed footbridge and resulted in a more significant reduction of the resonance risk. The calculated maximum human-induced accelerations of the footbridges benefitted with the GFRP slabs were meaningfully higher than those obtained for the footbridges with the RC slabs. The study proved that, with the same GFRP slab, meeting vibration serviceability and comfort criteria limits in the case of very lightweight beam structures may be more problematic than for cable-stayed footbridges with more massive structural systems. In the research, particular attention was paid to examining the impact of higher harmonics of the moving pedestrian force on the structures benefitted with the GFRP composite slabs. It occurred that in the case of footbridges, both cable-stayed and beam, equipped with the RC slabs higher harmonics of human force did not play any role in the dynamic performance of structures. However, in the case of the footbridges benefitted with the GFRP slabs, the impact of higher harmonics of the pedestrian force on the dynamic behavior of structures was clearly visible. Higher harmonics excited accelerations comparable to those executed by the first harmonic component. This conclusion is of great importance for footbridges equipped with GFRP slabs. The fundamental frequency may place a footbridge in the low or even negligible risk resonance range and the higher frequencies corresponding to vertical modes may be located above the limit of 5 Hz that ensures avoiding resonance. Nevertheless, the fact that fundamental modes are so responsive to higher harmonics significantly increases the risk of resonance. The amplification of the dynamic response may occur due to frequencies related to second or third harmonics (i.e., being half or a third of the natural frequencies). In such cases, full dynamic analysis of a footbridge at the design stage seems to be of crucial importance.]]>
<![CDATA[Architektura i konstrukcja współczesnych wież i ścieżek widokowych w koronach drzew na wybranych przykładach]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 12:00:51 +0200 Czernik, Stanisław Janusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule na przykładzie budowli zrealizowanych na terenie Czech, Słowacji, Austrii i Polski przedstawiono ogólną charakterystykę wież i platform widokowych o konstrukcji prętowej powstałych w XXI w. na terenach górskich. Omówiono podstawowe założenia i rozwiązania konstrukcyjno-budowlane wież i prowadzonych w koronach drzew ścieżek napowietrznych, pełniących obecnie funkcję obiektów turystyczno-rekreacyjnych dostosowanych także do potrzeb osób o ograniczonej sprawności ruchowej.]]>
<![CDATA[Optimization of ER8 and 42CrMo4 steel rail wheel for road–rail vehicles]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 11:36:32 +0200 Lisowski, Filip; Lisowski, Edward
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Railway track maintenance services aim to shorten the time of removing failures on the railways. One of the most important element that shorten the repair time is the quick access to the failure site with an appropriate equipment. The use of road-rail vehicles is becoming increasingly important in this field. In this type of constructions, it is possible to use proven road vehicles such as self-propelled machines or trucks running on wheels with tires. Equipping these vehicles with a parallel rail drive system allows for quick access to the failure site using both roads and railways. Steel rail wheels of road-rail vehicles are designed for specific applications. Since the total weight of vehicle is a crucial parameter for roadworthiness, the effort is made to minimize the mass of rail wheels. The wheel under consideration is mounted directly on the hydraulic motor. This method of assembly is structurally convenient, as no shafts or intermediate couplings are required. On the other hand, it results in strict requirements for the wheel geometry and can cause significant stress concentration. Therefore, the problem of wheel geometry optimization is discussed. Consideration is given to the use of ER8 steel for railway application and 42CrMo4 high-strength steel. Finite element analysis within Ansys software and various optimization tools and methods, such as random tool, subproblem approximation method and first-order method are applied. The obtained results allow to minimize the rail wheel mass with respect to the used material. Moreover, computational demands and methods leading to the best results are compared.]]>
<![CDATA[Improvement of efficiency of processes of mining product processing at transport hubs]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 10:16:11 +0200 Litvinova, Ya.; Nosal-Hoy, K.; Solecka, K.; Taran, I.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Purpose. Improvement of efficiency of processes of overloading products of mining enterprises at transport hubs. Substantiation of directions of optimization of logistic management processes and optimal characteristics of production resources and organizational influences at logistic management at a multimodal transport hub. Determination of economic effect from substantiation of these characteristics. Methodology. Mathematical modeling methods and a systematic approach were used to formalize the object of study. Simulation modeling techniques were used to develop the model of the research object. In order to determine the dependence of the efficiency criterion of transport node operation on the parameters of material flows and numerical characteristics of production resources, regression analysis methods were applied. Findings. Based on the study, it is proposed to use a specific measure of efficiency, which is the ratio of profit from customer service at the transport hub to the cost of production resources involved in the process of service. On the basis of the developed model of the transport node, it is possible to solve the aimed tasks for the improvement of logistic management and processing of products of mining enterprises at transport hubs. Originality. An approach to improvement of logistic management of transport hubs at the expense of substantiation of optimal parameters of production resources and selection of the most effective version of technological process of customer service is offered. Practical value. It consists in the development of approaches to determining the most effective version of servicing material flows, as well as to determining the optimal numerical characteristics of production resources of a transport node.]]>
<![CDATA[Experimental and numerical studies of laminated plates with delamination subjected to compressive loads]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 09:49:07 +0200 Stawiarski, Adam; Muc, Aleksander; Barski, Marek
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this research, the multilayered composite plates made of glass/epoxy material were experimentally and numerically investigated under compressive loading conditions. The intact and defected structures were analyzed with the use of finite element method. The influence of the thickness and geometrical imperfection level were carried out in the linear buckling analysis. The nonlinear analysis was performed to determine the influence of the delamination length on the buckling behavior of the plate. The numerical results were validated by experiments. Experimental tests were performed for structures having artificial delamination between laminate layers. The buckling behavior was monitored using the nondestructive and noncontact structural vision-based health monitoring system (the digital image correlation (DIC)). The influence of the different delamination behavior during the tests on the compressive load capacity was determined by a detailed analysis of DIC measurements. The 20% reduction of the compressive load was noticed in the cases with local buckling of delamination. ]]>
<![CDATA[Hydrourban spatial development model for a resilient inner-city. The example of Gdańsk]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 08:04:57 +0200 Matusik, Agnieszka; Racoń-Leja, Kinga; Gyurkovich, Mateusz; Dudzic-Gyurkovich, Karolina
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Cities that show signs of both growth and shrinkage and that nevertheless do survive, show tendencies to be resilient. Their development process can be seen as pulsative. The objective of the paper was to demonstrate the links between spatial development and Gdansk’s hydrological layout—pointing out how the city spatial layout of was determined by the context of water. The results of analyses central districts, made it possible to identify three stages of hydrourban evolution: 1) Reconstruction phase (after WW2)—which led to the reinforcement of the east-west development of axis of public space, 2) Transformation phase (after 1989)—which emphasised the new north-south direction of urban development following the freeing up of the river-water system, and 3) Metamorphosis phase (initiated in 21st century)—which assumes the expansion of the hydrourban structure, while taking into account the multi-layered integration of the spatial and functional aspects of the agglomeration with flood prevention and ecological policy. The study allows to trace the relationship between the physical structure and the hydrological system which have led to the development of a rich hydrourban system configuration. The destruction of historical city centre (during WW2) and the later loss of shipyard areas, which constituted a part of the city's identity, provided space for an urban experiment. The research demonstrates changes in the perception of the role of water system in the urban structure—which can be considered a valuable tool for planners and urban designers, to be used in, meeting demands of resilient cities.]]>
<![CDATA[Experimental verification of an analytical mathematical model of a round or oval tube two-row car radiator]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 08:02:04 +0200 Taler, Dawid; Taler, Jan; Trojan, Marcin
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper presents an analytical mathematical model of a car radiator, which takes into account various heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) on each row of pipes. The air-side HTCs in a specific row of pipes in the first and second passes were calculated using equations for the Nusselt number, which were determined by CFD simulation by the ANSYS program (Version 19.1, Ansys Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). The liquid flow in the pipes can be laminar, transition, or turbulent. When changing the flow form from laminar to transition and from transition to turbulent, the HTC continuity is maintained. Mathematical models of two radiators were developed, one of which was made of round tubes and the other of oval tubes. The model allows for the calculation of the thermal output of every row of pipes in both passes of the heat exchangers. Small relative differences between the total heat flow transferred in the heat exchanger from hot water to cool air exist for different and uniform HTCs. However, the heat flow rate in the first row is much higher than the heat flow in the second row if the air-side HTCs are different for each row compared to a situation where the HTC is constant throughout the heat exchanger. The thermal capacities of both radiators calculated using the developed mathematical model were compared with the results of experimental studies. The plate-fin and tube heat exchanger (PFTHE) modeling procedure developed in the article does not require the use of empirical correlations to calculate HTCs on both sides of the pipes. The suggested method of calculating plate-fin and tube heat exchangers, taking into account the different air-side HTCs estimated using CFD modelling, may significantly reduce the cost of experimental research for a new design of heat exchangers implemented in manufacturing.]]>
<![CDATA[Limiting global warming by improving data-centre software]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 08:01:38 +0200 Fernández-Cerero, Damián; Fernández-Montes, Alejandro; Jakóbik, Agnieszka
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Carbon emissions, greenhouse gases and pollution in general are usually related to traditionalfactories, so the most modern computingfactorieshave gone unnoticed for the general-public opinion.We empirically show through extensive and realistic simulation that: 1) energy consumption, and conse-quently CO2emissions, could be reduced from∼15% to∼60% if the correct energy-efficiency policies areapplied; and 2) such energy-consumption reduction can be achieved without negatively impacting the correctoperation of these infrastructures. To this end, this work is focused on the proposal and analysis of a set ofenergy-efficiency policies which are applied to traditional and hyper-scale data centres, as well as numerousoperation environments, including: 1) the top resource managers used in industry; 2) eight energy-efficiencypolicies, including aggressive, fine-tuned and adaptive models; and 3) three types of workload-arrivalpatterns. Finally, we present a realistic analysis of the environmental impact of the application of suchenergy-efficiency policies on USA data centres. The presented results estimate that 11.5 million of tons ofCO2could be saved, which is equivalent to the removal of 4.79 million of combustion cars, that is, the totalcar fleet of countries such as Portugal, Austria and Sweden.]]>
<![CDATA[Stackelberg game modeling of cloud security defending strategy in the case of information leaks and corruption]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 08:01:06 +0200 Jakóbik, Agnieszka
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper presents the Stackelberg Game (SG) based model for automating security decisions in Cloud Computing systems (CC). The presented model enables to describe the attack-defense scenarios. The game incorporates two types of players competing against each other: defender and attacker. The Cloud provider is the leader. He is allowed to play his strategy first. The attackers, hackers or other malicious individuals, were aggregated into the second player. Second player’s decisions are made based on the leader actions and based on their own aims. The paper presents the black-box method for calculating the strategy of the attacker. In the paper, the utility function was obtained by applying several pipelines of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Additionally, the model assumes information leakages about the attacker strategy and corruption against standard SG models. The solution has been verified by the experimental simulation of Cloud security attacks based on logs from open data set provided by Los Alamos National Security Lab. The best strategy for security controls applying is calculated based on security threats occurrence. It enables finding the relevant defense strategy by the cloud provider.]]>
