Nowe zasoby w Repozytorium PK http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/ Biblioteka Politechniki Krakowskiej lipinska@biblos.pk.edu.pl 60 <![CDATA[Big Data analytics and anomaly prediction in the cold chain to supply chain resilience]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 14:19:24 +0200 Lorenc, Augustyn; Czuba, Michał; Szarata, Jakub
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The purpose of the research was to develop a prediction method to prevent disruption related to temperature anomaly in the cold chain supply. The analysed data covers the period of the entire working cycle of the thermal container. In the research, automatic Big Data analysis and mathematical modelling were used to identify the disruption. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to predict possible temperature-related disruption in transport. The provided research proves that it is possible to prevent over 82% of disruptions in the cold chain. The ANN enables analyses of the temperature curve and prediction of the disruption before it occurs. The research is limited to coolbox transportation of food under -20o C, but the method could also be used for Full Transport Load (FTL) in refrigerated transport. The research is based on real data, and the developed method helps to reduce the waste in the cold chain, improve transport quality and supply chain resilience. The presented method enables not only to avoid cold chain breaks but also to reduce product damage as well as improve the transport process. It could be used by cargo forwarders, Third-Party Logistics (3PL) companies to reduce costs and waste. The literature review confirms that there is no similar method to prevent disruption in the transport chain. The use of the Internet of Things (IoT) sensors for collecting data connected with Big Data analysis and ANN enables chain resilience provision.]]>
<![CDATA[Yellow color in European architecture and the built environment: traditions and contemporary applications]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 13:42:46 +0200 Tarajko-Kowalska, Justyna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: This paper aims to summarize the most important facts concerning the use of the yellow color in architecture and the built environment, considering its symbolic, functional, and decorative aspects, with particular emphasis on Europe. To understand the diverse impact of yellow in space, its rich semantic layers, and various issues of preferences, two main research questions were formulated: 1) Does the ambivalence of yellow in European culture affect its present use in architecture? 2)What functions has yellow hue performed in architecture over the years? The research paper is divided into two main sections. The first part is dedicated to yellow in traditional architecture, while the second deals with its use in the contemporary built environment. The results conclude that although over the centuries the rationale and ways for using yellow in architecture were diverse, it was always present in many varieties, due to its positive connotations with sun, light, gold, and popularity of ochre pigments. Overcoming the role of visual stigma of some socially marginalized people, yellow could signify loyalty to governmental power and later became a kind of a symbol of social status e.g. in the Habsburg Dynasty. In contemporary built environments, yellow plays an important role in the city visual communication system and corporate identity. It is also the common color of mailboxes, taxis and tramways. Thanks to new materials and technologies yellow as a visual attractor appears at a large scale both in buildings and public spaces, being modern and an intriguing color in architecture. ]]>
<![CDATA[Kinetic and calorimetric studies of photopolymerization reaction of TMPTA acrylic monomer using new molecular luminescent sensors]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 13:04:20 +0200 Pilch, Maciej; Ortyl, Joanna; Popielarz, Roman
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Due to the rapid development of technology, the need for new types of measurement systems for thermodynamic measurements of state parameters such as temperature is growing. In the field of high technology industry, the control of the distribution of thermodynamic state parameters on the surfaces of real objects is of particular importance [1]. Methods based on the measurement of body thermal radiation in the infrared range are currently commonly used for mapping the temperature distribution on surfaces [2]. Despite the widespread use of infrared temperature measurement technology, these techniques still have significant disadvantages. These include, above all, high costs of measuring equipment such as thermal imaging cameras, in particular when high accuracy and resolution of results are required. What's more, the results of temperature rise using infrared imaging can be disturbed by changes in other medium parameters, such as polarity or microlessness of the system. This feature of infrared radiation methods makes it difficult or completely eliminates the possibility of using these techniques to measure the temperature of the medium in which changes of these physicochemical parameters occur [2]. A potential solution to this type of problems may be the use of Fluorescent Probe Technology (FPT) for temperature measurement of such systems. In connection with the above a series of usefulness tests of selected europium(III) complexes for the role of luminescent temperature sensitive sensors was carried out and potential practical applications of such systems have been investigated.]]>
<![CDATA[Finding the way at Katowice railway station: an eye tracking experiment]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 12:45:09 +0200 Pashkevich, Anton; Bairamov, Eduard; Kłos, Marcin J.; Burghardt, Tomasz E.; Šucha, Matúš
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: A wearable eye tracker was utilised to study paths and observation of directional signs at main railway station in Katowice. For the purpose of identifying confusion points due to inadequate signage, the task of finding the railway station from a tram stop, finding train schedule, ticket office, and then platform was assigned to 16 young people who were either familiar or not familiar with the area. No meaningful differences were found between the two groups in terms of time to complete the task and the distance travelled. The simple and logical layout of Katowice railway station made the task easy, which is in stark contrast with prior similar experiment done at Kraków Główny railway station, where the differences were very significant and major confusions were recorded. Approximately 50% of directional signs and displays that were visible to test participants were observed, with no meaningful difference between the two groups, which is similar to the prior experiment. The outcome confirms that simplicity of transportation hub design is critical in minimising confusion amongst passengers.]]>
<![CDATA[Solving the last mile problem by creating DSS to manage bike sharing infrastructure development]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 11:25:08 +0200 Makarova, Irina; Boyko, Aleksey; Pashkevich, Anton; Tsybunov, Eduard
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The paper deals with the relevant problem: ensuring safety and sustainability of urban transport systems. Authors have considered existing positive world-wide experience of both infrastructure and managerial solutions. Using the city of Naberezhnye Chelny as an example, a method is proposed for improving the safety of transport systems by improving cycle structures. Proposed system is aimed at evaluating cycling infrastructure development projects, including the development or adaptation of a management system. In the system presented in the article, it is accepted that cyclist safety can be assessed using a risk coefficient. The danger degree is affected by the presence of intersections, the density and speed of the traffic flow, the bike path type, as well as its width.]]>
<![CDATA[Applicability of selected 2-amino-4,6-diphenyl-pyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives for monitoring of free-radical and thiol-ene photopolymerization by Fluorescence Probe Technology]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 11:18:27 +0200 Szymaszek, Patryk; Ortyl, Joanna; Fiedor, Paweł; Chachaj-Brekiesz, Anna; Pilch, Maciej
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Fluorescence Probe Technology (FPT) is a recently developed method, which offers a possibility of online applications for monitoring of polymerization processes by means of appropriate fluorescent molecular probes that change their fluorescence characteristics upon changes occurring in their environment. Depending on the type of the process monitored and the monitored parameters, appropriate structure and characteristics of the probe are required. Therefore, development of new probes and/or identification of the probes suitable for particular systems among fluorophors available commercialy is important for their practical applications. In this research applicability of 2-amino-4,6-diphenyl-pyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives as molecular probes for monitoring photoinitiated free-radical and thiol-ene polymerization of multifunctional monomers is reported. The progress of the photo-polymerization was monitored using a specially designed cure monitoring system, and fluorescence intensity ratios as the progress indicator. Relative kinetic parameters were determined from the kinetics profiles. It has been found that all of the 2-amino-4,6-diphenyl-pyridine-3-carbonitrile derivatives shifted their fluorescence spectra towards shorter wavelengths with polymerization progress, which was critical for application of these fluorophores as fluorescent probes.]]>
<![CDATA[New highly efficient photoinitiating systems for cationic and free-radical photopolymerization reactions under soft conditions]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 10:58:03 +0200 Jankowska, Magdalena; Ortyl, Joanna; Galek, Mariusz; Hola, Emilia
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The applicability of stilbene derivatives for the role of co-initiators of photopolymerization processes of cationic monomers and free-radical promoted thiol-ene photopolymerization has been tested. The following compounds were used as co-initiators: 1-[(E)-2-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)vinyl]-2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-benzene and 1,2,3,4,5-pentafluoro-6-[(E)-2-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-vinyl]benzene. To monitor the kinetics of photopolymerization reactions, infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (real-time FT-IR) was used - this method allowed to determine the degree of conversion of monomer functional groups as a function of time. Based on the conducted research, it was shown that the studied stilbene derivatives show accelerating effects in the case of photopolymerization processes using light sources in the UV-A range.]]>
<![CDATA[Stability study of new europium(III) complexes for the role of highly selective luminescent sensors for monitoring the temperature of the system]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 10:51:06 +0200 Pilch, Maciej; Ortyl, Joanna; Chachaj-Brekiesz, Anna; Popielarz, Roman
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Due to the rapid development of technology, the need for new types of measurement systems for thermodynamic measurements of state parameters such as pressure and temperature is growing. As part of the research works, several series of europium(III) complexes were tested for the role of luminescent molecular sensors for monitoring the temperature of the system. In the first stage of work, the spectroscopic characteristics of the analyzed luminophores were examined. For this purpose, their absorption and emission spectra were measured in acetonitrile. Then the temperature calibration of these sensors was made, by measuring their emission spectra in hardened polymer matrices at different temperatures ranging from 10°C to 40°C. In the next stage of the work, the photostability and the immunity of the analyzed temperature sensors for disturbances of the system parameters in the form of polarity and microviscosity fluctuations of the medium were tested. The photostability and immunity of the sensors for disturbances of the system were measured by measuring the change in emission characteristics of the sensors during the radical photopolymerization process of the model acrylic monomer - TMPTA, during light irradiation at 320 nm for 750 seconds, at a constant temperature of 25°C. These measurements were made using a specially adapted system for kinetic measurements using Fluorescent Probe Technology. Finally, the possibility of using the proposed new europium(III) complexes for the role of luminescent sensors to monitor the system temperature was determined and their potential practical applications were proposed.]]>