<![CDATA[Structure and physicochemical properties of water treated under methane with low-temperature glow plasma of low frequency]]> Thu, 09 Jul 2020 08:00:34 +0200 Ciesielska, Aleksandra; Ciesielski, Wojciech; Khachatryan, Karen; Koloczek, Henryk; Kulawik, Damian; Oszczeda, Zdzislaw; Soroka, Jacek A.; Tomasik, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Our former studies delivered a strong evidence that water indirectly treated with low-temperature, low-pressure glow plasma of low frequency (GP) changed its structure depending on the atmosphere in which such treatment was performed (air, ammonia, and nitrogen) and on the time of the treatment (0 to 120 min). In every case, water of di erent physicochemical characteristics and interesting biological functions was produced. Therefore, the relevant studies were extended to treating deionized water with GP under methane. The resulting samples were characterized by means of ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS), Fourier transformation infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR), electron spin resonance (ESR) and Raman spectroscopies, di erential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry, pH, conductivity, and refractive index. The generated samples of water had entirely di erent physicochemical properties from those recorded for water treated with GP in the air and under both ammonia and nitrogen. The treatment of water with GP under methane did not produce clathrates hosting methane molecules. Thermogravimetry delivered an evidence that the treatment with GP increased the aqueous solubility of methane. That solubility non-linearly changed against the treatment time.]]>
<![CDATA[Regulacja hydrauliczna a efektywność i komfort. Automatyczne stabilizatory różnicy ciśnień]]> Wed, 08 Jul 2020 11:49:57 +0200 Muniak, Damian
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
]]>
<![CDATA[Towards Artificial Neural Network hashing with strange attractors usage]]> Tue, 07 Jul 2020 11:02:00 +0200 Tchórzewski, Jacek; Jakóbik, Agnieszka
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: A broad variety of methods ensuring the integrity of data in the mobile and IoT equipment is very important nowadays. Hash functions are used for detecting the unauthorized modification of data and for digital signatures generation. Traditional hash functions like SHA-2 or SHA-3 have relatively high computational power requirements, therefore are not always suitable (or optimal) for devices with limited computational capacity or battery capacity. Instead, light cryptography hash functions may be used. They are processing data strings of the shorter length and offers simpler mathematical models as the basis of hash calculation. In this paper Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based model hashing is proposed. Instead of using s-boxes or complicated compression function, a simple two-layered non-recurrent ANNs are used for hash calculation. In order to provide a very high quality of the randomization of the output, several different chaotic attractors were incorporated into ANNs training phase. ANNs output was tested with appropriate statistical tests and compared with hashes returned by traditional hashing methods. Using shorter hash length enables implementing those methods in the mobile and IoT equipment. Our approach allows merging the low complexity of ANN processing with the high-quality standards of cryptography hash functions.]]>
<![CDATA[Elementarność, jako kierunek kształtowania współczesnej architektury sakralnej]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 21:31:41 +0200 Głuchowski, Marcin
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
]]>
<![CDATA[Piękno tradycyjnej architektury w relacji do natury]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 21:04:04 +0200 Paprzyca, Krystyna
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
]]>
<![CDATA[O poszukiwaniu pustki]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 17:29:08 +0200 Początko, Marek
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
Abstrakt: Współczesność architektury jest dynamiczna. Przemijające kierunki i style zdają się być oderwane od stawianych jej wysokich wymagań technicznych. Szczęśliwie są budowle których to nie dotyczy. Te, które przetrwały wieki to obiekty związane z ideą, przekazujące wartości kulturowe, dzięki którym następuje powrót do podstaw architektury. Niewielka kaplica zaprojektowana przez Petera Zumthora w naturalnym krajobrazie pól Wachendorf to forma nieskrępowana funkcją, zamykająca pustkę dla użytkownika. Zmiany i przemijanie raczej jej nie dotyczą. Być może w tej architekturze można odnaleźć kierunek, zaczerpnąć z prostoty rozwiązania materiałowego, przestrzennej dyspozycji i funkcjonalnej klarowności. Brak potrzeby budowania precyzyjnie zaprogramowanych obiektów i pozostawienie przestrzeni dla użytkownika, dla jego myśli, idei rodzi obiekt o niezwykłej formie i kulturze. To architektura o czytelnej idei, jedności kształtu i pełnionej funkcji z materią i technologią wyrażającą szczególne wartości kulturowe a nie materialne. To architektura pustki. Jej kształtowanie nie daje odpowiedzi a raczej zadaje pytania. Wszak dziś przyszłość oznacza teraźniejszość a jutro jest nieznane. Pozostawmy więc dla niej pustkę. ]]>
<![CDATA[Self-healing cement materials – microscopic techniques]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 14:38:27 +0200 Dudek, Marta
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The article presents a general classification of intelligent materials with self-healing (self-repairing) properties, focusing on self-healing cementitious materials. The purpose of the paper is to describe the prospects of two of the most popular micro-observa-tion techniques, i.e. with the use of an optical and scanning electron microscope. In addition, it describes the advantages of using a tensile stage mounted in the microscope chamber for testing self-healing materials. The advantages and disadvantages of these devices have been characterized, and the results of preliminary research have been provided. The tests include the optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations of the microstructure of cracks before and after the process of healing. They were carried out using ZEISS Discovery V20 optical microscope and ZEISS EVO-MA 10 scanning electron microscope on mortar samples modified with macro capsules filled with polymer. In addition to observations, chem-ical analysis was performed with the use of an EDS detector. The microscopic observations and chemical analyses provide the basis for assessing the effectiveness of the self-healing process, showing that the crack has been healed. Moreover, the preliminary results of the tests of micro-mechanical properties, carried out with the use of a tensile stage, have been described. The problems of using this research technique are also listed. This study shows the usefulness of this kind of tests for microcapsules for self-healing materials.]]>
<![CDATA[The influence of ideology on the preservation, restoration and reconstruction of temples in the urban structure of post-totalitarian states]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 14:36:50 +0200 Orlenko, Mykola; Kuśnierz-Krupa, Dominika; Kobylarczyk, Justyna; Ivashko, Yulia
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Among the entire list of architectural monuments, religious structures depended most heavily on the changes in politics and ideology. If the ruling elite did not take an antagonistic position concerning the dominant religion, it either contributed to its dissemination and affirmation or was at least neutral. In the case when the dominant religion was that of the state and a combination of power and religion was observed, the temples occupied a dominant place in the structure of settlements, and their size and luxurious decoration became evidence of the strength and divinity of power. Using Soviet-Union-era Ukraine as an example, it was proved that places of worship that played the role of ideological and urban development landmarks in the urban environment were systematically destroyed. In the Soviet Union, the conscious destruction of wooden and stone churches and cathedrals took place under the slogan of militant atheism, the denial of God and the fight against religion. The modern restoration of partially ruined or destroyed temples is also a criterion for changing the ideological attitude to religion in independent Ukraine.]]>
<![CDATA[Sensitivity analysis of window frame components effect on thermal transmittance]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 14:35:52 +0200 Baldinelli, Giorgio; Lechowska, Agnieszka; Bianchi, Francesco; Schnotale, Jacek
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Standard ISO 10077-2 gives the procedure to calculate thermal transmittances of window frames in 2D numerical simulations. It also introduces some examples of frame geometrical models with all necessary input data and the solutions so as to perform validation of the applied numerical tools. In the present paper, the models prepared with a commercial finite volume software of a PVC window frame were first positively validated with the results given in the Standard. An experimental test was then implemented to confirm the simulated data, with satisfactory agreement. The numerical code was used on one of the frames provided by the Standard to perform a sensitivity analysis of all the components and boundary conditions playing a role on the definition of the frame thermal transmittance, such as surface heat transfer coefficients, values of the solid thermal conductivity, emissivity and insulation properties of air gaps. Results demonstrate that the air gap properties represent the most influential parameters for the definition of the PVC window frames thermal transmittance, followed by the surface heat transfer coefficients and the PVC thermal conductivity. The rubber and the steel properties show a negligible effect on the whole frame performance. This procedure could constitute a design tool to guide the efforts of window manufacturers for the achievement of high performance products.]]>
<![CDATA[Kinetics of subsequent phases of the anaerobic processes]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 09:15:22 +0200 Kryłów, M.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: In the report, kinetics of different phases of anaerobic process was described. The anaerobic process was used for treatment of low concentrated wastewater. The experimental results were compared with the selected theoretical models. While investigating the flock-type sludge structure, the best fit for methanogenesis (the slowest process phase) was found for Monod, Moser, Contois and Teisser models; for granulated sludge the best fit was found for Edwards and Yamne models (inhibition with a substrate was observed). Kinetics of two other phases: acidogenesis and acetogensis followed the Monod, Moser, Contois as well as Chen and Hasimoto models.]]>
<![CDATA[Death of a wooden stadium – WKS Wawel Kraków]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 09:05:43 +0200 Usydus, Szymon
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA["The forest" – a medieval roof structure of the Notre-Dame Cathedral in Paris]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 09:03:38 +0200 Połtowicz, Anna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Vigas in the Pueblo Revival Style works of John Gaw Meem]]> Mon, 06 Jul 2020 08:52:26 +0200 Barnaś, Krzysztof
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Architecture as a dialogue of cultures II]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 14:01:00 +0200 rodzaj: książka
]]>
<![CDATA[Modular statistical system for an integrated environmental control]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:57:01 +0200 Romanska-Zapala, Anna; Dudek, Piotr; Górny, Mariusz; Dudzik, Marek
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this paper series, we will examine the relation between the smart grid and the next generation of buildings. The new objective is now to design buildings so that the energy exchange takes place in time suitable for both sides. The building takes energy from the grid and give it back at different time because in the next generation of buildings they are equipped in advanced control system that controls energy storage for several hours and the new or retrofitted building can eliminate energy peaks and valleys for itself and assist the smart grid in equalization of the load. The control systems include monitoring and modeling of energy use and indoor environment to arrive to a weather-based prediction, Therefore, in part 1 of the paper series we address collecting, processing and analysis of the measurement data that can be done by the new modular statistical software alone or in conjunction with a dedicated neural network. We want to minimize energy use and maximize the thermal comfort of the occupants. Using the modular structure of the database, data transformation technologies and other existing tools, the modular statistical software (MSS) has been created to process large amounts of data as input to the decision-making algorithm. This is to enable buildings automated control (BAC) to take over the control of heating/cooling, ventilation, illumination and other performance aspects that relate to sustainability of built environment.]]>
<![CDATA[Application of the integrated solid waste management model]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:56:37 +0200 Stypka, T.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Volatile fatty acid generation from sludge and wastewater to optimise the nutrient removal processes]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:55:27 +0200 Veen, I. P., van; Żeglin, K.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of heavy metals on digestion process]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:54:11 +0200 Cimochowicz-Rybicka, M.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Calculations on choosing a cogeneration option of biogas utilisation at Nowy Sacz WWTP]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:52:03 +0200 Hopkowicz, M.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[The research on rheological properties of the wastewater active sludge]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:51:58 +0200 Fryźlewicz, B.; Kryłów, M.; Tal-Figiel, B.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Wastewater sludge and solid waste management : process theory operational experience sustainable development : proceedings of a Polish-Swedish Scientific-Technical Seminar, Nowy Targ - Zakopane, October 24-26, 2001]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:48:49 +0200 rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne - redakcja książki
]]>
<![CDATA[Integrated analysis of the Krakow solid waste management system]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:45:36 +0200 Stypka, T.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The article presents the application of the integrated municipal solid waste analysis model developed by White. The model is applied for the Krakow area and analyses three planned for the city scenarios of MSW disposal strategies. The current landfilling strategy is compared with the composting option and with the application of the incinerator. The calculated by the model environmental impact is integrated and expressed by the environmental impact index that is a sum of emission charges caused by the whole system of waste disposal. ]]>
<![CDATA[Kinetics of anaerobic processes]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:43:34 +0200 Kryłów, M.; Tal-Figiel, B.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: In the paper, description of anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater, according to the proposed kinetic model, has been presented. The experimental results of microbial growth predictions showed the greatest resemblance to the models of Monod, Teisser, Contois as well as Chen and Hashimoto.]]>
<![CDATA[Modelling of phosphorus removal in presence of nitrates and its influence on an energy recovery from sludge]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:41:53 +0200 Rybicki, S. M.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The paper describes second stage of investigations on specific operational problems which may occur in wastewater treatment plants of long term problem of nitrate presence in raw wastewater. Basic mechanism of EBPR i.e. release and uptake of phosphorus are based on growth and decay of microorganisms with the use of easy biodegradable carbon sources, presence of nitrites being active electron acceptors may adversely impacts this process. One of its unwanted results is higher than assumed consumption of easy biodegradable carbon. With the system supplying these electron donors via acidic fermentation may lead to direct overload of the biological reactor with pre-fermentation products. Finally in system with mezofilic fermentation of sludge as a processing method, it may lead to an unfavourable decrease of a biogas composition with diminishing of an energy recovery potential. Based on Wentzel’s model of biodegradable matter circulation and use, some modelling proposal were prepared and data for verification came from operational tests on existing WWTP.]]>
<![CDATA[The aspects of sludge thermal utilization]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:39:03 +0200 Flaga, A.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The article focused on the problem of sludge thermal utilization. Different aspects of this problem are presented here. Starting from introducing sludge treatment and utilization options, through explanations connected with energetic usefulness of sludge treated as a fuel and with the amount of energy in sludge that could be effectively used, ending at last on presenting sludge thermal utilization options and their advantages or disadvantages.]]>
<![CDATA[Full scale implementation of lab tests' results on improve sludge digestion – Nowy Sacz case study]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:31:53 +0200 Cimochowicz-Rybicka M.; Rybicki, S. M.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The paper describes practical results of long-term laboratory studies completed to estimate a technically feasible conditions of retrofitting of existing sludge disposal system for an energy recovery improvement. The pathway from lab studies and simulations to full scale investments have been shown with a special emphasis on application of specific procedures. Especially how to predict a digestion time for sludge of specific composition. Investigations completed at the Nowy Sacz WWTP, resulted in practical implementation to be used during the design of upgrading and extension of the digestion and energy recovery system at the plant It was proved that mixing of primary and waste activated sludge(WAS) at the 1:1 VSS ratio provides the optimum conditions for process performance and application of proposed calculation procedures was adopted by design team. Finally some basic economical simulations were presented to illustrate overall feasibility of these changes. This paper summarizes combined scientific and design effort of last five years.]]>
<![CDATA[Integrated solid waste management model as a tool of sustainable development]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:28:32 +0200 Stypka, T.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The author applied the first version of the Integrated Municipal Waste (IMW-1) model developed by White P.R., Franke M., and Hindle P., to analyze the present and the planned waste management systems in the two towns: Krakow, Poland and Stockholm, Sweden. To help in the decision process the integration of the model results is proposed. The aggregation is based on the modified Polish emission fees. As a result of this integration the environmental impacts on water and on air are presented in monetary units and are comparable with the economic cost. Such integration allows the simple comparison of the Krakow and Stockholm systems, which is presented.]]>
<![CDATA[Culture as a contemporary material of architecture from a Far Eastern perspective]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:23:25 +0200 Butelski, Kazimierz
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
]]>
<![CDATA[Education City – a place of the dialogue of cultures]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 13:09:30 +0200 Łukasik, Marta
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
]]>
<![CDATA[Museums of interference]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 12:52:40 +0200 Kozień-Woźniak, Magdalena
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
Abstrakt: The objectives and tasks of museum architecture are constantly being defined anew. The significance of a museum building within a city constitutes a considerable element of this discussion. Museums have become symbols of cities, districts and regions. There are also museums hidden in parks, far from city centres as places of contemplation. Museums are important public spaces in cities. They are often not used solely to store and present their collections but become centres of culture, featuring workshops, meeting halls, restaurants, coffee shops, bookstores and other shops. In the reflection on the relationship and significance of museum buildings in the city featured below, the author uses a previously proposed distinction that refers to theatrical buildings, which distinguishes three relationship models: emanation, isolation and interference. In the first model—that of emanation—the building plays the role of a symbol of culture within its surrounding urban space. In the second model—that of isolation—the museum has the character of a hidden space, separated from the outside world, accessible only to a specific group. In the third model, the external public space becomes incorporated into the construction or introduced into the space of the museum. This reflection leads to the statement that interference, in the case of museum buildings, is primarily associated with the visitor’s journey. It is the manner of shaping the exhibition path of the museum that causes public space and museum space to overlap.]]>
<![CDATA[Śródmieścia miast polskich. Retrospekcja i przyszłość : praca zbiorowa. Cz. 2]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 10:53:11 +0200 rodzaj: książka
Abstrakt: Drugi tom publikacji Śródmieścia miast polskich ‒ retrospekcja i przyszłość. Stanowi kontynuację wątków, podjętych w poprzednim woluminie i nawiązujących do zainicjowanej już w 2006 roku dyskusji. Tytuł tomu nawiązuje do monografii Profesora Stanisława Juchnowicza z 1971 roku, którego myśl teoretyczna przewija się w zamieszczonych tutaj opracowaniach. Prezentowane przez Mieczysława Kochanowskiego, Zbigniewa Zuziaka i Bogusława Podhalańskiego łączą się we wspólny dyskurs, którego przedmiotem jest zmieniająca się na naszych oczach perspektywa miast polskich i ich najważniejszego miejsca ‒ śródmieścia. Mieczysław Kochanowski sięga w swojej wypowiedzi do tradycji miast antycznych Grecji i Rzymu, przywołując archetyp, który określa mianem mitu miasta europejskiego. Mit ten konstytuowany był w ramach różnorodnych wątków wielowiekowej kultury europejskiej, tworzących jednak wspólną esencję. Autor podkreśla znaczenie aspektu kulturowego miasta, w odróżnieniu od determinant funkcjonalnych, jako fizycznej kolebki kultury europejskiej. Sięga również do społecznej genezy miasta, która zdeterminowała jego formę ‒ jako miejsce wolności obywatelskich, a potem europejskiej demokracji. Zbigniew Zuziak koncentruje swoje badania wokół współczesnej roli śródmieścia i procesów strukturalnych w odniesieniu do sieciowego modelu miasta policentrycznego. Jej wyrazem jest prezentowana koncepcja modelu przestrzennej struktury Krakowa, opracowana przez zespół z Politechniki Krakowskiej. Na szczególną uwagę zasługuje przywołanie przez autora teorii i twórczości Stanisława Juchnowicza, odwołujących się do strukturotwórczej roli centrum i policentryczności, w szczególnym odniesieniu do miast o znaczeniu metropolitalnym. Dyskurs, którego istotną częścią jest Krakowskie Centrum Komunikacyjne i koncepcje programowo-przestrzenne wokół Nowego Miasta, przenosi nas w problematykę kontroli przestrzeni miasta wobec presji deweloperskiej, który to wątek kontynuuje Bogusław Podhalański. W tym ujęciu nowe aspekty funkcjonalne, narzucane przez rynek inwestorski, niebezpiecznie oddziałują na przekształcenia struktur przestrzennych, ukierunkowując je na uciążliwe funkcje komercyjne i turystyczne. W procesie trudno kontrolowanej rewitalizacji deweloperskiej pomijane i ograniczane są przestrzenie publiczne, a genius loci zostaje bezpowrotnie utracone.]]>
<![CDATA[Assessment of use of public transport in cities by elderly and disabled persons]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 10:49:13 +0200 Solecka, Katarzyna; Figura, Małgorzata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The public transport system is one of the key factors determining the economic and social development of modern cities, faced with the goal of providing convenient connections between different areas of the functional structure, i.e. ensuring high comfort and short travel time, while minimizing environmental impact. However, it is worth asking: is creating such a transport system possible, does it exclude certain social groups, and is it capable of satisfying the needs of all users? More and more modern planners and transportation engineers are facing this dilemma. According to many scientific publications, universal design is the answer, hence shaping public spaces and the transport systems with awareness of the diversity of the human collectivity in terms of sex, age, physical ability and health condition. Elderly people above 60 years of age and the disabled, who have various types of mental, physical and sensory dysfunctions, are at the greatest risk of social exclusion. These groups of people encounter many architectural and transportation barriers in their daily lives that make it impossible for them to move freely, thus limiting their access to education, employment and culture. Only through analysis of the existing transport system, identification of transportation barriers, and the appropriate decisions to eliminate them can this exclusion be counteracted and a city without barriers be created – a free city where every resident can move easily, whether they are blind, hard of hearing or a wheelchair user. This article defines the concepts of elderly and disabled people and presents the barriers most frequently encountered in city transport systems. Moreover, guidelines for designing a transport system according to the needs of the analyzed group are proposed. The results of survey studies conducted in Oswiecim and Cracow concerning assessment of public transport and its adaptation to elderly and disabled people are a significant part of this article. Results and conclusions obtained from studies can be an inspiration for other cities that want to create a transport system adapted to the needs of the analysed group, however it is also worth remembering that shaping public spaces and transport “for everyone” is only possible by engaging all parties interested in the problem, i.e. above all, elderly and disabled people as well as city authorities, and then making every effort to reach a consensus between these groups.]]>
<![CDATA[Multiple criteria evaluation of the planned bikesharing system in Jaworzno]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 10:40:53 +0200 Bąk, Andrzej; Nosal Hoy, Katarzyna; Solecka, Katarzyna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Bicycle traffic is increasingly being considered in transportation policies and bikesharing systems have become an inseparable element of transportation systems in many cities. This paper discusses bikesharing systems and their accessibility. The paper presents the results of an accessibility evaluation of the planned bikesharing system in Jaworzno (Poland). The variants of system development were evaluated using Multiple Criteria Decision Aid (MCDA) and QGIS software. With these methods, various evaluation criteria were covered related to system accessibility, including for people in various age groups, concerning accessibility of traffic generators and system integration with public transportation. The analyses resulted in a ranking of variants of system development, from the best to the worst in terms of the reviewed criteria.]]>
<![CDATA[Analiza stateczności osuwiska na podstawie symulacji numerycznych, tomografii elektrooporowej oraz testów CPT i DMT]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 09:55:35 +0200 Grodecki, Michał; Pasierb, Bernadetta; Gwóźdź, Rafał
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Przedstawione zostały wyniki badań geofizycznych i geotechnicznych oraz symulacji komputerowych osuwiska położonego w północno-zachodniej części Wyżyny Krakowsko-Częstochowskiej. Ruchy masowe, których efekty można zaobserwować na zboczu, powstają w warstwie lessu w wyniku okresowego pogorszenia się parametrów mechanicznych grunt. Za pomocą tomografii elektrooporowej ERT i testu penetracji stożka CPTU stwierdzono, że płaszczyzna poślizgu znajduje się między warstwą pyłu (lessu) i gliną. Ruchy osuwiskowe podczas opadów deszczu i po nich wskazują że nasycenie ma znaczący wpływ na stabilność osuwiska. Informacje o budowie geologicznej uzyskane z ERT, CPTU, wierceń i badań laboratoryjnych wykorzystano w symulacji numerycznych stabilności osuwiska. Stabilność osuwiska (metoda elementów skończonych z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania ZSoil) została przeanalizowana przy użyciu algorytmu proporcjonalnej redukcji parametrów wytrzymałości gruntu. Zastosowano model dwufazowy (grunt i woda) z efektywnymi parametrami wytrzymałości gruntu. Przyjęto warunki przepływu przejściowego, zastosowano model ze strefą częściowego nasycenia. Współczynnik stabilności SF zbocza obliczono dla różnych poziomów nasycenia podłoża, uzyskanych z symulacji opadów deszczu. Płaska powierzchnia poślizgu założona do modelowania na kontakcie między warstwami pyłu i gliny potwierdził wynik badań ERT. Przedstawiona skuteczna metodologia (analiza MES z wykorzystaniem modelu 2-fazowego z efektywnymi parametrami wytrzymałości gruntu, metodą redukcji c-fi do oceny SF i model przepływu przejściowego z opisem strefy częściowego nasycenia) analizy stabilności osuwiska może być stosowany do osuwisk znajdujących się w podobnych warunkach geotechnicznych.]]>
<![CDATA[Neutral geopolymer foams reinforced with cellulose studied with the FT-Raman spectroscopy]]> Fri, 03 Jul 2020 09:22:41 +0200 Szechyńska-Hebda, M.; Marczyk, J.; Ziejewska, C.; Hordyńska, N.; Mikuła, J.; Hebda, M.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this work, cellulose fibers were successfully used as a reinforcement agent in a metakaolin-based geopolymer composite to produce, by direct foaming, sustainable and lightweight material with neutral properties for eco-friendly agricultural purposes. The structure of these materials after the neutralization process as well as changes during curing were investigated in their relations to the Raman spectra. The results showed both, a strong degree of conversion of the starting materials to the innovative neutral geopolymer product, and an advantage of the Raman spectroscopy in order to confirm the type of SiO4 polymerization.]]>