<![CDATA[Applicability of amino 3-(2-pirydyl)chromen-2-one derivatives as a fluorescent molecular sensors for on-line and in-situ monitoring photopolymerization processes]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 09:08:54 +0200 Krok, Dominika; Topa, Monika; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Nowadays, various photochemical techniques are more and more popular in polymer chemistry. Photoinduced processes are the object of intense studies, because they are widely used in many industrial areas including coatings, printing inks, dental applications and 3D printing. One of the method which can be used for monitoring of different types of photopolymerization is FPT (Fluorescence Probe Technology). [1] This method is based on the use of fluorescent compounds, called probes, as molecular sensors for monitoring changes occurring in a polymerizing medium in real time, and the use of quanta of light for information transfer between the probe molecules and the monitoring system. The sensors applicable for polymeric materials processes usually respond to changes in polarity and microviscosity occurring in the polymerizing system. During the progress of the polymerization reaction the polarity of the reactive system decreases. At the same time, the viscosity of the system increases. [2], [3] Applicability of a group of amino 3-(2-pirydyl)chromen-2-one derivatives as fluorescent probes for monitoring of cationic, free-radical and thiol-ene photopolymerization of monomers by Fluorescence Probe Technology (FPT) has been studied. Based on researches new compounds can be used for monitoring fast photopolimeryzation proccess. These compounds are suitable for monitoring the kinetics of cationic and free-radical photopolymerization by used FPT (Fluorescence Probe Technology) method. ]]>
<![CDATA[Quinoline derivatives as highly efficient photosensitizers for cationic and thiol-ene photopolymerization]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 09:02:52 +0200 Jankowska, Magdalena; Ortyl, Joanna; Topa, Monika; Pilch, Maciej
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The photopolymerization is a process which is widely used in many technologically important areas including coatings, printing inks, dental applications, electronic circuits, digital storage, solar cells and 3D printing. [1] In the industry different types of photopolymerization process are widely used, namely radical, cationic, hybrid and thiol-ene photopolymerization. Photoinitiated cationic polymerization reactions have some advantages over other types of photoinduced polymerization. Cationic photopolymerization is a method which is very fast and first of all environmentally friendly. Widely used cationic monomers like epoxides and vinyl ethers have low volatility and a negligible toxicity. Products of cationic photopolymerization have good adhesion and also good mechanical properties. [2] Thiol-ene photopolymerization occurs between two different functional groups: ene and thiol, this process occurs by means of free radical propagation steps. Thiol-ene reaction is known as a promising technique to synthesize materials for a broad set of applications including surface and molecule functionalization, cross-linking, grafting, UV-curable coatings, dental resins and recently even for polymeric biomaterials production. [3] In this paper, applicability of various substituted quinoline derivatives as photosensitizers in bimolecular photoinitiating system for cationic and thiol-ene photopolymerization processess is evaluated. To monitor the kinetics of photopolymerization reactions, infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (real-time FT-IR) was used. This method allowed to determine the degree of conversion of monomer functional groups as a function of time. Based on the conducted research, it was shown that the studied derivatives show accelerating effects in the case of photopolymerization processes using light sources in the UV-A range. ]]>
<![CDATA[Development of stimuli-responsive chitosan/ZnO NPs transdermal systems for controlled cannabidiol delivery]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 08:32:06 +0200 Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Janus, Łukasz; Piątkowski, Marek; Sierakowska, Aleksandra; Szajna, Ernest; Matýsek, Dalibor; Bogdał, Dariusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: One of the most common neurological diseases is epilepsy, which not only negatively affects the quality of people’s life but also may lead to life-threatening situations when its symptoms such as seizures cannot be controlled medically. A very serious problem to be overcame is the untreatable form of this disease, which cannot be cured by any currently available medicines. Cannabidiol, which is a natural product obtained from Cannabis Sativa, brings a new hope to people suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy. However, the hydrophobic character of this compound significantly lowers its clinical efficiency. One of the promising methods of this substance bioactivity increase is delivery through the skin tissue. In this article, a new type of advanced transdermal systems based on chitosan and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed according to Sustained Development principles. The chemical modification of the biopolymer confirmed by FT-IR method resulted in the preparation of the material with great swelling abilities and appropriate water vapor permeability. Obtained nanoparticles were investigated over their crystalline structure and morphology and their positive impact on drug loading capacity and cannabidiol controlled release was proved. The novel biomaterials were confirmed to have conductive properties and not be cytotoxic to L929 mouse fibroblasts.]]>
<![CDATA[Two-step finite element model tuning strategy of a bridge subjected to mining-triggered tremors of various intensities based on experimental modal identification]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:28:43 +0200 Boroń, Paweł; Dulińska, Joanna Maria; Jasińska, Dorota
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this paper, a two-step tuning strategy of a finite element (FE) model of a bridge with pot bearings exposed to mining-triggered tremors of various intensities is proposed. In the study, a reinforced concrete bridge 160 m long is considered. Once the modal identification of the bridge was experimentally carried out based on low-energy ambient vibrations, the FE model was tuned by replacing the free-bearing sliding with a Coulomb friction-regularized model. This model of friction split the tangential relative displacement rates between contacting surfaces into a reversible elastic part and irreversible sliding. The elastic microslip (spring-like behavior) prior to macrosliding can be explained by the deformation of asperities (roughness of contacting surfaces on the microscopic scale). The proposed model allows for accurate sliding bearing performance simulation under both low-energy and high-energy mining-induced tremors. In the first step of the FE model tuning strategy, the elastic microslip constant was experimentally estimated based on the modal identification. In the second step, the macro-sliding friction parameter was implemented to address the realistic behavior of the bridge under mining-induced shocks. Finally, the dynamic responses of the bridge to mining-triggered tremors of various intensities were calculated and assessed using the untuned and tuned FE models. The analysis proved that the untuned model was not suitable for dynamic bridge assessment in the case of low-intensity tremors. The stresses obtained for this model turned out to be strongly underestimated. For shocks of higher intensity, frictionless sliding at the bearings gives a relatively good global estimation of the structure performance but undervalues its local response. The analysis also reveals that the tuned Coulomb friction-regularized model allows for the accurate simulation of sliding bearings under both low and high-energy mining-induced tremors.]]>
<![CDATA[Transport zbiorowy na żądanie na przykładzie Krakowa]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:24:42 +0200 Starowicz, Wiesław; Dyrkacz, Grzegorz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Usługa przewozów autobusowych na żądanie skierowana jest głównie do osób zamieszkujących obszary o słabym zaludnieniu, gdzie utrzymywanie stałych linii jest wysoce nierentowne. Znacznie skraca czas oczekiwania pasażera na przystanku i zapewnia łatwy dojazd do węzłów przesiadkowych stałych linii komunikacji zbiorowej prowadzących do centrum miasta. Sprzyja zwiększaniu mobilności mieszkańców peryferii miast, zwłaszcza dotychczas nieobsługiwanych z powodu braku dostatecznego popytu na komunikację regularną. Daje możliwość obsługi większego obszaru przy użyciu mniejszej ilości pojazdów. Może stanowić doskonałe uzupełnienie konwencjonalnej oferty przewozowej. W artykule, na tle rozważań teoretycznych o usłudze, przedstawiono wyniki jej funkcjonowania pod nazwą TELE-BUS w Krakowie. Usługa została uruchomiona w 2007 roku. Wśród wyników zawarto analizę zmienności wielkości przewozów, liczby zrealizowanych kursów, średniej rocznej wielkości liczby przewożonych pasażerów w kursie, średniej rocznej długości kursu oraz pracy przewozowej.]]>
<![CDATA[Wpływ w/c na zmianę struktury napowietrzenia]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:19:40 +0200 Nowak-Michta, Aneta
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Artykuł opisuje wpływ współczynnika wodno-cementowego na stabilność napowietrzenia i w konsekwencji na charakterystykę porów powietrznych, odpowiedzialną za zapewnienie odporności na złuszczanie betonów. Analizę przeprowadzono w oparciu o wyniki badań 6 napowietrzonych i 6 nienapowietrzonych betonów o zmiennym w/c w zakresie 0,53-0,30. Charakterystyki porów powietrznych w stwardniałych betonach określono za pomocą automatycznego systemu RapidAir 457 zgodnie z normą EN 480-11. Struktura napowietrzenia zmienia się wraz ze zmianą współczynnika w/c. W/C nie wpływa na zawartość korzystnych porów od napowietrzenia, jednakże odpowiada za zawartość dużych porów. Najkorzystniejszą strukturę porów uzyskano w betonie, który posiada optymalną lepkość pozwalającą na ucieczkę dużych porów podczas zagęszczania i zapobiegającą koalescencji drobnych porów, a także zawartość superplastyfikatora nie powodującą dodatkowego napowietrzania.]]>
<![CDATA[A study on activities related to habitation (indwelling) and their meanings]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:15:47 +0200 Stachura, Ewa; Binkowska, Katarzyna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The process of transformation in Poland contributed to the dynamic development of the housing market and caused a growth of aspirations among Poles related to the housing environment. The diversity of lifestyles has brought about new, different expectations of the residential environment. Meanwhile, most surveys examining housing preferences and focused on the location of housing, services and infrastructure in housing estates, and urban and architectural standards show similar expectations of residents in regards to their housing environment. The phenomenon of the homogenization of expectations regarding the residential environment appears regardless of the household lifecycle, place of residence, or level of wealth (STACHURA 2013). Research methods testing users’ preferences allow an expected set of characteristics of the housing environment to be specified. If the respondents' aspirations regarding the housing environment are similar regardless of the segment they belong to, it may be assumed that possible differences may be revealed by a more detailed study. People perform many activities in their homes. These activities are related to everyday living, family and social life, work or hobbies. Each of them may be in assigned to one or more rooms in a dwelling. Activities may have different meanings and hold a different degree of importance to the residents. When purchasing a new dwelling, buyers prefer homes where the activities most important to them can be carried out in the most satisfactory way. The study attempts to establish the relationships between activities and sub-settings (dwelling or residential environment features) as well as between activities and their meanings. This paper presents an extended method of examining residential preferences: respondents declare, in a survey questionnaire, what activities are carried out in the dwelling, and how they attach meanings to these activities. The pilot study showed that some of the activities are strongly associated with one specific room, while others may be connected to any room. Rooms in Polish homes have many functions. Some of the functions are strictly connected with the type of room (bedroom, bathroom), but there is also a set of everyday activities that can be assigned to different rooms, selected by the resident. The present research revealed that activities can take on different meanings, which determines their level of importance to the dwelling user.]]>
<![CDATA[Design guidelines for multi-service centre in municipality Wilkowice]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:11:37 +0200 Stachura, Ewa; Borowska, Monika; Domańska, Joanna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The transition period in Poland has allowed to establish a new segment of investors which are small towns and municipalities. This new group of investors undertake the task of new investment building new objects and elements of infrastructure. services, many of which manages to successfully finalize. New investments are usually successful in case of favorable location of the town in the region, its tourism attractiveness and good communication links. Already existing services and development also enable to start the new ventures as well as a precise vision and mission of the local government competently translates into strategic objectives then expressed by the idea of investment. This study presents a method of creating an information system for investment decisions in a small town - a seat of the municipality. It is related to the service buildings development. This paper shows the method of analysing and evaluating the location of the planned investment options in the context of the local master plan and the characteristics of the land. A method of a questionnaire survey was used to measure the level of acceptance for the planned investment by the future users. Selected segments of stakeholder groups were interviewed to get the opinions on the future program and architecture of the planned buildings.]]>
<![CDATA[Nowe wytyczne projektowania skrzyżowań drogowych – założenia i zmiany]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 14:45:59 +0200 Bąk, Radosław; Chodur, Janusz; Kieć, Mariusz; Gaca, Stanisław
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono nowe wytyczne do projektowania skrzyżowań drogowych na drogach publicznych, które po okresie konsultacji publicznych będą rekomendowane do stosowania przez Ministerstwo Infrastruktury. Opisano zakres koniecznych zmian w nowym opracowaniu, zidentyfikowany na podstawie analizy dotychczasowych przepisów i wytycznych. Przedstawiono najważniejsze zmiany w podejściu do projektowania skrzyżowań oraz wskazano wybrane założenia przyjęte w nowych wytycznych.]]>
<![CDATA[Aspekty bezpieczeństwa ruchu w przepisach techniczno-budowlanych dotyczących infrastruktury drogowej]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 14:44:22 +0200 Gaca, Stanisław; Sandecki, Tadeusz; Jamroz, Kazimierz
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono sposoby ujęcia wymagań bezpieczeństwa ruchu w standardach projektowania infrastruktury drogowej. Na podstawie analizy wybranych projektów i badań ankietowych zidentyfikowano braki w obowiązujących przepisach projektowania dróg. Na podstawie wniosków z tej analizy i stanu współczesnej wiedzy technicznej opisano zalecenia z zakresu bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego, które zostały wykorzystane przy opracowywaniu zbioru nowych wytycznych projektowania infrastruktury drogowej.]]>
<![CDATA[Flexural tensile strength and fracture energy of fibre-reinforced soil-cement]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 14:31:25 +0200 Tracz, Tomasz; Zdeb, Tomasz; Brasse, Krystian
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
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<![CDATA[Development of the new Polish method for capacity analysis of motorways and expressways]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 14:20:21 +0200 Olszewski, Piotr; Dybicz, Tomasz; Kustra, Wojciech; Romanowska, Aleksandra; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Ostrowski, Krzysztof
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper presents development of the new Polish method for performing capacity analysis of basic segments of dual carriageway roads (motorways and expressways). The method is based on field traffic surveys conducted at 30 motorway and expressway sites (class A and S roads) in Poland. Traffic flows, composition and travel times were observed in 15-min intervals at each site using ANPR filming method. These data were used to calibrate a family of traffic speed-flow relationships for different roads, based on Van Aerde model. Free flow speed of traffic and road class are the basic parameters defining the speed-flow relationship and the value of capacity per lane in pcu/h. Traffic density was adopted as the measure of effectiveness for defining the level of service. The paper describes derivation of formulae for estimation of free flow speed for different types of roads as well as determination of equivalent factors for converting vehicles to passenger car units. The method allows us to determine capacity and the level of service based on existing or forecasted traffic flow.]]>
<![CDATA[New pharmaceutical salts of trazodone]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 14:18:08 +0200 Jaśkowska, Jolanta; Zaręba, Przemysław; Drabczyk, Anna; Kozak, Agnieszka; Madura, Izabela D.; Majka, Zbigniew; Pindelska, Edyta
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: New pharmaceutically acceptable salts of trazodone (trazodone hydrogen bromide and trazodone 1-hydroxy-2-naphthonic acid) for the treatment of central nervous system disorders are synthesized and described. Although trazodone salts are poorly crystalline, single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for trazodone 1-hydroxy-2-naphthonic acid were collected and analyzed as well as compared to the previously described crystal structure of commercially available trazodone hydrochloride. The powder samples of all new salts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectroscopic studies were supported by gauge including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) calculations of carbon chemical shielding constants. The main goal of our research was to find salts with better physicochemical properties and to make an attempt to associate them with both the anion structure and the most prominent interactions exhibited by the protonated trazodone cation. The dissolution profiles of trazodone from tablets prepared from various salts with lactose monohydrate were investigated. The studies revealed that salts with simple anions show a fast release of the drug while the presence of more complex anion, more strongly interacting with the cation, effects a slow-release profile of the active substance and can be used for the preparation of the tables with a delay or prolonged mode of action.]]>
<![CDATA[Determination of the pore fluid ionic composition of soil cements obtained by leaching and pressure extraction]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 14:15:23 +0200 Zdeb, Tomasz; Tracz, Tomasz; Żelazik, Mateusz; Adamczyk, Marcin
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
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<![CDATA[Research procedures used in observation of mineral building materials biodeterioration process]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:54:18 +0200 Stanaszek-Tomal, Elżbieta
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
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<![CDATA[Analysis of colour change in mineral materials under influence of heat]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:52:05 +0200 Hager, Izabela
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
Abstrakt: This paper presents a testing method for the analysis of colour change in concrete or other mineral material (geopolymer, mortar, stone or aggregates) under the influence of heat. The colour change may be used to reveal the exposure temperature of concrete from which the corresponding fire damage of concrete can be estimated. The colour change observed in concrete is primarily a result of the gradual dehydration of the cement paste, but also of transformations occurring within the aggregate.The colour change was investigated using Scion Image v. 4.0.3, an image analysis software package (Scion Corporation ©, USA). In the proposed method the digital image is split into three RGB colour components: red, green and blue, which are then presented as a histogram using counts of pixel intensity. The histogram results show colour distributions in unheated cementitious material and in material heated to temperatures ranging from 100 to 1000 °C. ]]>
<![CDATA[Testing of geopolymer mortar behaviour at high temperature]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:47:59 +0200 Sitarz, Mateusz; Hager, Izabela
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
Abstrakt: Geopolymer is an inorganic mineral binder. It is formed through geopolymerisation of silicates and aluminosilicates in alkaline or acidic environments. The behaviour at high-temperature exposure shows a significant advantage of geopolymer materials over cement binders. The goal of this research is to investigate the changes in mechanical properties that occur during heating. Four kinds of geopolymer mixes were prepared. One with fly ash as a precursor and the others with a partial replacement of fly ash by ground granulated blast furnace slag. Fly ash-based geopolymer mortar demonstrated the most advantageous behaviour after exposure at high temperature. ]]>
<![CDATA[Inżynieria reaktorów biochemicznych : podręcznik dla studentów studiów technicznych]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:24:22 +0200 Tabiś, Bolesław; Grzywacz, Robert; Skoneczny, Szymon
rodzaj: książka
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<![CDATA[Urban and architectural design problems in the contemporary city : the case of Sarajevo]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:11:59 +0200 Stachura, Ewa; Tufek-Memisevic, Tijana; Sokołowska-Moskwiak, Joanna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In the era of globalisation cities grow and develop according to global rules that gain more importance comparing to the local environmental and cultural impact. Analysing the case of one city we can discuss the directions that can be implemented in similar cases (comparing scale, geographical features, urban layout and history). Such an approach was the subject of the International Students Workshop that took place 10-14 November 2014. Sarajevo is a very good example of a city of rich cultural background, stages of successful development and high regional importance. Diversity of the urban layout is the result of development inconsistency due to the frequent shift in regimes [7]. The raises and falls of Sarajevo's development manifest in city structure. They caused imbalance between potential on the one hand and existing standard on the other in some centrally located areas which is the case of Sarajevo's current city center-Marijin Dvor. Therefore the workshop topics and afterwards the workshop design proposals relate directly to the mentioned area. The paper presents and points out Sarajevo center's present urban and architectural potential and obstacles as well as proposes different solutions and approaches in order to improve the city standard.]]>
<![CDATA[Wpływ składu mieszanki i rzeźby bieżnika opon bieżnikowanych na bezpieczeństwo czynne pojazdów]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:01:03 +0200 Zębala, Jakub; Ciępka, Piotr; Reza, Adam; Janczur, Robert
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań drogowych opon fabrycznych i opon bieżnikowanych, które obejmowały: awaryjne hamowanie, jazdę po okręgu i podwójną zmianę pasa ruchu. Badania wykonano w warunkach letnich i zimowych. Do badań zastosowano opony fabryczne firmy Michelin oraz opony tej samej firmy bieżnikowane mieszanką letnią i zimową. Wyniki badań wykazały wpływ bieżnikowania opon bezpieczeństwo czynne pojazdów. Różnice w uzyskiwanych opóźnieniach hamowania wskazują, że dla celów rekonstrukcji przebiegu wypadku celowe jest wykonywanie prób hamowania na miejscu wypadku na oponach, w które był wyposażony pojazd uczestniczący w zdarzeniu.]]>