<![CDATA[Wpływ szerokości szczelin w ściankach bocznych tunelu aerodynamicznego na wyniki badań modelowych : rozprawa doktorska]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 19:56:01 +0200 Kłaput, Renata
rodzaj: rozprawa doktorska
Abstrakt: Praca ma charakter przede wszystkim eksperymentalny. Zakres prac badawczych obejmował: • Badania pola prędkości strumienia powietrza na wlocie do tunelu aerodynamicznego, na wlocie do przestrzeni pomiarowej i w przestrzeni pomiarowej, przed i po zamontowaniu kierownic. Kierownice te pozwalają na uzyskanie jednorodnego pola przepływu strumienia na wlocie tunelu. Wyniki pomiarów struktury wiatru na wlocie i w przestrzeni pomiarowej tunelu aerodynamicznego opracowano w formie rozkładów wartości średnich prędkości wiatru; • Badania pola prędkości strumienia powietrza w przestrzeni pomiarowej dla: - trzech kategorii chropowatości terenu, - trzech prędkości napływu powietrza: 5, 10 i 15 m/s, - bez modelu i z umieszczonymi w przestrzeni pomiarowej modelami o małej i dużej zabudowie powodującymi różne przysłonięcie przestrzeni pomiarowej, - trzech szerokości szczelin ścianek szczelinowych Na ich podstawie wyznaczono profil wiatru i intensywność turbulencji; • Badania wpływu szerokości szczelin ścianek bocznych na zmniejszenie efektu blokady przepływu w przestrzeni pomiarowej tunelu aerodynamicznego w zakresie pomiarów wartości średnich współczynników ciśnienia i oporu aerodynamicznego dla modelu płaskiej płytki, walca i prostopadłościanu/sześcianu o różnych wymiarach przestrzennych. ]]>
<![CDATA[SMART somputational solutions for the optimization of selected technology processes as an innovation and progress in improving bnergy efficiency of smart cities – a case study]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 14:51:44 +0200 Gaska, Krzysztof; Generowicz , Agnieszka
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper presents advanced computational solutions for selected sectors in the context of the optimization of technology processes as an innovation and progress in improving energy efficiency of smart cities. The main emphasis was placed on the sectors of critical urban infrastructure, including in particular the use of algorithmic models based on artificial intelligence implemented in supervisory control systems (SCADA-type, including Virtual SCADA) of technological processes involving the sewage treatment systems (including in particular wastewater treatment systems) and waste management systems. The novelty of the presented solution involves the use of predictive diagnostic tools, based on multi-threaded polymorphic models supporting decision making processes during the control of a complex technological process and objects of distributed network systems (smart water grid, smart sewage system, smart waste management system) and solving problems of optimal control for smart dynamic objects with logical representation of knowledge about the process, the control object and the control itself, for which the learning process consists of successive validation and updating of knowledge and the use of the results of this updating to make control decisions. The advantage of the proposed solution in relation to the existing ones lies in the use of advanced models of predictive diagnostics, validation and reconstruction of data, implemented in functional tools, allowing the stabilization of the work of technological objects through the use of FTC technology (fault tolerant control) and soft sensors, predictive measurement path diagnostics (sensors, transducers), validation and reconstruction of measurement data from sensors in the measuring paths in real time. The dedicated tools (Intelligent Real Time Diagnostic System − iRTDS) built into the system of a hierarchical, multi-threaded control optimizing system of SCADA system allow to obtain advanced diagnostics of technological processes in real time using HPC technology. In effect of the application of the proprietary iRTDS tool, we obtain a significant rise of energy efficiency of technological processes in key sectors of the economy, which in global terms, e.g., urban agglomeration, increases the economic efficiency. ]]>
<![CDATA[Reactive power transfer via matrix converter controlled by the "one periodical" algorithm]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 14:51:13 +0200 Sieńko, Tomasz; Szczepanik, Jerzy; Martis, Claudia
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The article describes the application of a straight forward energy converter, a multiphase matrix converter (MC), as part of a device, connected parallel to the power grid, and able to supply variable reactive power flow to the power system. The research performed by authors included the development of control procedures for a multiphase MC, based on a new approach and power system (application) requirements. The multiphase MC structure (6 × 6, 12 × 12) was used since the proposed control procedure creates output as the combination of input voltages. The increased number of phases decreases the order of harmonics in the MC converter similarly as in multilevel converters. This manuscript concentrates on the mathematical analysis of MC work under the “one periodical” algorithm and links it introduces in the power system. The previously developed, spatial-temporal mathematical model of the MC was limited to the dominant (first) harmonic and applied between the grid and reactive load. The results obtained from the analysis of the model showed that, for the applied control procedure (one periodical algorithm), the output voltage is built only from positive or negative sequences of input voltage. Three cases were recognized where the sign input power factor depends on input voltage and control sequence as well as on the value of control frequency. The effects of the model simulation were compared to those obtained from the MATLAB simulation and from the real laboratory 30 kVA-rated model. The main factors analyzed during this research include the expected value and distortion of input current and sign of reactive input power.]]>
<![CDATA[The concept of management of grid systems in the context of parallel synthesis of complex computer systems]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 13:26:29 +0200 Drabowski, Mieczysław
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The paper presents the possibilities of using the results of research work on the parallel synthesis of complex systems with an increased degree of dependability in the issues of resource and tasks management of grid systems, including cloud computing and fog computing, too. It is therefore necessary to modify the system model, primarily in terms of performance and optimization criteria, and indicate the main criterion for system operation, which should be the time to obtain the results necessary for the proper operation of the distributed operating system, which manages the sets of resources and tasks in grid. Namely, if the time to obtain results for computer aided design (CAD) procedures is not critical, it is required only that these procedures are polynomial, because the size of these problems completely prevents the use others algorithms, it is obvious that of the execution time of management procedures is critical, because it determines the efficiency and practical usability of the grid. Thus, the paper will show similarities and differences in the approach to the problems of complex systems synthesis and in the approach to management of distributed grid systems.]]>
<![CDATA[Angus Fowler – in memoriam]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 12:34:54 +0200 Kurek, Jan
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Autorski system budownictwa jednorodzinnego z drewna]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 12:26:24 +0200 Kurek, Jan
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Ocena czynników kształtujących koszty systemów elewacyjnych przy użyciu metody DEMATEL]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 11:44:48 +0200 Górka, Monika
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
]]>
<![CDATA[Odbiory robót budowlanych]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 11:43:10 +0200 Biel, Sebastian
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
]]>
<![CDATA[Nieliniowa analiza MES współdziałania konstrukcji z podłożem z zastosowaniem sprężysto-plastycznych modeli gruntów kalibrowanych na bazie testów laboratoryjnych i polowych]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 11:42:02 +0200 Truty, Andrzej
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
]]>
<![CDATA[Badanie długości transmisji dla kabla sprężającego w sytuacji utraty jego zakotwienia mechanicznego]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 11:40:03 +0200 Walczak, Rafał
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono badanie długości transmisji dla kabla sprężającego w sytuacji utraty jego zakotwienia mechanicznego. W celu określenia pracy kabla sprężającego w sytuacji awarii zakotwienia przeprowadzono kontrolowane odcięcie zakotwienia kabla sprężającego zlokalizowanego w ściskanej strefie przekroju poprzecznego prefabrykowanej kablobetonowej belki podsuwnicowej eksploatowanej przez ponad 50 lat. W trakcie badania zmianę odkształceń rejestrowano czterema metodami pomiarowymi: tensometrią elektrooporową, DIC, DOFS oraz Dynamic DOFS. Wyniki badań pokazują, że po utracie zakotwienia kabla, siła sprężająca jest przekazywana poprzez więzy przyczepności drutów sprężających do zaczynu cementowego, gdy tylko iniekcja jest wykonana poprawnie i druty sprężające są szczelnie otulone.]]>
<![CDATA[Śródmieścia miast polskich. Retrospekcja i przyszłość : praca zbiorowa. Cz. 1]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 11:19:26 +0200 rodzaj: książka
]]>
<![CDATA[Unified by the border?]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 10:39:07 +0200 Mensing-de Jong, Angela; Racon-Leja, Kinga; Zdráhalová, Jana
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The publication refers to the methodology of conducting international urban workshop regarding two border cities of Aš in Czech Republic and Selb in Germany. Partner universities participating in the program included TU Dresden (coordinator), CTU Prague, TU Delft TU Cracow, and ENSA Strasbourg. The program took part in 2019. ]]>
<![CDATA[Timber architecture of the Olkusz Region and the studies of G. Biliński]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 10:37:20 +0200 Kania, Olga
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Drewno w architekturze]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 10:28:48 +0200 rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne - redakcja książki
]]>
<![CDATA[Zintegrowana ochrona: przyrody, dziedzictwa kulturowego i krajobrazu. Spojrzenie leśnika – śp. Profesora Stefana Myczkowskiego i jego kontynuacja w pracach krakowskiej szkoły architektury krajobrazu]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 10:22:02 +0200 Myczkowski, Zbigniew
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
]]>
<![CDATA[Krajobrazowe skutki "kulturyzacji" w planowaniu przestrzennym]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 10:19:20 +0200 Böhm, Aleksander
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
]]>
<![CDATA[Program ochrony krajobrazu kulturowego Polski. Krajobrazy niezwykłe – krajobrazy ginące]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 09:58:38 +0200 Myczkowski, Zbigniew
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
Abstrakt: W rozdziale przedstawiono badania nad polskim krajobrazem kulturowym zapoczątkowane w 2008 roku w Krajowym Ośrodku Badań i Dokumentacji Zabytków w ramach programu ochrony krajobrazu kulturowego Polski, będącego częściowo kontynuacją Programu Krajowego „Ochrona i konserwacja zabytkowego krajobrazu kulturowego” prowadzonego w latach 1996–2000 przez prof. Janusza Bogdanowskiego. Omówiono także kryteria dotyczące obiektów z listy kulturowej i przyrodniczej w świetle odpowiednich instrukcji UNESCO. Słowa kluczowe: krajobraz kulturowy, ochrona zasobów, kryteria ochrony]]>
<![CDATA[Engineering properties of ternary cementless blended materials]]> Thu, 02 Jul 2020 09:47:25 +0200 Lin, Wei-Ting; Korniejenko, Kinga; Hebda, Marek; Łach, Michał; Mikuła, Janusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This study combined threeby-productsto fullyreplacecementas cementless blended materialswithout the need for an alkali activator. The feasibility of thecementless materialswasassessed in terms ofworkability, mechanical properties, permeability, and microscopic properties. An innovation cementlessblended materialis consisted ofdesulfurizedgypsum, water-quenched blast-furnace slag,and co-fired fly ash, resulting in a ternary mixture. The resultswere shown to perform well in terms ofcompressive strength, absorption, and chloride ion penetration.Scanning electron microscopic micrographs revealed that desulfurized gypsum accelerated hardening and improved the compressive strength through the formation of C-S-H and C-A-S-H gels produced by Ca(OH)2, SiO2, and Al2O3. The improvements in permeability can be attributed to the coating ofgypsum particles by hydrationproducts. Overall, our results confirmthe efficacy of combining 3% gypsum, 60% slag,and 37% fly ash as thecementless compositeswith excellentstrength and permeability.]]>
<![CDATA[Crack propagation analysis in selected railway bogie components]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 14:25:11 +0200 Mysłek, Adam
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper presents the practical application of fracture mechanics in investigating the possibility of crack propagation in a brake calliper bracket mounted in a vehicle bogie. The extended finite element method available in the Abaqus software was used. This method allows the modelling of material damage and its propagation independently of the finite element mesh. Damage can arise in any area of finite elements without changing the mesh. Numerical simulation of crack propagation was performed in order to analyse how crack changes as a result of the location change of damage initiation.]]>
<![CDATA[Issues relating to the efficient application of passive solar protection in multi-family residential buildings]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 14:22:42 +0200 Kobylarczyk, Justyna; Marchwiński, Janusz; Zielonko-Jung, Katarzyna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The following article is intended to discuss the issues concerning the introduction of passive measures aimed at improving solar protection in multi family buildings. A system of classifying these methods into two groups of solutions (architectural and material-building) was applied. The first group includes issues concerning facade design, the spatial features of which (such as loggias, balconies and other overhangs) can be treated as one of the solar protection methods. The authors’ own studies are presented and expressed in a sequence of formulas. The formulas enable assessment of the effectiveness of the above elements, depending on external conditions. As far as the second group is concerned, material-construction solutions for building facades and roofs are discussed. The solutions mentioned include solar-control glazing, spatial shading elements (such as venetian blinds, roller blinds), roof and façade vegetation, and the thermal mass of the building. The essence of the functioning of the analysed solutions in relation to the characteristic functional specificity of multi-family buildings is discussed. Problematic areas of application of the above methods are indicated. As shown in the study, problematic areas may include a group of utilitarian-operating, economic and aesthetic issues, in the case of which the use of passive solutions encounters limitations. In conclusion, the possibilities for alleviating these limitations are highlighted. The authors’ own solutions presented in the following paper can contribute to energy savings and may thus prove beneficial for environmental reasons, thereby serving the aims of sustainable development.]]>