<![CDATA[Widoczność w światłach mijania pojazdów innych niż typowe samochody osobowe. Wyniki badań]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:00:39 +0200 Janczur, Robert; Świder, Piotr
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: W artykule podano wyniki badań widoczności w światłach mijania samochodów, w których reflektory umieszczone są wyżej niż w typowych samochodach osobowych. Przy badaniach zastosowano metodykę podobną jak podczas wcześniejszych , publikowanych przez IES wyników badań. Artykuł stanowi więc uzupełnienie dostępnej literatury w tym zakresie.]]>
<![CDATA[Przechyły poprzeczne pojazdów - wyniki badań i symulacji komputerowych]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:00:16 +0200 Janczur, Robert; Świder, Piotr
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: W artykule podano wyniki badań przechyłów poprzecznych dla kilku wybranych samochodów osobowych i ciężarowych, wykonanych z wykorzystaniem żyroskopów i głowic Correvit H. Wyniki te są efektem prób drogowych prowadzonych w ramach badań stateczności i kierowalności. Podano też przykładowe wyniki symulacji ruchu badanych samochodów wykonanych najpopularniejszymi w Polsce programami, a w których przechyły poprzeczne są możliwe do określenia.]]>
<![CDATA[VBOX i V-SIM - od badań drogowych samochodu do komputerowej symulacji jego ruchu]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:00:00 +0200 Janczur, Robert
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono badania drogowe samochodu osobowego z wykorzystaniem aparatury pomiarowej VBOX firmy Racelogic oraz wyniki komputerowej symulacji ruchu samochodu wykonanej w oparciu o zarejestrowane w czasie badań manewry kierowcy. Dokonano porównania oraz oceny jakościowej i ilościowej czasowych przebiegów podstawowych parametrów ruchu pojazdu uzyskanych w badaniach drogowych i komputerowej symulacji.]]>
<![CDATA[Wpływ ciśnienia w ogumieniu na sterowność samochodu]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 12:59:48 +0200 Janczur, Robert; Świder, Piotr
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: W referacie przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu obniżenia ciśnienia w ogumieniu kół przedniej i tylnej osi na sterowność samochodu. Przedstawiono wykresy zastępczych kątów znoszenia osi dla różnych ciśnień, w zależności od przyspieszenia poprzecznego. Przeliczono zastępcze współczynniki wspomnianych charakterystyk odporności na boczne znoszenie, w zakresie liniowym. Obliczono względną zmianę promienia toru jazdy samochodu z obniżonym ciśnieniem w kołach osi przedniej lub tylnej, w stosunku do toru przy ciśnieniu nominalnym.]]>
<![CDATA[Nowe pochodne terfenylu jako fotosensybilizatory soli jodoniowej do inicjowania procesu fotopolimeryzacji]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 12:40:04 +0200 Jankowska, Magdalena; Ortyl, Joanna; Hola, Emilia
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Popularność procesów fotopolimeryzacji wzrasta z roku na rok, ze względu na szerokie zastosowanie w wielu dziedzinach przemysłu. Procesy fotopolimeryzacji odgrywają niezwykle istotną rolę w chemii polimerów. Produkty fotopolimeryzacji mają szerokie zastosowanie w przemyśle powłok. Fotoindukowane procesy są również stosowane do otrzymywania hydrożelowych materiałów polimerowych oraz w stomatologii do wytwarzania wypełnień fotoutwardzalnych. Ponadto procesy indukowane światłem odgrywają kluczową rolę w przemyśle mikroelektronicznym i elektronicznym, a także w przemyśle lakierniczym i motoryzacyjnym. Nowoczesne technologie stosowane do produkcji polimerowych materiałów powłokowych są oparte na procesach inicjowanych fotochemicznie. Procesy fotopolimeryzacji, ze względu na szereg zalet, jakie posiadają, są wykorzystywane w wielu gałęziach przemysłu. Główną zaletą procesu fotopolimeryzacji jest jej szybkość, co daje jej przewagę nad innymi metodami stosowanymi do produkcji ochronnych powłok polimerowych na różnych powierzchniach. Proces utwardzania powłoki trwa nawet do kilku sekund. Jest to również metoda przyjazna oraz przede wszystkim bezpieczna dla środowiska, ponieważ proces odbywa się bez emisji lotnych rozpuszczalników do atmosfery. Te cechy sprawiają, że procesy te są z powodzeniem stosowane w najnowocześniejszych technologiach stosowanych do produkcji materiałów polimerowych, na przykład w druku 3D, szczególnie w stereolitografii (ang. stereolithography - SLA), która jest najbardziej wszechstronną techniką druku 3D. Głównym celem badań było sprawdzenie przydatności opracowanych układów inicjujących opartych na pochodnych terfenylu do roli fotosensybilizatorów soli jodoniowej do inicjowania procesu fotopolimeryzacji kationowej i rodnikowej. Aby monitorować kinetykę reakcji fotopolimeryzacji, zastosowano spektroskopię w podczerwieni z transformacją Fouriera (FT-IR w czasie rzeczywistym). Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań wykazano, że badane związki wykazują działanie sensybilizujące w przypadku procesów fotopolimeryzacji z wykorzystaniem źródeł światła UV-VIS.]]>
<![CDATA[Modern polymeric materials for environmental applications. Vol. 7, 7th International Seminar including Special Session 'Recent advances in polymer nanocomposites and hybrid materials', Kraków, 15-17 May 2019]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 12:32:46 +0200 rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne - redakcja książki
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<![CDATA[Wytyczne projektowania węzłów drogowych]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 12:32:03 +0200 Budzyński, Marcin; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Gaca, Stanisław
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono wytyczne do projektowania skrzyżowań drogowych na drogach publicznych, które po okresie konsultacji publicznych będą rekomendowane do stosowania przez Ministerstwo Infrastruktury. Wskazano na potrzeby zmian i uzupełnienie obowiązujących przepisów. Przedstawiono podstawowe założenia związane z wyborem rozwiązania projektowego. Omówiono kryteria doboru podstawowych parametrów projektowych dla elementów węzłów oraz zasady projektowania wyposażenia technicznego węzłów.]]>
<![CDATA[High performance photoinitiating systems dedicated to photocurable coatings]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 12:28:27 +0200 Tomal, Wiktoria; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: In this article, novel biphenyl derivatives (BPs) were proposed as a highly effective co-initiators for used in bimolecular photoinitiating system upon ultraviolet UV-A and visible light exposure using LEDs at 365, 405 and 420 nm. Remarkably, these structures perform exceptional initiating abilities for i) the cationic photopolymerization of epoxides, ii) the free radical photopolymerization of acrylic. Excellent polymerization profiles for all of the monomers, along with high final conversions where obtained. The photoinitiation mechanism of these bimolecular system based on BPs and diaryliodonium salts were investigated using the real time FT-IR technique, steady state photolysis and cyclic voltammetry.]]>
<![CDATA[Biblioteki akademickie po wdrożeniu reformy szkolnictwa wyższego i w czasie pandemii]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 12:27:50 +0200 Górski, Marek M.; Szewczyk-Kłos, Danuta
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
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<![CDATA[Experimental setup for assessment of concrete susceptibility to fire spalling]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 12:09:04 +0200 Mróz, Katarzyna; Hager, Izabela
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
Abstrakt: The paper presents the original experimental setup for assessment of spalling risk in concrete subjected to fire. The author of the paper developed an original frame system enabling fire tests on plate elements under different loading conditions: unloaded and subjected to unilateral and bilateral in-plane compression. The details of setup along with the example of results that can be delivered by these tests are presented.]]>
<![CDATA[Badania efektywności systemów fotoinicjujących do procesów fotopolimeryzacji działających poprzez mechanizm fotoredukująco-fotoutleniający]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 10:59:50 +0200 Hola, Emilia; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Najnowocześniejsze technologie wytwarzania materiałów polimerowych opierają się na procesach inicjowanych fotochemicznie. Wzrastające zainteresowanie fotopolimeryzacją skłania do poszukiwań nowych typów wysokowydajnych systemów fotoinicjujących, gdyż to właśnie od ich właściwości zależy efektywność oraz szybkość polimeryzacji. Aktualnie bardzo istotne jest, aby nowe systemy inicjujące pozwalały na pracę przy wykorzystaniu światła ultrafioletowego (UV) oraz widzialnego (Vis) w zakresie emisji diod UV-LED oraz Vis-LED. Działanie dwuskładnikowych systemów inicjujących, zawierających w swoim składzie sól jodoniową oraz fotosensybilizator, polega na fotoindukowanym procesie przeniesienia elektronu pomiędzy fotosensybilizatorem oraz solą oniową. Systemy inicjujące wykorzystujące procesy fotoredox charakteryzują się wszechstronnością działania dzięki czemu znajdują zastosowanie do inicjowania polimeryzacji rodnikowej, kationowej, tiol-en oraz do otrzymywania IPN (Interpenetrating Polymer Networks).]]>
<![CDATA[Zwiększenie efektywności procesu fotopolimeryzacji dla standardowych monomerów stosowanych w produkcji kompozytów stomatologicznych]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 10:49:14 +0200 Topa, Monika; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Fotopolimeryzacja, czyli proces polimeryzacji zachodzący pod wpływem promieniowania UV lub światła widzialnego posiada szereg istotnych zalet (m.in. dużą szybkość reakcji i łatwość jej kontrolowania) i znajduje szerokie zastosowanie, w tym także w stomatologii. W pracy zbadano nowy system fotoinicjujący składający się z soli jodoniowej Sylanto 7M-P i 4-(dimetyloamino)benzoesanu etylu (EDAB) do inicjacji fotopolimeryzacji 2,2-bis-4-(2’-hydroksy-3-metakryloksypropoksy)-fenylu (BisGMA) i dimetakrylanu glikolu trietylenowego (TEGDMA). Jako wzorzec zastosowano kamforochinon (CQ) i 4-(dimetyloamino)benzoesan etylu (EDAB). ]]>
<![CDATA[Building materials engineering – new materials and testing methods]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 10:13:22 +0200 rodzaj: książka
Abstrakt: Recent advances in building materials technology have resulted in the development of better quality, more durable and sustainable materials. New materials need to satisfy the growing needs of the construction industry in terms of both their quality and quantity, while following the principles of sustainable development. The development of more durable and sustainable materials enables the reduction of the high environmental impact of maintenance, repairs, and replacement of traditional materials used in construction and civil engineering works, nevertheless such development requires special testing protocols, and methods of evaluation of material properties. In building materials engineering, it is important to determine the existing relationships between the process, structure and properties, which result in correct performance and durability of the materials. Any credible assessment of the performance properties of building materials requires reliable testing methods and research protocols. Therefore, this monograph aims to provide insights into recent advances in experimental methods – among them new testing stands and measuring set-ups are presented. The document presents selected competencies and experimental skills of our research team, developed in the framework of research grants and R&D projects. This monograph, published on the occasion of the 75th anniversary of the Cracow University of Technology, presents the current scientific interests of the Chair of Building Materials Engineering research staff which focuses on: composition and performance of cementitious materials; alternative, more sustainable binders and their performances; durability of construction materials and methods of their protection; analysis of the microstructure of cementitious materials; behaviour of mineral materials exposed to high temperatures; rheological properties of fresh mixtures. All the research areas listed above require experimental methods enabling the implementation of properties testing in accordance with the latest standards and recommendations of international technical committees. ]]>