<![CDATA[Modelling of porous metal-organic framework (MOF) materials used in catalysis]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 14:20:41 +0200 Kurzydym, Izabela; Czekaj, Izabela
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper presents a review of modern modelling of porous materials such as metal-organic frameworks used in catalysis. The authors’ own research approach using the nano-design of metal-organic frameworks is included in this review.]]>
<![CDATA[Combustion of toluene over cobalt-modified MFI zeolite dispersed on monolith produced using 3D printing technique]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 13:45:29 +0200 Rokicińska, Anna; Drozdek, Marek; Bogdan, Elżbieta ; Węgrzynowicz, Adam; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kuśtrowski, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: A facile method of fabrication of ceramic monoliths assisted by 3D printing was developed for preparation of Co3O4-based catalysts of total oxidation of volatile organic compounds. The proposed approach was based on the production of a resin template, which was subsequently used at a casting step for the construction of corundum monolith. The walls of this material were additionally coated with a MFI zeolite layer providing the possibility of modification with a Co3O4 precursor using ion-exchange and impregnation techniques. The parent and Co3O4-modified monoliths with varying active phase content were characterized by SEM/EDS, XRD, XRF, XPS, UV–vis-DR and H2-TPR. Their catalytic performance in the toluene combustion was also tested. It was shown that the formation of Co3O4 spinel particles highly dispersed on the zeolite-coated monolith resulted in excellent catalytic activity measured by very high TOF values. Furthermore, stability tests confirmed that the obtained monolith catalysts can work for prolonged reaction time without noticeable changes in the toluene conversion and selectivity to CO2.]]>
<![CDATA[A mixed solution-based high agreement filtering method for class noise detection in binary classification]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 12:41:13 +0200 Samami, Maryam; Akbari, Ebrahim; Abdar, Moloud; Plawiak, Pawel; Nematzadeh, Hossein; Basiri, Mohammad Ehsan; Makarenkov, Vladimir
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Classification of noisy data has been a longstanding topic in data mining and machine learning. Many scientists have proposed effective methods to detect and eliminate such data in diverse real-world datasets. In this paper, we deal with mislabeled instances in supervised learning, including majority voting filtering and consensus voting filtering. The majority voting procedure usually incorrectly identifies many correct instances as noisy, whereas the consensus voting procedure is not able to detect at all many noisy instances. Our new method minimizes the majority and consensus filtering weaknesses by providing a novel class noise detection strategy, namely a high agreement voting filtering with mixed strategy, which proceeds by removing strong and semi-strong noisy records from the dataset as well as by relabeling weak noisy data. The proposed method, designed for binary classification problems, outperforms the high agreement voting filtering procedure. Extensive experiments conducted with 16 real datasets, using four noise filtering methods with two levels of class noise (10% and 15%), prove the superiority of the proposed methodology.]]>
<![CDATA[Retractable roofs in engineering education]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 12:26:43 +0200 Pawlak-Jakubowska, Anita; Romaniak, Krystyna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper presents a proposal for updating and expanding the teaching of technical university students concerning the subject of roofs. Through the analysis of Polish textbooks and teaching studies, a lack of information on retractable roofs was identified. As a consequence, a lecture was prepared to fill this gap and presented to students of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and to teaching staff of the Silesian University of Technology. The main components of the lecture are presented in this article. Furthermore, a discussion was undertaken to analyse the possibilities of incorporating new content (in the form of supplementary material) into the currently run courses as well as into optional classes such as student workshops and optional facultative courses.]]>
<![CDATA[Three-dimensional numerical modelling of multi-layered shell structures using two-dimensional plane mesh]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 12:12:07 +0200 Jaśkowiec, J.; Stankiewicz, A.; Pluciński, P.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The article presents a full three-dimensional (3D) numerical analysis of curved laminated shell structures using only a two-dimensional (2D) planar finite element mesh. The applied numerical method is called FEM23, which stands for the 2D finite element method for a full 3D analysis. FEM23 makes it possible to perform a numerical analysis of a multi-layered shell, utilising a numerical model based on a 2D finite element mesh. FEM23 ensures exact shell geometry since a pure mathematical description of a geometry is applied in the numerical model. Examples provided in the following paper prove FEM23 to be accurate and flexible. They involve the analysis of a special laminated structure - laminated glass, which comprises of glass panes bonded by thin polymer films. A full 3D description is provided for the glass panes as well as polymer films, even though the film thickness is over ten times smaller than the glass layers. The results are verified by the analytical solution and those obtained by standard 3D FEM. A unique post-processing procedure developed specially for FEM23 enables visualisation of the full 3D results.]]>
<![CDATA[A DFT study on the molecular mechanism of the conjugated nitroalkenes polymerization process initiated by selected unsaturated nucleophiles]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 12:07:57 +0200 Kącka-Zych, Agnieszka; Jasiński, Radomir
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The participation of the nitroethene and its α-substituted analogs as model nitrofunctionalized monomers, and (Z)-C,N-diphenylnitrone and methyl vinyl ether as initiators in the polymerization reactions, has been analyzed in the framework of the density functional theory calculations at the M06-2X(PCM)/6-311 + G(d) level. Our computational study suggests the zwitterionic mechanism of the polymerization process. The exploration of the nature of critical structures shows that the first reaction stage exhibits evidently polar nature, whereas additions of further nitroalkene molecules to the polynitroalkyl molecular system formed should be considered as moderate polar processes. The more detailed view on the molecular transformations gives analysis based on the bonding evolution theory. This study shows that the case of polymerization reaction between nitroethene and (Z)-C,N-diphenylnitrone allows for distinguishing eleven topologically different phases, while, in the case of polymerization reaction nitroethene and methyl vinyl ether, we can distinguish nine different phases.]]>
<![CDATA[Photoinitiator-catalyst systems based on meta-terphenyl derivatives as photosensitisers of iodonium and thianthrenium salts for visible photopolymerization in 3D printing processes]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 12:07:02 +0200 Tomal, Wiktoria; Pilch, Maciej; Chachaj-Brekiesz, Anna; Galek, Mariusz; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Graff, Bernadette; Dietlin, Céline; Lalevée, Jacques; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This work demonstrates a new versatile, efficient photoinitiating system based on 2-amino-4-phenyl-6-(4-phenylphenyl)benzene-1,3-dicarbonitrile and 2-amino-4-phenyl-6-[4-[(E)-styryl]phenyl]benzene-1,3-dicarbonitrile derivatives as photosensitisers of iodonium and thianthrenium salts for photopolymerization under visible low light intensity with potential translation to high performance 3D printing. The new meta-terphenyl derivatives were characterised by standard analytical and spectroscopic techniques. The activity of new bimolecular photoinitiating systems was investigated using Fourier transform real-time infrared spectroscopy. As the choices for an efficient visible sensitiser are rather limited for thianthrenium salt, the syntheses of new photo-sensitisers have received considerable attention. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to apply meta-terphenyl derivatives as visible photosensitisers for different types of onium salts. For this purpose, the new 2-amino-4-phenyl-6-(4-phenylphenyl)benzene-1,3-dicarbonitrile and 2-amino-4-phenyl-6-[4-[(E)-styryl]phenyl]benzene-1,3-dicarbonitrile derivatives were combined with commercially available iodonium salt (HIP) and thianthrenium salt to create visible light photoinitiating systems. It was shown that the efficiency of these bimolecular photoinitiating systems was based on the favorable free energy change of the photoinduced electron transfer from the meta-terphenyl derivatives to the iodonium and thianthrenium salts. It was confirmed by the experiments that the ability of tested photoredox pairs to initiate the photopolymerization processes depends on the oxidation potentials of the meta-terphenyl derivatives and the reduction potentials of the onium salts. Here, we explore the role of the scientific aspects of the mechanism, energetics and dynamics of applicability of the new meta-terphenyl compounds as efficient and versatile photosensitisers of onium salts with different oxidising power. Moreover, the investigated terphenyl derivatives can work as photoredox catalysts and efficient photoinitiating systems, and can be used with typical oxidation and reduction agents in both reductive and oxidation cycles.]]>
<![CDATA[Spectroscopic studies of MFI and USY zeolite layers over stainless steel 316L wire gauze meshes]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 12:06:35 +0200 Kuterasiński, Ł.; Bodzioch, P.; Dymek, K.; Jędrzejczyk, R. J.; Chlebda, D. K.; Łojewska, J.; Sitarz, M.; Kurowski, G.; Jeleń, P.; Jodłowski, P. J.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The objective of our study was to develop and optimize the in situ synthesis of zeolitic thin coatings with USY (ultrastabilised form of faujasite) and MFI (Model Five) type structure on metallic structured catalysts supports using the hydrothermal method. Thus, obtained zeolitic materials were studied in terms of their prospective activity in selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxides (SCR of NOx) with ammonia. Optimization of the preparation method consisted of several steps including: the pretreatment of steel carrier to obtain an adhesive surface, hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites at different conditions and adjustment of the zeolite structure type (MFI vs. USY). As a result, uniform zeolitic layers were deposited on steel supports. Prepared structured supports were ion-exchanged with copper or cobalt precursors to obtain active catalysts and then characterised by various physicochemical methods with a particular reference to the in situ Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultraviolet–Visible Diffusion Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS-UV/VIS) and Raman spectroscopy. For CuUSY sample, slightly better catalytic properties are related to higher copper content. In the case of Co-samples, worse catalytic properties in comparison with Cu counterparts might imply from higher concentration of Brønsted acid sites, lower cobalt loading (thus concentration of Lewis acid sites) and the presence of cobalt cation significantly in oxide form (evidenced by Raman, DRS-UV/VIS spectroscopy and by in situ FT-IR sorption studies).]]>
<![CDATA[The effects of silver ion implantation on structural and morphological performance of hydroxyapatite coatings]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 12:03:53 +0200 Suchanek, K.; Sobol, D.; Mitura-Nowak, M.; Perzanowski, M.; Marszałek, M.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Hydroxyapatite coating composed of hexagonal rods are modified with silver ions to improve their antibacterial activity. The coatings are irradiated at room temperature using 15 keV Ag+ ion source and three different ion doses up to 6 × 1016 ions/cm2 . Morphological and structural changes in the crystal structure of hydroxyapatite are followed as a function of Ag+ ion dose using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and the Raman spectroscopy. We observed that implantation did not produce any morphological changes in crystals. Based on the X-ray diffraction data, we show that lattice constant of hydroxyapatite remains unchanged for all samples irrespective of the Ag+ ion dose. However, ion-induced defects formation is evidenced by detailed X-ray diffraction line profile analysis and broadening of the diffraction maxima with increasing Ag+ ion dose.]]>
<![CDATA[Silver nanoparticles based on blackcurrant extract show potent anti-inflammatory effect in vitro and in DSS-induced colitis in mice]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 11:58:09 +0200 Krajewska, Julia B.; Długosz, Olga; Sałaga, Maciej; Banach, Marcin; Fichna, Jakub
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Silver nanoparticles have been used in a range of applications and although they are already employed in medicine, there are new, promising possibilities for their utilization. We investigated the potential of silver nanoparticles obtained with the use of blackcurrant extract in vitro in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and in vivo in the murine DSS-induced colitis model. The examined formulations contained particles of 95 nm (Ag95) and 213 nm (Ag213) diameter. In vitro, both formulations inhibited nitric oxide (NO) release. In vivo, the preparations alleviated colitis as evidenced by a decreased macroscopic score and myeloperoxidase activity (indicative of neutrophil infiltration). In both cases, the nanoparticles of larger diameter showed better anti-inflammatory properties. Although further tests are required, our results indicate a plausible new use of silver nanoparticles in inflammatory bowel diseases.]]>
<![CDATA[Open-cell polyurethane foams based on modified used cooking oil]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 11:46:17 +0200 Kurańska, Maria; Polaczek, Krzysztof; Auguścik-Królikowska, Monika; Prociak, Aleksander; Ryszkowska, Joanna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The present paper reports an innovative, sustainable approach in accordance with the rules of Circular Economy in the synthesis of open-cell polyurethane foams. The materials were prepared with biopolyols from a used cooking oil. The hydroxyl values of the biopolyols were ca. 100, 200 and 250 mg KOH/g. In the next step, the three polyurethane biofoams were modified with a flame retardant in order to decrease their flammability. The influence of the hydroxyl values of the biopolyols on the reactivity of the systems, cellular structures, mechanical and thermal properties of the biofoams was investigated. The most beneficial properties were obtained for open-cell polyurethane foams prepared using bio-polyol characterized by hydroxyl value 200 mg KOH/g.]]>
<![CDATA[Open-cell rigid polyurethane bio-foams based on modified used cooking oil]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 11:45:45 +0200 Kurańska, Maria; Polaczek, Krzysztof; Auguścik-Królikowska, Monika; Prociak, Aleksander; Ryszkowska, Joanna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In the present work, we report on rigid polyurethane foams based on modified used cooking oil. The bio-polyols with different hydroxyl values and viscosities as well as number average molecular weights from municipal waste were obtained by epoxidation and ring-opening reaction with diethylene glycol. The bio-polyols were used to prepare open-cell polyurethane foams for applications in construction industry. It was noticed that the structures of the bio-polyols do not have a significant effect on the reactivity of the resultant polyurethane systems. The apparent densities of the final foams were comparable and in the range of 12–17 kg/m3. Beneficial effects of both the bio-polyols on the cellular structures as well as on the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of the modified foams were observed, especially when a petrochemical polyol was replaced with 40–60 wt% of the bio-polyols.]]>
<![CDATA[Hybrid particle swarm optimization for rule discovery in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 11:16:43 +0200 Zomorodi‐moghadam, Mariam; Abdar, Moloud; Davarzani, Zohreh; Zhou, Xujuan; Pławiak, Pawel; Acharya, U. Rajendra
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the major causes of mortality worldwide. Knowledge about risk factors that increase the probability of developing CAD can help to understand the disease better and assist in its treatment. Recently, modern computer‐aided approaches have been used for the prediction and diagnosis of diseases. Swarm intelligence algorithms like particle swarm optimization (PSO) have demonstrated great performance in solving different optimization problems. As rule discovery can be modelled as an optimization problem, it can be mapped to an optimization problem and solved by means of an evolutionary algorithm like PSO. An approach for discovering classification rules of CAD is proposed. The work is based on the real‐world CAD data set and aims at the detection of this disease by producing the accurate and effective rules. The proposed algorithm is a hybrid binary‐real PSO, which includes the combination of categorical and numerical encoding of a particle and a different approach for calculating the velocity of particles. The rules were developed from randomly generated particles, which take random values in the range of each attribute in the rule. Two different feature selection methods based on multi‐objective evolutionary search and PSO were applied on the data set, and the most relevant features were selected by the algorithms. The accuracy of two different rule sets were evaluated. The rule set with 11 features obtained more accurate results than the rule set with 13 features. Our results show that the proposed approach has the ability to produce effective rules with highest accuracy for the detection of CAD.]]>
<![CDATA[Non-local approach to free vibrations and buckling problems for cylindrical nano-structures]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 10:59:21 +0200 Muc, Aleksander
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Non-local higher order free vibration and buckling analysis of a cylindrical nano-shell is studied in this paper based on non-local 3D elasticity theory and third order shear deformation theory proposed by Prof. J.N. Reddy. One can conclude that combination of important theories such as Reddy's shear deformation theory and non-local Tiersten-Mindlin’s theory to a more complicated structure such as cylindrical nano-structures results in an important and novel work in context of structural mechanics. The governing equations of non-local elastic bending are reduced to one linear homogeneous differential equation for simply-supported boundary conditions. In the strain or stress non-local problems different physical formulations have different effects on the searched values, understood in the sense of weakening or enhancement the buckling/vibration results in comparison with the classical global approach.]]>
<![CDATA[Ceramic-polymer coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy modified with l-cysteine in biomedical applications]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 10:49:07 +0200 Słota, Dagmara; Florkiewicz, Wioletta; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Osteoporosis is a 21st century disease that affects an enormous number of people, both sexes, but mainly elderly women. In this work the preparation of ceramic-polymer coatings on titanium alloys, based on poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate modified with hydroxyapatite and l-cysteine was described. Synthetic hydroxyapatite was obtained by wet chemical synthesis from orthophosphoric acid and calcium hydroxide. It was characterized by FT-IR infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry as well as the molar ratio Ca/P was determined. For the preparation of composite materials on a polymer matrix, ceramics and l-cysteine were used. The coatings were then characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition. Also the sample morphology was determined using SEM scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the obtained coatings were subjected to in vitro immersion tests in artificial saliva and simulated body fluid. After the incubation period, changes in surface morphology were analysed using SEM imaging and EDS microanalysis as well as changes in chemical composition were determined using FT-IR. After the incubation period, changes in surface morphology were analysed using SEM imaging and EDS microanalysis as well as changes in chemical composition were determined using FT-IR. Presented studies enable to state that the applied modifiers support the process of biomineralization by precipitation of apatite skeletons on the surface of coatings.]]>
<![CDATA[Analyzing uncertainty of an ankle joint model with genetic algorithm]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 10:47:04 +0200 Ciszkiewicz, Adam
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Recent studies in biomechanical modeling suggest a paradigm shift, in which the parameters of biomechanical models would no longer treated as fixed values but as random variables with, often unknown, distributions. In turn, novel and efficient numerical methods will be required to handle such complicated modeling problems. The main aim of this study was to introduce and verify genetic algorithm for analyzing uncertainty in biomechanical modeling. The idea of the method was to encode two adversarial models within one decision variable vector. These structures would then be concurrently optimized with the objective being the maximization of the difference between their outputs. The approach, albeit expensive numerically, offered a general formulation of the uncertainty analysis, which did not constrain the search space. The second aim of the study was to apply the proposed procedure to analyze the uncertainty of an ankle joint model with 43 parameters and flexible links. The bounds on geometrical and material parameters of the model were set to 0.50 mm and 5.00% respectively. The results obtained from the analysis were unexpected. The two obtained adversarial structures were almost visually indistinguishable and differed up to 38.52% in their angular displacements.]]>
<![CDATA[ResNet‐Attention model for human authentication using ECG signals]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 10:32:11 +0200 Hammad, Mohamed; Pławiak, Paweł; Wang, Kuanquan; Acharya, Udyavara Rajendra
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Authentication is the process of verifying the claimed identity of the user. Recently, traditional authentication methods such as passwords, tokens, and so on are no longer used for authentication as they are more prone to theft and different types of violations. Therefore, new authentication approaches based on biometric modalities such as heartbeat pattern obtained from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are considered. Unlike other biometrics, ECG provides the assurance that the person is alive, and is considered as one of the most accurate recent methods for authentication. In this article, two end‐to‐end deep neural network models for ECG‐based authentication are proposed. In the first model, a convolutional neural network (CNN) is developed and in the second model, a residual convolutional neural network (ResNet) with attention mechanism called ResNet‐Attention is designed for human authentication. We have used 2‐s duration ECG signals obtained from two ECG databases (Physikalisch‐Technische Bundesanstalt [PTB] and Check Your Bio‐signals Here initiative [CYBHi]) for authentication. Our proposed ResNet‐Attention algorithm achieved an accuracy of 98.85 and 99.27% using PTB and CYBHi, respectively. The results obtained by our developed model show that the performance is better than existing algorithms and can be used in real‐time authentication systems after the validation with more diverse ECG data.]]>
<![CDATA[Assessment of transport interchanges for the needs of people with reduced mobility]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 09:44:38 +0200 Solecka, Katarzyna; Nosal Hoy, Katarzyna; Deryło, Andżelika
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Transport available to people with reduced mobility assures their full involvement in social and economic life. A fundamental way of improving the travelling conditions for people with reduced mobility is to adapt elements of the transportation system, including interchanges, to their needs. This article covers the niche subject of adapting interchanges to the needs of people with reduced mobility. It contains the results of research assessing selected interchanges in Kraków (Poland) for the needs of that user group. The four variants of interchanges were assessed with one of the Multiple Criteria Decision Aid (MCDA) methods – the Compensation-Conjunctive method, which allowed to obtain the final rankings of the interchanges. The adaptation of the Assessment Method of Public Transport Interchanges (AMPTI), expanded with aspects resulting from a review of literature and the authors’ experience ensured a broad range of assessment criteria that comprehensively refer to the interchange planning. The unique nature of the research is the fact that opinions of people with reduced mobility were taken into account and the results proved that the most important aspects of interchanges are spatial compactness and solutions dedicated strictly for persons with reduced mobility. The other major aspects are quality of stop infrastructure and information.]]>
<![CDATA[High functionality bio-polyols from tall oil and rigid polyurethane foams formulated solely using bio-polyols]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 09:41:04 +0200 Kirpluks, Mikelis; Vanags, Edgars; Abolins, Arnis; Michalowski, Slawomir; Fridrihsone, Anda; Cabulis, Ugis
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: High-quality rigid polyurethane (PU) foam thermal insulation material has been developed solely using bio-polyols synthesized from second-generation bio-based feedstock. High functionality bio-polyols were synthesized from cellulose production side stream-tall oil fatty acids by oxirane ring-opening as well as esterification reactions with different polyfunctional alcohols, such as diethylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, triethanolamine, and diethanolamine. Four different high functionality bio-polyols were combined with bio-polyol obtained from tall oil esterification with triethanolamine to develop rigid PU foam formulations applicable as thermal insulation material. The developed formulations were optimized using response surface modeling to find optimal bio-polyol and physical blowing agent: c-pentane content. The optimized bio-based rigid PU foam formulations delivered comparable thermal insulation properties to the petro-chemical alternative.]]>
<![CDATA[Professor Otmar Vogt (1939-2018)]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 09:38:29 +0200 Romaniak, Krystyna; Vogt, Beata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
]]>
<![CDATA[The impact of surface preparation for self-compacting, high-performance, fiber-reinforced concrete confined with CFRP using a cement matrix]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 09:34:28 +0200 Ostrowski, Krzysztof Adam; Kinasz, Roman; Dybeł, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: With the development of concrete technology, the tendency to combine different materials with each other to achieve a greater efficiency and durability of structures can be observed. In the modern construction industry, various materials and techniques are increasingly being combined in order to achieve e.g., an increased resistance to dynamic impacts of a structure, or an increased scope of work of a selected constructional element, which translates into a significant increase in the energy of destruction. Thus, hybrid elements, known as composite ones, are created, which consist of concrete and reinforcements. This study examined the influence of the preparation of the concrete surface on the behavior of high-performance, self-compacting, fiber-reinforced concrete (HPSCFRC), reinforced with carbon fibers (CF) using a cement matrix. In the general lamination processes, this is preformed using epoxy resin. However, epoxy resin is sensitive to relatively low temperatures, and therefore the authors attempted to use a cement matrix in the lamination process. When connecting hardened concrete with a fresh concrete matrix or mixture, the type of the concrete surface is significant. In this research, three types of concrete surfaces e.g., unprepared, sanded and grinded were considered. All of the surfaces were examined using a 3D laser scanner, to determine the Abbott-Firestone profile material share curve. In this research, cylindrical concrete specimens were reinforced with one, two and three layers of laminates. They were then subjected to a uniaxial compressive test. The results of tests showed that the use of cement matrix in the lamination process, due to its low efficiency, should not be applied when reinforcing concrete elements with a high compressive strength. Moreover, the grinded surface of concrete showed the best cooperation with CF reinforcement.]]>
<![CDATA[Tuning the catalytic performance of Co/Mg-La system for ammonia synthesis via the active phase precursor introduction method]]> Wed, 01 Jul 2020 09:32:43 +0200 Ronduda, Hubert; Zybert, Magdalena; Patkowski, Wojciech; Tarka, Aleksandra; Jodłowski, Przemysław; Kępiński, Leszek; Sarnecki, Adam; Moszyński, Dariusz; Raróg-Pilecka, Wioletta