<![CDATA[New terphenyl derivatives used as molecular sensors in Fluorescent Probe Technology (FPT)]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 10:11:12 +0200 Gruchała, Alicja; Hola, Emilia; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Fluorescent Probe Technology (FPT) is used to monitor the kinetics of photopolymerization processes. This issue is very important for many branch of industry, for example for motorization, electronics or medicine because knowledge about the tenor of the process is essential to obtain high quality products with desirable properties. This technique is becoming more and more popular nowadays, mostly because of her advantages – is nondestructive, sensitive and the survey is quick. Moreover measurements can by done on-line during the production of polymers. This method based on changes of fluorescence characteristics of molecular sensors witch are added to photo-curable compositions These changes are induced by increase of viscosity during the process and also by decrease of medium polarity of microenvironment. Both spectrum shift and fluorescence intensity can be used as indicators of the process. There aren’t universal fluorescent probes because the type of sensor depends mostly on the microenvironment. Hence there is a need to search for new compounds capable to act as molecular probes. Research of terphenyl derivatives as fluorescent molecular probes for cationic photopolymerization of triethylene glycol divinyl ether monomer (TEGDVE), free-radical photopolymerization of trimethylolpropane triacrylate monomer (TMPTA) and thiol-ene photopolymerization of 1,3,5-triallyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-trione (TATATO) and trimethylolpropane tris(3-mercaptopropionate) (MERCAPTO) as monomers have been realized. Molecular probes were added to compositions in small concentration. All of the terphenyl derivatives can be used as fluorescent probes for foregoing types of photopolymerization. ]]>
<![CDATA[On hydro-mechanical response of self-healing and self-sealing fractured geomaterials]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 10:06:27 +0200 Pietruszczak, S.; Przecherski, P.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper presents a methodology for describing the mechanical and hydraulic response of fractured geomaterials undergoing self-healing (i.e. recovery of strength/stiffness) and self-sealing (i.e. reduction of permeability). Regaining of strength and decrease in fracture transmissivity are particularly desirable in host rock as well as engineered barrier systems of deep geological repositories for disposal of low and intermediate-level nuclear waste. In this work, an enhanced continuum formulation is provided for describing the effects of fracture healing/sealing processes. Numerical examples are also given that illustrate both hydraulic and mechanical aspects of the proposed approach.]]>
<![CDATA[Three-dimensional bending analysis of multi-layered orthotropic plates using two-dimensional numerical model]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 09:53:09 +0200 Pluciński, Piotr; Jaśkowiec, Jan
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: This paper presents numerical model in which the bending of the multi-layered laminated plates with orthotropic properties are considered. Such kind of plates are usually used in fibrous composites and are issue of scientific research. The modelling in this paper is fully three-dimensional (3D), however the two-dimensional (2D) finite element method is applied and so the method is called FEM23. In the analysis the number of the layers, their thickness and the orientation of the orthotropic layers may be arbitrary. For each layer, the numerical model is firstly prepared. Subsequently, these all single layer models are assembled to the one global model. In such an approach each layer can have different properties, especially various orthotropic orientation. The numerical model is helpful in analysis of modern multilayer structures that consist of thick and very thin layers. Although, the layers are 3D modeled, their orthotropic properties are only in-plane 2D. The layers are described using orthotropic Hooke’s tensor defined in the coordinate system associated with the orthotropic directions. The transformation to the global coordinate system is required to construct the single global numerical model. In the tailored post-processing for each layer, the stresses in their local coordinates can be easily retrieved. The correctness and robustness of the presented method has been confirmed comparing to other results known in literature as well as those obtained in Abaqus system. In this paper various examples are presented in which some configurations of the orthotropic multi-layered plates are modelled with FEM23. The full 3D results can be presented for each of the layers.]]>
<![CDATA[Heat transfer optimization of end winding rotor generator by the use of modified axial spacer: a case study]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 09:32:41 +0200 Baskoro, Y.; Jaya, I.; Glowacz, A.; Sułowicz, M.; Caesarendra, W.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper presents a case study of a rotor fault occurring in the rotor generator of a steam power plant located in Lontar, Banten Province, Indonesia. The steam power plant has 3 x 315 MV capacity and uses hydrogen in the cooling system. The issue arising during the operation was caused by heat transfer exceeding the normal level. The grounding of the rotor occurred through rising vibration and temperature, tripping the generator unit. During repairs, the axial spacer was replaced with a new model, where it is longer than the original, adding a bar spacer at a previously unavailable position and creating a cooling track profile. This is a case study on the replacement of the axial spacer model aimed at preventing the expansion of the winding, so as not to touch with each other, through the installation of a longer axial spacer and the addition of the spacer bar, and lastly adding the track profile to the cooling hydrogen gas flow thereby maximizing the cooling process from the end winding rotor generator. Heat transfer is an analysed parameter related to the model change of the axial spacer. The addition of a track cooling gas flow has been able to maximize the heat transfer process, which is simulated in this paper. The performance of the rotor generator increased through several parameters after the replacement of the axial spacer model.]]>
<![CDATA[Choosing a servicing company’s strategy while interacting with freight owners at the road transport market]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 09:12:33 +0200 Nugymanova, G.; Nurgaliyeva, M.; Zhanbirov, Zh.; Naumov, V.; Taran, I.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Purpose. To develop the methodology for choosing the strategies of freight forwarding companies in the situation of interaction with freight owners as customers of forwarding services. Methodology. The game-theoretical approach is used to formalize the conflict situation between a freight forwarding company and a cargo owner. A set of services proposed by forwarders is used as the base to represent possible strategies of a forwarder as the vector of probabilities that the respective services are provided for a client. The strategies of the cargo owner are represented as a binary variable that shows whether the client uses the provided services or not. The payoff function for a forwarder is defined as the company's profit and the clients' payoff function - as the fee paid for forwarding services. To determine the influence of the demand parameters on the forwarders' optimal strategies, the demand for transport services is represented as a flow of requests characterized by two numeric parameters delivery distance and consignment weight. Findings. The conducted experimental studies have shown that as a result of the use of the proposed methodology, the optimal strategy of a forwarding company can always be determined from the payoff matrix. The performed simulation experiment allowed us to state that in most cases the forwarders' optimal strategy is mixed (the technological and commercial services should be provided with the given probability while servicing the flow of requests from freight owners). Originality. The studies on the influence of the request flow parameters on the probabilities of choosing the elementary strategies are carried in the paper for the first time. Practical value. The proposed methodology can be used as the basic tool for supporting decisions of freight forwarders while servicing the cargo owners at the market of road freight transportation.]]>
<![CDATA[Stress redistribution mechanism in concrete elements with polymer flexible joint: experimental results ]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 08:43:08 +0200 Zdanowicz, Łukasz; Tekieli, Marcin; Kwiecień, Arkadiusz
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: This paper describes the application of a Polymer Flexible Joint (PFJ) as a method of repairing concrete members. Prismatic specimens were concreted and tested in four-point bending up to failure to simulate damage. After failure they were repaired with PFJ with PT-type polymer and tested in flexure again. The aim of the research was to assess the repair effectiveness regarding load bearing capacity and strain capacity before and after repair and to show the stress redistribution phenomenon. Furthermore, during the tests two methods of measurements were applied – conventional measurements with extensometers and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method. Results of load – crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) and load – displacement obtained from both methods were compared and their compliance is presented. Moreover, it is shown that the DIC method is capable of presenting the developing crack pattern even before the maximum force is achieved. Failure mode can be thus better described and understood. Finally, the repair effectiveness was calculated as 87% in terms of load-bearing capacity and 278% in terms of strain capacity. The phenomenon of stress redistribution in concrete was explained and described.]]>
<![CDATA[Time-to-failure forecast for corroded shell of above-ground steel tank used to store liquid fuels]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 15:07:55 +0200 Maslak, M.; Pazdanowski, M.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: An original simplified procedure to estimate the remaining service time of corroded shell of an on-the-ground steel tank used to store liquid fuels is presented in this paper. Current corrosion progress trend, identified a’posteriori based on the obligatory technical condition monitoring, is extrapolated to the future tank service time under the assumption that the conditions of service would not change and no renovation or modernization works would be undertaken. Failure probability understood as exhaustion of the capability to safely resist the loads applied due to the corrosion progress constitutes the measure of the sought uptime. For comparative purposes several effective inference methods have been proposed for the same input data, based on formally qualitatively different but corresponding description measures. It has been shown, that in the analysis of this type the representative values, usually expressed as quantiles of probability distributions describing random variables in use, need not be specified to verify the safety condition. The proposed algorithm is based on fully probabilistic considerations, and those, according to Authors’ opinion, by their nature lead to more reliable, and at the same time, objective estimates. ]]>
<![CDATA[Obszary współpracy między uczelnią, biznesem a samorządem w zakresie przekształceń przestrzeni zurbanizowanej]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 15:04:16 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja i opis wzajemnych powiązań i obszarów współpracy między uczelnią, biznesem a samorządem. Ich współdziałanie jest warunkiem powodzenia podjętych zadań. Efektywność współpracy uczelni, biznesu i samorządu w zmieniających się warunkach ekonomicznych i społecznych wpływa bowiem na jakość uzyskanych rezultatów. Każdy z podmiotów formułuje strategie i cele działania, uwzględniając współdziałanie z partnerami. Kolejnym celem artykułu jest sformułowanie przesłanek do modelu współpracy, który uwzględniając różnice misji i zadań uczelni, biznesu oraz samorządu, wzmacniałby i przyspieszał działania na rzecz przekształceń przestrzeni zurbanizowanej. Włączenie społeczności lokalnych w opisane działania byłoby ważnym elementem realizacji celów zrównoważonego rozwoju. Istnieje bogata praktyka inicjowania i realizacji projektów na rzecz przestrzeni zurbanizowanej w różnej skali przy udziale trójkąta: uczelnia, biznes, samorząd. W artykule zaprezentowany zostanie case-study: Projekt placu Długosza w Raciborzu.]]>
<![CDATA[Thermal modernization cost and the potential ecological effect–scenario analysis for thermal modernization in Southern Poland]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 14:57:57 +0200 Blazy, Rafał; Błachut, Jakub; Ciepiela, Agnieszka; Łabuz, Rita; Papież, Renata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Air pollution is one of the important environmental problems in Poland. The main cause of its occurrence is emissions associated with individual heating of buildings. The reduction of the primary energy demand in a building is influenced by its proper thermal modernization, including in particular insulating. In view of the above, this article presents the results of studies on the possible environmental benefits of thermal modernization of single-family houses for the area of Southern Poland. The analysis was limited to determining the impact of measures to reduce air pollution emissions by insulating the building envelope of single-family houses. The research was conducted for two voivodeships: Śląskie and Małopolskie. Its aim is to identify the financial costs and achievable ecological effects of the thermal modernization of single-family buildings. The geographical selection of the research area was based on the fact that it covers the most polluted region in Poland. This region is characterized by many features that influence poor air quality. Among these features, the most important are: diversified building structure, a diverse topography, and very high population density. To limit multiple variables, we have selected a scenario method that has already been used in similar research. Four scenarios were established to show the relationship between the value of emission reductions and the level of funding for thermal modernization. The analysis allows a comparison of the effectiveness of individual variants and the transposition of their results into the possibilities of action in the region. This research will help to supplement the knowledge of the impact of insulating building envelopes on reducing pollutant emissions by reducing the energy demand of a building. They also identify a possible link between the level of this reduction and the grant amount for thermal modernization. As a result, it was found that a high share of external funding—stimulating the tendency of the inhabitants of the analyzed voivodeships to effective thermal modernization, and thus reducing the buildings’ energy consumption—has a significant impact on the improvement of air quality. ]]>
<![CDATA[Profit optimization for multi-mode repetitive construction project with cash flows using metaheuristics]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 14:54:04 +0200 Sroka, Bartłomiej; Rosłon, Jerzy ; Podolski, Michał; Bożejko, Wojciech; Burduk, Anna; Wodecki, Mieczysław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The article presents the profit optimization model for multi-unit construction projects. Such projects constitute a special case of repetitive projects and are common in residential, commercial, and industrial construction projects. Due to the specific character of construction works, schedules of such projects should take into account many different aspects, including durations and costs of construction works, the possibility of selecting alternative execution modes, and specific restrictions (e.g., deadlines for the completion of units imposed by the investor). To solve the NP-hard problem of choosing the order of units’ construction and the best variants of works, the authors used metaheuristic algorithms (simulated annealing and genetic search). The objective function in the presented optimization model was the total profit of the contractor determined on the basis of the mathematical programming model. This model takes into account monthly cash flows subject to direct and indirect costs, penalties for missing deadlines, costs of work group discontinuities, and borrowing losses. The presented problem is very important for maintaining a good financial condition of the enterprise carrying out construction projects. In the article, an experimental analysis of the proposed method of solving the optimization task was carried out in a model that showed high efficiency in obtaining suboptimal solutions. In addition, the operation of the proposed model has been presented on a calculation example. The results obtained in it are fully satisfying.]]>
<![CDATA[Automatyczne systemy zliczania pasażerów w miejskim transporcie zbiorowym]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 14:47:52 +0200 Aleksandrowicz, Jan; Starowicz, Wiesław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Artykuł poświęcony jest tematyce automatycznych systemów zliczania pasażerów. Przedstawiono w nim typy wykorzystywanych technologii w procesie detekcji pasażerów pojazdów miejskiego transportu publicznego wsiadających i wysiadających na przystankach. Zaprezentowano zastosowanie dla danych zbieranych w sposób automatyczny. W artykule opisano doświadczenia Miejskiego Przedsiębiorstwa Komunikacyjnego SA w Krakowie w procesie testowania i wdrażania automatycznych systemów zliczania pasażerów. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań w artykule zaproponowano metodykę przeprowadzania pomiarów w pojazdach mających na celu weryfikację pracy systemu. Dodatkowo przedstawiono istotne elementy analizy zebranych danych. Artykuł zakończono planem dalszych badań w zakresie automatycznych systemów zliczania pasażerów oraz podsumowaniem rezultatów dotychczasowych prac.]]>
<![CDATA[Fluorescent Probe Technology (FPT), jako nieinwazyjna metoda badań jakości tworzyw polimerowych]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 14:14:53 +0200 Gruchała, Alicja; Hola, Emilia; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: W ramach realizowanych prac badawczych zbadano zastosowanie pochodnych terfenylowych do roli sond fluorescencyjnych stosowanych w spektroskopii fluorescencyjnej. Przydatność sond do monitorowania kinetyki fotopolimeryzacji metodą FPT sprawdzono zarówno dla fotopolimeryzacji kationowej, jak i rodnikowej. Spektroskopia fluorescencyjna jest innowacyjną metodą kontroli jakości gotowych powłok polimerowych oraz kinetyki reakcji w czasie rzeczywistym, np. podczas produkcji – czym przewyższa większość technik stosowanych w tym celu. Posiada wiele zalet – otrzymujemy precyzyjne wyniki, pomiar jest szybki, jest to metoda wszechstronna. Możemy prowadzić pomiary, zarówno w przypadku fotopolimeryzacji kationowej, rodnikowej, a także typu tiol-en. Jednak nie ma uniwersalnych sond, ponieważ ich działanie opiera się na zmianie widma emisji w wyniku zmian mikrośrodowiska, w jakim się znajdują.1 W przypadku fotopolimeryzacji obserwujemy zmiany mikropolarności oraz lepkości, które wpływają na intensywność fluorescencji sondy molekularnej oraz na położenie widma fluorescencyjnego. Na tej podstawie możemy wyznaczyć parametry będące wyznacznikami procesu polimeryzacji. Metoda ta jest niedestruktywna, co znaczy, że sonda nie reaguje z badaną kompozycją, nie pobieramy próbek. Z tego powodu spektroskopię fluorescencyjną można uznać za metodę nieinwazyjną. Nie generuje ona odpadów, nie są stosowane szkodliwe substancje oraz rozpuszczalniki. FPT jest metodą przyjazną środowisku. Technika ta może z powodzeniem zostać zastosowana w medycynie, elektronice, dentystyce, przemyśle motoryzacyjnym i wielu innych, gdzie obserwujemy wzrost zainteresowania procesami fotopolimeryzacji.]]>
<![CDATA[Model of errors of touch-trigger probe installed on the industrial robot]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 13:55:30 +0200 Ostrowska, K.; Krawczyk, M.; Kupiec, R.; Gromczak, K.; Sładek, J.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper presents the redundant coordinate system consisting of Kawasaki RS010N Industrial Robot (IR) equipped with Heidenhein touch-trigger probe. The probe was mounted on the IR instead of a gripper and it was connected to a controller. This probe generates a binary signal at the moment of contact with a measuring surface. When the probe gives the signal the controller calculates coordinates of a measuring point thanks to encoders mounted in rotary axis. The signal also affects drivers and machine control. In addition, a special program in AS language was written. The program allows for coordinate measurements using this system. As part of the research an attempt to define a mathematical errors model of acquisition points system was made. For this purpose the model first developed by prof. Jerzy Sładek was used. The errors model of the touch trigger probe describes a relationship between an approach vector and a deviation for each measuring point, taking into account the approach from different directions. For this purpose, tests were performed using material standards of size to identify this function, both as measured internally and externally. An attempt was made to model this function using approximation methods based on the artificial neural networks.]]>
<![CDATA[Sucha zabudowa wnętrz - teoria i praktyka]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 12:53:45 +0200 Kram, Dorota
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
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<![CDATA[Effects of material constructions on supersonic flutter characteristics for composite rectangular plates reinforced with carbon nano-structures]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 10:44:49 +0200 Muc, Aleksander; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this paper effects of material constructions on natural frequencies and critical aerodynamic pressures are investigated. It is assumed that the rectangular plate is made of a polymeric matrix reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets or carbon nanotubes. A general closed analytical method of solution is presented. It is demonstrated that three parameters define entirely the location of the critical flutter pressure. The influence of material properties and transverse shear effects is characterized by a set of multipliers. They can be easily adopted in design procedures.]]>
<![CDATA[Procedure proposal for establishing the class of dynamic accuracy for measurement sensors using simulation signals with one constraint]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 10:39:39 +0200 Tomczyk, Krzysztof
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This study proposes a procedure to establishing the class of dynamic accuracy (CDA) for measurement sensors using simulation signals with one constraint. The parameters of the mathematical model of the sensor, along with the associated uncertainties and the algorithm dedicated to determining the upper bound of dynamic error (UBDE), are the basis of this procedure. The influence of the uncertainties on the UBDE values is also analysed. The approach that we have developed here is a new proposal to evaluate the dynamic error of sensors that are intended for measuring dynamic quantities. This approach can be used to compare the accuracy of the same type of sensors but which are produced by competing companies in the same manner as for the accuracy class defined for instruments intended for static measurements. The implementation of these methods is presented on the example of a sensor to measure acceleration. All of the numerical calculations were performed using the MathCad15 program.]]>
<![CDATA[Eccentricity in induction machines – a useful tool for assessing its level]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 10:21:45 +0200 Petryna, Janusz; Duda, Arkadiusz; Sułowicz, Maciej