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: A series of cobalt catalysts supported on mixed magnesium-lanthanum oxide (Co/Mg-La) was synthesized using various methods of introducing the active phase precursor on the support, i.e. deposition-precipitation (DP), deposition-precipitation using urea (DPU) and wet impregnation method (WI). The activity measurements in ammonia synthesis reaction revealed significant differences in the performance of catalysts obtained by these methods. Particularly high activity, several times higher than the activity for other catalysts, was observed for the WI catalyst. The detailed physicochemical characteristics (N2 physisorption, XRPD, TPR, H2-TPD, SEM-EDX, CO2-TPD, FTIR-DRIFT, XPS) enabled the identification of chemical state of the catalysts surface. The factors determining outstanding catalytic performance of WI catalytic system were indicated as low level of hydrogen poisoning and favorable basicity of the surface.]]>
<![CDATA[Implementation of numerical integration to high-order elements on the GPUs]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 15:02:04 +0200 Krużel, Filip; Banaś, Krzysztof; Nytko, Mateusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This article presents ways to implement a resource-consuming algorithm on hardware witha limited amount of memory, which is the GPU. Numerical integration for higher-orderfinite element approximation was chosen as an example algorithm. To perform compu-tational tests, we use a non-linear geometric element and solve the convection-diffusion-reaction problem. For calculations, a Tesla K20m graphics card based on Kepler archi-tecture and Radeon r9 280X based on Tahiti XT architecture were used. The resultsof computational experiments were compared with the theoretical performance of bothGPUs, which allowed an assessment of actual performance. Our research gives sugges-tions for choosing the optimal design of algorithms as well as the right hardware for sucha resource-demanding task.]]>
<![CDATA[Corrigendum to “Monomer density profiles of real polymer chains in confined geometries” [J. Mol. Liq. 164 (2011) 59–65, DOI:doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2011.06.010]]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 15:01:04 +0200 Usatenko, Z.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In the paper by Z.Usatenko “Monomer density profiles of real polymer chains in confined geometries”, J.Mol.Liq. 164 (2011) 59-65 there is one typographical error in Eq. (4.11) which is absent in the final results presented in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2. The equation (4.11) in [1] should be in the form: \be <\rho_{\lambda}(\tilde{z})>_{wp}=\frac{B \tilde{z}^{1/\nu}}{L}(1+2\pi R R_{x}\Theta(\frac{a}{R_{x}})).\nonumber\ee This typographical error is absent in the final results for the dimensionless value of the layer monomer density $<\rho_{\lambda}(\tilde{z})>$ profiles for the dilute polymer solution $(R_{x}=0.1 \mu m)$ of ideal and real polymer chains in semi-infinite space containing repulsive (or inert) spherical particle of big radius R = 10.0 μm on the distance a = 1.0 μm from the repulsive wall presented in Figs. 1 and 2 in [1]. The above mentioned correction does not affect the discussion and conclusions presented in the paper.]]>
<![CDATA[Novel deep genetic ensemble of classifiers for arrhythmia detection using ECG signals]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 14:49:25 +0200 Pławiak, Paweł; Acharya, U. Rajendra
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The heart disease is one of the most serious health problems in today’s world. Over 50 million persons have cardiovascular diseases around the world. Our proposed work based on 744 segments of ECG signal is obtained from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database (strongly imbalanced data) for one lead (modified lead II), from 29 people. In this work, we have used long-duration (10 s) ECG signal segments (13 times less classifications/analysis). The spectral power density was estimated based on Welch’s method and discrete Fourier transform to strengthen the characteristic ECG signal features. Our main contribution is the design of a novel three-layer (48 + 4 + 1) deep genetic ensemble of classifiers (DGEC). Developed method is a hybrid which combines the advantages of: (1) ensemble learning, (2) deep learning, and (3) evolutionary computation. Novel system was developed by the fusion of three normalization types, four Hamming window widths, four classifiers types, stratified tenfold cross-validation, genetic feature (frequency components) selection, layered learning, genetic optimization of classifiers parameters, and new genetic layered training (expert votes selection) to connect classifiers. The developed DGEC system achieved a recognition sensitivity of 94.62% (40 errors/744 classifications), accuracy = 99.37%, specificity = 99.66% with classification time of single sample = 0.8736 (s) in detecting 17 arrhythmia ECG classes. The proposed model can be applied in cloud computing or implemented in mobile devices to evaluate the cardiac health immediately with highest precision. ]]>
<![CDATA[Hybrid genetic‐discretized algorithm to handle data uncertainty in diagnosing stenosis of coronary arteries]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 14:01:32 +0200 Alizadehsani, Roohallah; Roshanzamir, Mohamad; Abdar, Moloud; Beykikhoshk, Adham; Khosravi, Abbas; Nahavandi, Saeid; Plawiak, Pawel; Tan, Ru San; Acharya, U Rajendra
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of morbidity and death worldwide. Invasive coronary angiography is the most accurate technique for diagnosing CAD, but is invasive and costly. Hence, analytical methods such as machine learning and data mining techniques are becoming increasingly more popular. Although physicians need to know which arteries are stenotic, most of the researchers focus only on CAD detection and few studies have investigated stenosis of the right coronary artery (RCA), left circumflex (LCX) artery and left anterior descending (LAD) artery separately. Meanwhile, most of the datasets in this field are noisy (data uncertainty). However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study conducted to address this important problem. This study uses the extension of the Z‐Alizadeh Sani dataset, containing 303 records with 54 features. A new feature selection algorithm is proposed in this work. Meanwhile, by discretization of data, we also handle the uncertainty in CAD prediction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study attempted to handle uncertainty in CAD prediction. Finally, the genetic algorithm (GA) is used to determine the hyper‐parameters of the support vector machine (SVM) kernels. We have achieved high accuracy for the stenosis diagnosis of each main coronary artery. The results of this study can aid the clinicians to validate their manual stenosis diagnosis of RCA, LCX and LAD coronary arteries.]]>
<![CDATA[Aerodynamika napowietrznych linii elektroenergetycznych z uwzględnieniem innych wpływów środowiskowych]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 13:58:59 +0200 Flaga, Andrzej; Flaga, Łukasz
rodzaj: książka
Abstrakt: Niniejsza monografia jest pierwszą w Polsce pozycją bibliograficzną podejmującą zagadnienia aerodynamiki napowietrznych linii elektroenergetycznych przy jednoczesnym uwzględnieniu innych wpływów środowiskowych. Powstała ona w dużej mierze jako wynik 3-letniej pracy naukowo-badawczej realizowanej w ramach projektu badawczego GEKON – Generator Koncepcji Ekologicznych w latach 2014-2016 r. przez zespół Laboratorium Inżynierii Wiatrowej Politechniki Krakowskiej oraz konsorcjum jedenastu instytucji. W pracy zestawiono przegląd aktualnie obowiązujących norm oraz pozycji bibliograficznych dotyczących projektowania napowietrznych linii elektroenergetycznych przy uwzględnieniu czynników środowiskowych, tj. wiatr, śnieg, czy lód.]]>
<![CDATA[Równania różniczkowe zwyczajne i cząstkowe w publikacjach matematyków polskich do I wojny światowej na tle rozwoju teorii równań różniczkowych w świecie]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 13:52:25 +0200 Koroński, Jan
rodzaj: książka
Abstrakt: Niniejsza monografia składa się z trzynastu rozdziałów zasadniczych, appendixu i zakończenia o charakterze krótkiego rozdziału dodatkowego. Przedmiotem pierwszego rozdziału jest ogólna charakterystyka rozwoju teorii równań różniczkowych zwyczajnych do końca XIX wieku w świecie. Omówione są pokrótce kolejne etapy rozwoju teorii równań różniczkowych zwyczajnych do końca XIX wieku. Celem rozdziału drugiego jest charakterystyka rozwoju równań różniczkowych cząstkowych do końca XIX wieku w świecie. Oba rozdziały są punktem odniesienia (tłem) do omówienia publikacji z równań różniczkowych napisanych przez matematyków polskich w XIX wieku. Rozdział trzeci poświęcono recepcji równań różniczkowych w Polsce i omówieniu prac z równań różniczkowych zamieszczonych w Rocznikach Towarzystwa Naukowego Krakowskiego, stanowiących zbiór 44 tomów od 1817 do 1872 roku, które były najważniejszym polskim czasopismem naukowym publikującym prace głównie polskich uczonych XIX wieku. We wszystkich tomach tego czasopisma wydrukowano około 300 prac z kilkunastu dziedzin nauki, z czego 28 prac matematycznych. W czasie wydawania Roczników Towarzystwa Naukowego Krakowskiego dokonał się istotny zwrot w tematyce publikacji matematyków polskich w XIX wieku, z początku dotyczących prawie wyłącznie przestarzałych zagadnień geometrii i algebry, w kierunku analizy matematycznej i teorii równań różniczkowych, odnoszących się do aktualnej problematyki badawczej matematyków reprezentujących ówczesne czołowe ośrodki naukowe w świecie. Aby ten zwrot w tematyce badawczej matematyków polskich ukazać, omawiamy pokrótce wszystkie prace matematyczne wydrukowane w Rocznikach Towarzystwa Naukowego Krakowskiego ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem prac z teorii równań różniczkowych. Rozdział czwarty zawiera informacje o jednym z najwybitniejszych matematyków polskich XIX wieku, Władysławie Zajączkowskim, który jako pierwszy w Polsce podjął systematyczne badania naukowe w dziedzinie równań różniczkowych. Rozdział piąty nakreśla ogólną charakterystykę Towarzystwa Nauk Ścisłych w Paryżu i Pamiętnika Towarzystwa Nauk Ścisłych w Paryżu. Ponadto, na tle rozwoju teorii równań różniczkowych w świecie omówiono w nim prace Y. Villarceau (1813‒1883), W. Zajączkowskiego (1837‒1898) i W. Folkierskiego (1842‒1904) z równań różniczkowych, które zostały wydrukowane w Pamiętniku Towarzystwa Nauk Ścisłych w Paryżu. Wszystkie te prace wniosły coś nowego do rozwoju teorii równań różniczkowych. Oczywiście, w Pamiętniku Towarzystwa Nauk Ścisłych w Paryżu opublikowano również inne prace, w których występują równania różniczkowe „usługowo”, nie można jednak tych prac zakwalifikować jako prac z teorii równań różniczkowych. Rozdział szósty zawiera ogólną charakterystykę Akademii Umiejętności w Krakowie i Pamiętnika Akademii Umiejętności w Krakowie. Ponadto, w odniesieniu do światowego stanu teorii równań różniczkowych przeanalizowano w nim wybrane prace: Alojzego Jana Stodółkiewicza (1856‒1934), Władysława Zajączkowskiego (1837‒1898), Jana Rajewskiego (1857‒1906), Wawrzyńca Żmurki (1824‒1889) i Edwarda Władysława Skiby (1843‒1911) z równań różniczkowych, które zostały wydrukowane w Pamiętniku Akademii Umiejętności w Krakowie. Z kolei w rozdziale siódmym ujęta została ogólna charakterystyka Rozpraw Akademii Umiejętności w Krakowie w latach 1874‒1951. Ponadto, na tle rozwoju teorii równań różniczkowych na świecie zaprezentowano w nim wszystkie 27 prac z równań różniczkowych, które napisali: A. J. Stodółkiewicz (1856‒1934) – 8 prac, S. Kępiński (1867‒1908) – 8 prac, S. Zaremba (1863‒1942) – 5 prac, K. Olearski (1855‒1936) i C. Russjan (1867‒1935) ‒ po 2 prace, po jednej pracy napisali K. Żorawski (1866‒1953) i W. Zajączkowski (1837‒1898). Prace wymienionych tu autorów zostały wydrukowane w Rozprawach Akademii Umiejętności w Krakowie właśnie w latach 1874‒1951. Rozdział ósmy przybliża dorobek publikacyjny Stanisława Kępińskiego w dziedzinie zwyczajnych i cząstkowych równań różniczkowych. W szczególności w tym rozdziale prezentujemy dwuczęściową monografię (podręcznik) z równań różniczkowych zwyczajnych i cząstkowych autorstwa Kępińskiego wydaną nakładem Komisji Wydawniczej Biblioteki Politechnicznej we Lwowie w 1907 roku. W rozdziale dziewiątym przedstawiono nietypową postać nauczyciela średnich szkół w Płocku Alojzego Jana Stodółkiewicza. Oprócz pracy w szkole prowadził on systematyczne badania naukowe, szczególnie w dziedzinie zwyczajnych i cząstkowych równań różniczkowych, publikując nierzadko wartościowe prace naukowe. Do tej pory bibliografia Stodółkiewicza nie była znana, dlatego oprócz spisu prac naukowych z równań różniczkowych podajemy wykaz innych jego publikacji. W rozdziale dziesiątym prezentujemy ważniejsze publikacje Kazimierza Żorawskiego w dziedzinie równań różniczkowych. Żorawski opublikował około 60 prac, z których kilkanaście dotyczy teorii równań różniczkowych. W rozdziale jedenastym przybliżono postać i główne osiągnięcia naukowe Stanisława Zaremby w teorii równań różniczkowych cząstkowych. Był on jednym z najwybitniejszych matematyków polskich przełomu XIX i XX wieku i pierwszych dziesięcioleci XX wieku. Jego osiągnięcia naukowe doceniali specjaliści z równań różniczkowych cząstkowych z wiodących ośrodków naukowych na świecie. Uzyskał wiele znanych w świecie wyników w teorii równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, dokonując niejednokrotnie przełomów w kierunkach badań naukowych. Wyniki naukowe Zaremby weszły do podręczników równań cząstkowych jako kanon. Kolejne rozdziały, dwunasty, trzynasty i Appendix, stanowią rozszerzenie wydania pierwszego. Dotyczą działalności w dziedzinie równań różniczkowych Leona Lichtensteina, Cezarego Russjana i Alfreda Rosenblatta. Ich działalność naukowa w znakomitej większości przypada na lata po I wojnie światowej, ale wszyscy publikowali prace z równań różniczkowych jeszcze przed wojną. Lichtenstein, stale przebywając w Niemczech, opublikował do roku 1914 kilkanaście prac z równań różniczkowych, a Rosenblatt kilka. Podobnie Russjan, do I wojny światowej opublikował kilkanaście prac z równań różniczkowych. Z wyjątkiem kilku lat stale przebywał (pracował) w Rosji. Rozdział dwunasty poświęcony jest krótkiej biografii i prezentacji publikacji Leona Lichtensteina, a rozdział trzynasty zawiera krótką biografię i informacje o dorobku publikacyjnym Cezarego Russjana w dziedzinie równań różniczkowych. Natomiast Rosenblatt w 1909 roku opublikował dwie prace dotyczące równań różniczkowych, w jednej z nich zawarł jako pierwszy w świecie pomysł pewnej modyfikacji warunku Lipschitza, spełnienie którego warunkuje jednoznaczność rozważanego zagadnienia początkowego dla równań różniczkowych zwyczajnych. Praca ta zwróciła uwagę i zainspirowała do dalszych badań wielu czołowych matematyków na świecie. Z tego powodu dodano do monografii notkę o Rosenblatcie, chociaż po roku 1914 opublikował jeszcze blisko 100 prac z równań różniczkowych i w zasadzie jego dorobek naukowy w dziedzinie równań różniczkowych prawie całkowicie wykracza poza ramy czasowe niniejszej monografii.]]>