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In the condition monitoring of induction machines operating in various industry sectors, the assessment of eccentricity is as important as the assessment of the condition of windings, bearings, mechanical vibrations, or noise. The reasons for the eccentricity can be various for example, rotor imbalance, damage or wear of the bearings, improper alignment of the rotor and the load machine, and finally, assembly errors after overhaul. Disregard of this phenomenon during routine tests may result in the development of vibrations transmitted to the stator windings, faster wear of the bearings, and even, in extreme cases, rubbing of the rotor against the stator surface and damage to the windings and local overheating of the machine core. On the basis of years of experience in the diagnosis of large induction machines operating in various industries, the article deals with the problem of developing reliable indicators for assessing the levels of commonly accepted types of eccentricity. Starting from field calculations and analyzing various cases of eccentricity, the methodology for determining the indicators for evaluation from the stator current spectrum is shown. The changes in the values of these indices for various cases of simultaneous occurrence of static and dynamic eccentricity are shown. The calculation results were verified in the laboratory. Also shown are three interesting cases from diagnostic practice in the evaluation of high-power machines in the industry. It has been shown that the proposed indicators are useful and enable an accurate diagnosis of levels of eccentricity.]]>
<![CDATA[Analiza jakości transportu zbiorowego realizowanego przez prywatnych przewoźników na trasie Alwernia–Kraków]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 10:04:34 +0200 Kołodziej, Gabriela; Starowicz, Wiesław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań punktualności kursowania przewoźników oraz preferencji i zadowolenia mieszkańców Gminy Alwernia w zakresie prywatnego transportu zbiorowego pomiędzy Alwernią a miastem Kraków. Przewozy te charakteryzują się niską punktualnością oraz niskim kosztem przejazdu. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników sporządzono ranking ważności cech jakości dla pasażerów, określono lukę jakościową oraz wskazano przykładowe rozwiązania służące podniesieniu poziomu jakości.]]>
<![CDATA[Badania sondażowe na temat przystosowania transportu zbiorowego do potrzeb osób niewidomych i słabowidzących w Krakowie]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 09:59:54 +0200 Pierzchała, Jarosław; Starowicz, Wiesław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Artykuł ma na celu przedstawienie problemów, sytuacji oraz niedogodności, z którymi najczęściej stykają się podczas podróży środkami miejskiego transportu zbiorowego w Krakowie osoby niewidome i słabowidzące. Podstawą do identyfikowania problemów i ocen były badania sondażowe przeprowadzone wśród osób niewidomych i słabowidzących. Badano problemy w zlokalizowaniu przystanku, najlepsze źródła informacji o rozkładzie jazdy i nadjeżdżającym pojeździe, problemy podczas wsiadania do pojazdu, podczas podróży i wysiadania oraz oceny skrajne niezadowolenia i zadowolenia z miejskiego transportu zbiorowego. Według ankietowanych transport zbiorowy w Krakowie staje się powoli coraz bardziej im przyjazny. Ogólna jego ocena w skali 1 -10 wynosi 6.]]>
<![CDATA[Analiza obrazu. Jak to działa?]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 09:55:30 +0200 Wojnar, Leszek
rodzaj: książka
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<![CDATA[Dobre praktyki w miejskim transporcie zbiorowym w Krakowie ułatwiające podróżowanie osobom o ograniczonej mobilności]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 09:55:16 +0200 Dyrkacz, Grzegorz; Starowicz, Wiesław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Ciągły rozwój miast determinuje konieczność wprowadzania cyklicznych zmian w funkcjonowaniu transportu zbiorowego. W artykule opisane są dobre praktyki jakie stosuje Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne SA w Krakowie w celu ciągłego podnoszenia jakości świadczonych przez siebie usług. Priorytetowo traktuje bezpieczeństwo w podróży oraz ciągłe podnoszenie komfortu pasażerów w ich codziennych przejazdach transportem zbiorowym w Krakowie, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem osób o ograniczonej mobilności ruchowej. Artykuł omawia szereg działań na różnych płaszczyznach począwszy od przystanków i infrastruktury towarzyszącej przez eksploatowany tabor, szkolenia pracowników, które sprawiają, że korzystanie z transportu zbiorowego w Krakowie jest coraz łatwiejsze i bardziej komfortowe. Aby nadążyć nad zmieniającymi się oczekiwaniami pasażerów oraz nowymi technologiami dostępnymi w dzisiejszym świecie, niezbędne jest kontynuowanie wdrażania innowacji, które sprawiać będą, że transport zbiorowy będzie się stawał coraz atrakcyjniejszy w stosunku do transportu indywidualnego, a nie będzie mało dostępny dla osób o ograniczonej mobilności.]]>
<![CDATA[Koncepcja systemu oceniającego styl jazdy kierowcy w transporcie drogowym ładunków]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 09:49:34 +0200 Smoleń, Piotr; Starowicz, Wiesław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono koncepcję systemu oceny stylu jazdy kierowcy w oparciu o dane telematyczne, rejestrowane przez terminal GPS zainstalowany w pojeździe. Koncepcja obejmuje zespół wskaźników oceny, metod ich pomiaru oraz algorytm oceniający styl jazdy kierowcy prowadzącego pojazd, służący do drogowego przewozu towarów według zasad techniki prowadzenia pojazdu ecodriving (ang.: jazda oszczędna). Koncepcja systemu zakłada, że kierowca będzie oceniany według zaproponowanych parametrów, a jego końcowa ocena zostanie sprowadzona do mierzalnej i porównywalnej wartości liczbowej, dzięki której może być porównywany z innymi kierowcami oraz z wynikami archiwalnymi konkretnego kierowcy. Symulacja działania algorytmu została przeprowadzona na rzeczywistych danych telematycznych udostępnionych przez jedną z małopolskich firm przewozowych na przykładzie 11 kierowców.]]>
<![CDATA[Public transport accessibility to upper secondary schools measured by the potential quotient : the case of Kraków]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 09:24:57 +0200 Rosik, Piotr; Puławska-Obiedowska, Sabina; Goliszek, Sławomir
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The spatial differences in public transport accessibility to upper secondary schools are examined in this article, using the potential accessibility model, and based on the example of the city of Kraków. In order to achieve this goal, the potential quotient index has been used, taking into account both the demand for educational services operationalised with the population aged 15–19, and the supply of services depicted by the supply of places for pupils in different types of upper secondary school. A supplementary objective is to present recommendations for transport and educational policy implemented in the city in the context of potential locations of new upper secondary schools based on, among other parameters, the mean centre of the potential accessibility distribution and the potential accessibility dispersion index. We conclude that to better balance access to different types of schools throughout the city in the future, a new location for a general upper secondary school could be considered in the southern or eastern parts of Kraków.]]>
<![CDATA[Kondycjonowanie osadów ściekowych osadami z uzdatniania wody]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 13:08:46 +0200 Górka, Justyna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Badano możliwości wykorzystania osadów z uzdatniania wody w procesie przeróbki osadów ściekowych. W skali laboratoryjnej prze­prowadzono badania nad wpływem osadów zawierających koagulant glinowy na proces odwadniania osadów ściekowych. Sprawdzono wpływ dawek osadów z uzdatniania wody wymieszanych sposobem objętościowym oraz względem zawartości suchej masy organicznej. Stwierdzono zwiększenie skuteczności odwadniania przy zastosowaniu objętościowego sposobu mieszania. Nieznaczny wpływ osadów z uzdatniania wody na właściwości filtracyjne osadów ściekowych zaobserwowano dla próbek zmieszanych w zależności od zawartości suchej masy organicznej. Im większy był udział osadów z uzdatniania wody w mieszaninie osadów ściekowych, tym parametry odwadnialności były korzystniejsze.]]>
<![CDATA[Silicon as a component of ferric oxide scale covering ductile iron pipes after annealing]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 13:04:08 +0200 Wassilkowska, Anna; Dąbrowski, Wojciech
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: All ductile iron pipe producers use the annealing process to improve the metal structure. It lasts several hours in a hot air atmosphere, when the surface of pipes is covered by ferric oxide scale, consisting usually of two significantly different layers, being the subject of the research reported here. In the U.S.A., commercially produced pipes are not protected by zinc coatings, because it is believed that ferric oxides are not a solid undercoat for such coatings, while the EN 545:2010 standard used in Europe requires the use of zinc or zinc-aluminum coatings, depending on soil corrosivity. To evaluate which approach has more potential, it is necessary first of all to recognize the structure of ferric oxides after the annealing process and then to understand their role as a base for zinc coatings. The microstructure of oxide scales grown on the external surface of industrial ductile iron pipes was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. In the ductile iron matrix, the concentration of silicon is reported to be much lower than in the layer of oxide scale growing directly on the pipe surface. In several samples, some cracks between the oxide layers were not successfully avoided in spite of using a professional saw with a continuous cooling process. Each time the cracks were horizontal and occurred along two boundaries: between the ductile iron matrix and the first oxide layer or between the two oxide layers rich in silicon and essentially silicon free. ]]>
<![CDATA[Multi-objective Pareto optimization of parallel synthesis of embedded computer systems]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:58:21 +0200 Drabowski, Mieczysław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper presents problems of optimization of the synthesis of embedded systems, in particular Pareto optimization. The model of such a system for its design for high-level of abstract is based on the classic approach known from the theory of task scheduling, but it is significantly extended, among others, by the characteristics of tasks and resources as well as additional criteria of optimal system in scope structure and operation. The metaheuristic algorithm operating according to this model introduces a new approach to system synthesis, in which parallelism of task scheduling and resources partition is applied. An algorithm based on a genetic approach with simulated annealing and Boltzmann tournaments, avoids local minima and generates optimized solutions. Such a synthesis is based on the implementation of task scheduling, resources identification and partition, allocation of tasks and resources and ultimately on the optimization of the designed system in accordance with the optimization criteria regarding cost of implementation, execution speed of processes and energy consumption by the system during operation. This paper presents examples and results for multicriteria optimization, based on calculations for specifying nondominated solutions and indicating a subset of Pareto solutions in the space of all solutions.]]>
<![CDATA[Research and modification of the universal method of scheduling and operational planning of objects with a network representation of discrete type production]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:54:15 +0200 Telenyk, Sergii; Pavlov, Alexander; Misura, Elena; Lisetsky, Taras; Khalus, Elena; Melnikov, Oleg
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: We study the efficiency of the universal method of scheduling and operational planning for objects with a network representation of discrete production processes (UMSOP) by means of statistical modeling. We claim the efficiency of the method in general and of using PSC-algorithms to solve NP-hard single-stage scheduling problems used in UMSOP. We present a modification of UMSOP, which consists in a proposition to use a new efficient approximation algorithm as a part of the operational planning model. The algorithm is created for the single-stage scheduling problem that allows to solve the operational plan adjusting problems more efficiently, comparing to the single-stage scheduling problem used in UMSOP. We show that the obtained solution is conditionally optimal and give a lower bound to the optimal value of this new problem’s functional.]]>