<![CDATA[Sustainable logistic – a direction of counteracting development problems in cities on the example of Oświęcim]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 13:50:07 +0200 Paprzyca, Krystyna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The technical infrastructure is one of the essential elements of the system associated with the idea of sustainable development. Urban transport is one of the components of technical infrastructure, and its quality and intensity are often a consequence of “urban sprawl”. The phenomenon of uncontrolled spread of the city is currently encountered in many urban centres. It increases the length and time for travels and therefore transport costs. This phenomenon can also have many other negative consequences: – excessive use of land for communication purposes, – the increase of exhaust emission, – the increase in costs related to the use of the car, – the increase of noise on the streets, – increased number of road accidents, – social costs which include lack of exercise, sedentary lifestyle etc. There are various solutions proposed worldwide, the aim of which is to reduce the number of kilometres travelled by car. Such activities are possible due to all initiatives related to changing lifestyles that are introduced and supported by local government units in cities and municipalities. The goal of all actions aimed at efficient urban transport is to create an economically effective system that also reduces the nuisance to the environment. The problems related to the redesigning of existing streets are focused in particular on safety and limiting traffic. The efficient urban transport system is integrated with the issues related to the close neighbourhood and multi-model solutions connected with the choice of means of transport, as well as the high quality of public spaces and the quality of life of residents. The article discusses the above course of action on the example of the city of Oświęcim.]]>
<![CDATA[New, highly versatile bimolecular photoinitiating systems for free-radical, cationic and thiol–ene photopolymerization processes under low light intensity UV and visible LEDs for 3D printing application]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 13:13:19 +0200 Hola, Emilia; Topa, Monika; Chachaj-Brekiesz, Anna; Pilch, Maciej; Fiedor, Paweł; Galek, Mariusz; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: 1-Amino-4-methyl-naphthalene-2-carbonitrile derivatives are proposed for the role of photosensitizers of iodonium salt during the photopolymerization processes upon near UV-A and visible ranges. Remarkably, 1-amino-4-methyl-naphthalene-2-carbonitrile derivatives are highly versatile allowing access to photoinitiating systems for (i) the cationic photopolymerization of epoxide monomers with a ring opening mechanism and vinyl ether monomers with chain growth mechanisms (ii) the free-radical photopolymerization of acrylate monomers, (iii) the photopolymerization of interpenetrated polymer networks (IPNs) based on epoxide and acrylate monomers under air and under laminate in an oxygen-free atmosphere (iv) the thiol-ene photopolymerization processes. Excellent polymerization profiles are obtained during all types of photopolymerization processes. The initiation mechanisms are analyzed through steady state photolysis, cyclic voltammetry and fluorescence experiments. Moreover, the newly developed bimolecular photoinitiating systems were investigated by applying an additive manufacturing process under visible light sources. Furthermore, vat photopolymerization processes using IPN compositions, which are polymerizable by using new photoinitiating systems, provide high resolution and speeds. For these reasons, new bimolecular photoinitiating systems are promising initiators for photopolymerization-based 3D printing process to fabricate 3D structures.]]>
<![CDATA[Integrity in architects’ education ]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 13:12:10 +0200 Marcinkowski, Robert A.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The goal of this article is to present the author’s contribution to the process of ensuring there is integrity in architects’ education. Integrity is an obvious requirement of education, as well as requiring an holistic approach to the transfer of knowledge shaping the professional skills of future engineers. But at the same time, the progress of technology causes the formation of new technical disciplines leading to the creation of new subjects, and finally to the atomisation of university teaching. Also, the system of teachers’ assessment creates competition rather than co-operation, with unforeseen, destructive results. The research basis for the article is the author’s observations made during the teaching in classes of Construction and Building Construction Systems in the Faculty of Architecture at Cracow University of Technology (CUT), Kraków, Poland. Presented in the article are examples of teaching materials and students’ works made during these classes. Finally, the author points to both achievements and shortcomings of the implementation of teaching assumptions and imperatives into practical teaching.]]>
<![CDATA[Photocatalytic properties of zirconium oxide–zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesised using microwave irradiation]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 11:28:45 +0200 Długosz, Olga; Szostak, Krzysztof; Banach, Marcin
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: ZrO2–ZnO nanoparticles with diferent mass concentrations of ZrO2 (1%, 5%, 10%, 20%) were prepared using a two-stage precipitation method with microwave irradiation. The ZrO2–ZnO with 10% of ZrO2 had the highest photocatalytic activity. The obtained material was characterised using XRD, which confrmed a high crystal structure in the synthesised material, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which depicted that micro and nano needle-shaped particles had been obtained and that irregularly shaped nanoparticles were present on the surface of those particles. TEM–EDX analysis confrmed the presence of both ZnO and ZrO2 in the product. FT-IR analyses showed that the positions of peaks related to Zn–O and Zr–O absorption bands did not change in ZrO2–ZnO NPs. The initial concentration of Methylene Blue (MB), the pH of the solution, and the mass of the photocatalyst were investigated to determine the photocatalytic efciency of the material and the degree of removal of the MB. The highest efciency (97%) was obtained in the following conditions: 30 mg/ dm3 of the MB solution, pH 9 and 70 mg ZrO2–ZnO after 30 min of reaction time under UV irradiation.]]>
<![CDATA[Sorption and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on bentonite-ZnO-CuO nanocomposite ]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 11:06:26 +0200 Szostak, Krzysztof; Banach, Marcin
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper presents a method for removing organic dyes by sorption and photocatalytic processes on a bentonitebed modified with ZnO-CuO nanocomposite. The effect of the initial dye concentration and temperature on theamount of dye removed from the solution was investigated. The results obtained at equilibrium state allowedus to determine the equilibrium and kinetic models and the thermodynamic parameters for the studied pro-cesses. The Langmuir isotherm is the best model for describing the equilibrium processes for both sorption andsorption with photocatalysis. In terms of kinetics, both processes are accurately described by the pseudo-second order model, which demonstrates the chemical nature of sorption. Due to the negativeΔGvaluescalcu-lated from the tests, it was found that the studied processes are spontaneous. It was possible to obtain a betterdegree of purification of the dye solution using combined sorption and photocatalysis compared to the sorptionprocess itself.]]>
<![CDATA[In situ deposition of M(M=Zn; Ni; Co)-MOF-74 over structured carriers for cyclohexene oxidation – spectroscopic and microscopic characterisation]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 10:45:01 +0200 Jodłowski, P. J.; Kurowski, G.; Dymek, K.; Jędrzejczyk, R. J.; Jeleń, P.; Kuterasińnski, Ł.; Gancarczyk, A.; Węgrzynowicz, A.; Sawoszczuk, T.; Sitarz, M.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The aim of this study was to obtain and characterise thin metal organic frameworks layers supported on various metallic structured carriers such as FeCrAl plates and woven gauzes and NiCr foams. The thin layers of the metal organic frameworks were fabricated by in situ solvothermal deposition, optimised by the selection of metal precursor and the layering/washing order. The parameters of the resulting metal organic framework coatings were characterised in terms of layer thickness in correlation with the fold overlap, morphology, chemical properties and mechanical resistance to ultrasonic irradiation. Several techniques were used to characterise metal-organic framework layers, including in situ FTIR, μRaman mapping, XRD, low temperature sorption of liquid nitrogen, and SEM. The results of structural analysis of prepared structured catalysts revealed that the surfaces of the structured carriers are uniformly covered with Me-MOF-74 thin layers. The mechanical stability tests showed that the metallic foams possessed high mechanical resistance and may be considered as a structured support for heterogeneous catalysts.]]>
<![CDATA[Thermal decarboxylation of betacyanins in red beet betalain-rich extract]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 09:58:32 +0200 Kumorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Sutor, Katarzyna; Nemzer, Boris; Pietrzkowski, Zbigniew; Wybraniec, Sławomir
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Betalains are one of the most common groups of plant pigments found in nature, especially in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) which is the main commercially exploited source of betalains produced in the form of concentrates or powders. This report presents results of thermal decarboxylation studies on betacyanins present in a specifically purified highly concentrated betalain-rich extract (BRE). The first tentative structures formed by decarboxylation of the main pigment present in BRE, betanin and its diastereomer, were established by means of liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS). In the extract, two new isomeric bidecarboxylated betanins were tentatively identified. A high rate of generation of 2-decarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin which are present in the BRE extract at very low level was observed, which was dependent on the starting concentration of the BRE substrate. The bidecarboxylated derivatives were generated at a higher rate mostly from 17-decarboxy-betanin/-isobetanin as well as 15-decarboxy-betanin by further decarboxylation at carbon C-2. Further studies will be performed to demonstrate if the decarboxylated betanins being products of heating B. vulgaris preparations can be used for various food applications with new health-promoting actions and colorant properties.]]>
<![CDATA[Overview of the oldest works of Polish theorists on the shape of a roof]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 09:20:22 +0200 Vogt, Beata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper presents an overview of the works starting from the first, a farmhouse encyclopaedia tractate, to the works of Stanislaw Kostka Poniatowski. There are shown different approaches of individual authors to an object's architecture, and therefore to the architecture of roofs. Also, there are included computer models of these shapes, as well as shapes' proportion research. ]]>
<![CDATA[Zastosowanie modelu gazu zapylonego do wyznaczania parametrów strukturalnych materiałów porowatych]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 09:00:07 +0200 Tabiś, Bolesław; Boroń, Dominika
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Przedstawiono metodę jednoczesnego wyznaczania współczynników dyfuzji Knudsena i efektywnego współczynnika dyfuzji cząsteczkowej gazów w porowatych ciałach stałych. Omówiono sposób wyznaczania parametrów strukturalnych materiałów makroporowatych. Zastosowano do tego celu model gazu zapylonego. Przedstawiono algorytm postępowania, od wskazówek dotyczących sposobu uzyskania danych doświadczalnych, aż do ich interpretacji. Zagadnienie to zilustrowano na przykładzie dwuskładnikowego roztworu gazowego azot-metan, ale zaproponowana metoda ma znaczenie ogólne.]]>
<![CDATA[Dynamic bifurcations in continuous process of bioethanol production under aerobic conditions using Saccharomyces cerevisiae]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 08:58:51 +0200 Ciesielski, Adrian; Grzywacz, Robert
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This article presents a numerical study of the oscillatory phenomena occurring in the bioethanol production process by aerobic continuous fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The growth of biomass cells is described by a structured and nonsegregated kinetic model. In the first stage of the research, a sensitivity analysis and bifurcation analysis of the mathematical model describing the process was made. As bifurcation parameters, the concentration of glucose in the feed stream and the dilution rate were used. The analysis exposed the presence of subcritical and supercritical Hopf bifurcation points and period-doubling bifurcation points. Areas of stable and unstable limit cycles were also detected. In the second stage, the dynamics of the system in these areas was investigated. The prepared Feigenbaum diagrams have revealed opulent dynamics in the areas of oscillatory behaviours along with chaotic phenomena. A method of qualitative interpretation of limit cycles based on the analysis of the rate profiles of dominant metabolic pathways has also been proposed. With its help it is possible to precisely determine the metabolic state of biomass cells in the areas of oscillatory solutions and to specify the nature of the generated oscillations. The performed analysis provides important information about the oscillating phenomena occurring in the bioethanol production process, and its results can be used in the design, optimization and synthesis of modern control systems.]]>
<![CDATA[Separation of betacyanins from Iresine herbstii Hook. ex Lindl. leaves by high-speed countercurrent chromatography in a polar solvent system]]> Tue, 30 Jun 2020 08:56:15 +0200 Spórna-Kucab, Aneta; Wróbel, Natalia; Kumorkiewicz-Jamro, Agnieszka; Wybraniec, Sławomir
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Betacyanins, natural plant pigments, from Iresine herbstii Hook. ex Lindl. leaf extract were separated for the first time by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) in a highly polar solvent system composed of PrOH–ACN–(NH4)2SO4satd.soln–H2O (1.0:0.5:1.2:1.0; v/v/v/v) in the tail-to-head mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 2.0 ml/min and the column rotation speed was 860 rpm. The retention of the stationary phase was 81.0%. For the identification of separated betacyanins in the crude extract and in the HSCCC fractions, liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, as well as high-resolution ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the molecular formulas and multi-step fragmentation pattern elucidation, was performed. The innovatory application of the HSCCC system for fractionation of the betacyanins present in I. herbstii leaves enabled effective separation as well as preconcentration of the pigments for further low- and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. HSCCC separation enabled identification of 22 betacyanins, of which 18 had not been detected previously in the leaves of I. herbstii, and four of these betacyanins (sinapoyl-gomphrenin and coumaroyl-gomphrenin as well as their epimers) were identified for the first time in the Iresine genus.]]>