<![CDATA[Ergonomic design improves cross-cultural road sign comprehension]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:51:20 +0200 Ben-Bassat, T.; Shinar, D.; Caird, J. K.; Dewar, R. E.; Lehtonen, E.; Sinclair, M.; Zakowska, L.; Simmons, S.; Liberman, G.; Pronin, M.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Background: Traffic sign design can have a substantial impact on road safety and traffic flow.The current study had three objectives: 1) Cross-validate the importance of ergonomic signdesign; 2) Evaluate the ability of ergonomics experts to predict sign comprehension by theaverage driver; 3) Offer improved sign designs for poorly designed road signs. In a previousstudy (Ben Bassat et al., 2019), human factors and ergonomics experts evaluated severalalternative designs for 31 different road signs, based on three ergonomics criteria – familiar-ity, standardization, and message/symbol compatibility. Some of these signs were tested inthe current study and the correlation between the results of the two studies was analyzed. Method: In this study, 805 licensed drivers from five countries were tested on their compre-hension of 24 conventional signs and 32 alternative signs. Signs were individually presentedon a screen and as soon as the participant decided on the meaning, the sign disappeared, andan experimenter wrote the stated meaning. The verbal responses were coded as correct (per-fectly or partially), wrong, or opposite of the true meaning. Sign identification response timewas also recorded. Results: In all countries across all signs, more drivers comprehended the alternativeergonomically superior signs, and the identification response times were shorter for thesesign designs. Furthermore, the correlation between ergonomics experts’ ratings as found in previous study and the percent of comprehension for each sign design was statistically significant and positive with r = 0.61. Conclusions: Road signs should be designed according to ergonomics-based criteria. Humanfactors experts’ opinions can be a useful tool in improving the design of poorly compre-hended signs (or icons) and in designing new signs (or icons).]]>
<![CDATA[Non-contact video-based remote photoplethysmography for human stress detection]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:49:53 +0200 Nikolaiev, Sergii; Telenyk, Sergii; Tymoshenko, Yury
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper presents the experimental results for stress index calculation using developed by the authors information technology for non-contact remote human heart rate variability (HRV) retrieval in various conditions from video stream using common wide spread web cameras with minimal frame resolution of 640x480 pixels at average frame rate of 25 frames per second. The developed system architecture based on remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) technology is overviewed including description of all its main components and processes involved in converting video stream of frames into valuable rPPG signal. Also, algorithm of RR-peaks detection and RR-intervals retrieval is described. It is capable to detect 99.3% of heart contractions from raw rPPG signal. The usecases of measuring stress index in a wide variety of situations starting with car and tractor drivers at work research and finishing with students passing exams are presented and analyzed in detail. The results of the experiments have shown that the rPPG system is capable of retrieving stress level that is in accordance with the feelings of experiments’ participants.]]>
<![CDATA[Hardware implementation of radial-basis neural networks with Gaussian activation functions on FPGA]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:45:01 +0200 Shymkovych, Volodymyr; Telenyk, Sergii; Kravets, Petro
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This article introduces a method for realizing the Gaussian activation function of radial-basis (RBF) neural networks with their hardware implementation on field-programmable gaits area (FPGAs). The results of modeling of the Gaussian function on FPGA chips of different families have been presented. RBF neural networks of various topologies have been synthesized and investigated. The hardware component implemented by this algorithm is an RBF neural network with four neurons of the latent layer and one neuron with a sigmoid activation function on an FPGA using 16-bit numbers with a fixed point, which took 1193 logic matrix gate (LUTs—LookUpTable). Each hidden layer neuron of the RBF network is designed on an FPGA as a separate computing unit. The speed as a total delay of the combination scheme of the block RBF network was 101.579 ns. The implementation of the Gaussian activation functions of the hidden layer of the RBF network occupies 106 LUTs, and the speed of the Gaussian activation functions is 29.33 ns. The absolute error is ± 0.005. The Spartan 3 family of chips for modeling has been used to get these results. Modeling on chips of other series has been also introduced in the article. RBF neural networks of various topologies have been synthesized and investigated. Hardware implementation of RBF neural networks with such speed allows them to be used in real-time control systems for highspeed objects.]]>
<![CDATA[Metaetyka systemów społecznych : teorioetyczne aspekty koncepcji Niklasa Luhmanna]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:02:16 +0200 Jaśtal, Jacek
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Jedna z koncepcji historycznego rozwoju etyki stwierdza, że „teorie moralne nie mogą być oceniane w sposób zrozumiały inaczej niż w kategoriach sukcesu lub porażki w rozwiązywaniu problemów historycznie uwarunkowanych” (T. Irwin). Celem artykułu jest próba odpowiedzenia na pytanie, czy teoria systemów N. Luhmanna może być wykorzystana do wyjaśnienia historycznej zmienności teorii etycznych i spełnić rolę swojego rodzaju metaetyki. Wymaga to zbadania, czy teoria ta pozwala wyjaśnić funkcję moralności, jej społeczną, kulturową i historyczną zmienność oraz rolę teorii etycznych. Wydaje się, że teoria L. Luhmanna przechodzi ten test w sposób co najmniej zadawalający, choć za cenę odrzucenia wielu założeń przyjmowanych w etyce tradycyjnej. ]]>
<![CDATA[The risk of lightning losses in a structure equipped with RTC devices according to the standard EN 62305-2.2008]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 11:45:43 +0200 Wróbel, Zofia; Jagiełło, Adam St.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Incorrect adjustment of railway traffic control devices (rtc) to the specificity of the area in terms of lightning density may result in their damage by lightning-caused electromagnetic pulses. An associated risk assessment, as the standard in the analyses of the strength of rtc devices, should be made. However, manufacturers of rtc devices typically do not perform tests with respect to such high overvoltage conditions. Particularly in the case of the EN 62305-2 standard, the manufacturers of new rail traffic control devices usually do not carry out such analyses. In this paper, an analysis of the damage vulnerability of rtc devices caused by lightning discharges for a selected structure, including a signal box equipped with digital rtc devices is presented. The necessity of conducting a lightning damage vulnerability analysis for rtc devices is demonstrated. A part of the railway track where lightning discharges occur was analyzed. The results of the risk analysis obtained with the use of the DEHN Risk Tool software and based on the standard EN 62305-2 (2008, Lightning protection. Part 2. Risk management) are presented. Due to the fact that railway devices are not included in the current standard, three documents were adopted for the analysis: two editions of EN/IEC 62305-2 (from 2008 and 2012) and the recommendations of the ITU-International Telecommunication Union ITU-T K.39 (10/1996). The presented analysis is performed according to the 2008 standard version and to the chosen device.]]>
<![CDATA[Muszyna Zdrój – 10 years of spatial changes in the town and in the spa]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 11:38:29 +0200 Wójcikowski, Wojciech Karol
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The aim of the article is to present activities in Muszyna Zdrój, located in the region of southern Poland spa resorts. In Poland there are 45 spa resorts (mostly small towns and villages) half of them were developed in the southern part of Poland and many of them are interesting examples of the transformations of the urban public space in the spa resorts. Almost all those settlements are locate in the outstanding natural environment including landscapes, climate and above all in the water, confirm a number of studies and a long tradition of conducting treatment advances in medicinal uses of many diseases. After a period of stagnation caused by ownership transformations in health resorts associated with the privatization and the reprivatisation of property nationalized after the Second World War. As well as long-term negligence in the period of system change in Poland after 1989. The activities carried out during last 10 years in Muszyna Zdrój like in the other health resorts located in the south of Poland focused to improve the quality of public spaces in these towns. Muszyna Zdrój is one of the most effective in attracting financial resources from European funds for all designed activities example. Muszyna Zdrój is a small historical town with developed in the beginning of XX century spa resort. The main advantages of the spa were climate, values of the landscape and sources of mineral waters. The spa resort is separate by the River Poprad from the town and develop separately. After few years of dynamic spatial changes in Muszyna Zdrój, the town and the spa resort become revitalized. Now Muszyna Zdrój is one of the good example of recent spatial changes in the health resorts of the whole of southern Poland spas. The main revitalization activities in the health resort consisted in creating a modern place for outside events, walking areas, place when everyone can drink the mineral water from the source and rest in different and attractive parks or spend time in outside mineral pools. New paths along the Poprad River and parks, designed and implemented in the spa part of the resort serves both residents, visitors and numerous tourists visiting the town and the spa. Activities undertaken in Muszyna Zdrój serve not only to improve the attractiveness of the town by improving the quality of public spaces for the comfort of visitors and tourists, but also for the sake of residents as well as natural resources of mineral resources thanks to which the spa towns have been functioning for centuries.]]>
<![CDATA[Studium parametryczne wytrzymałości na docisk w konstrukcjach z betonu]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 11:33:42 +0200 Seruga, Andrzej; Sokal, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Przedstawiono studium parametryczne wpływu wytrzymałości na ściskanie betonu, wpływu stosunku pola przekroju próbki do pola powierzchni docisku oraz stopnia zbrojenia spiralą na wytrzymałość betonu na docisk. Podano alternatywne wzory do obliczania wytrzymałości na docisk betonu elementów zbrojonych spiralami.]]>
<![CDATA[Zastosowanie splotów dużej nośności w prefabrykowanych elementach strunobetonowych]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 11:27:08 +0200 Seruga, Andrzej; Midro, Marcin
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Pierwszy most z betonu sprężonego splotami dużej nośności (7Φ6 mm) zbudowano w USA w roku 2009. Na podstawie analizy literatury i zrealizowanych konstrukcji przedstawiono korzyści zastosowania tego rodzaju splotów. Zaprezentowano również wyniki badań doświadczalnych przeprowadzonych w USA. Na podstawie tych wyników określono wymaganą minimalną wytrzymałość betonu na ściskanie w chwili zwolnienia naciągu, warunkującą uzyskanie odpowiedniej przyczepności betonu i długości transmisji.]]>
<![CDATA[Bridge Dynamics]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 10:05:05 +0200 rodzaj: redakcja numeru czasopisma
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<![CDATA[Contemporary housing environment of Poland : dwelling attributes assessment]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:37:44 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This study examines housing conditions in Poland. Housing is an important part of the quality of life in the contemporary society. Dwellings satisfy not only personal needs but are also security, shelter and social status. The issues concerned with housing needs and preferences are multidisciplinary. They attract researchers from many disciplines, namely - economics, sociology, psychology, urban planning and architecture (Stachura, 2009). This paper looks at the rapidly changing housing environment in Poland with respect to the current housing conditions and their implications for the future innovative consumption. An important aspect of studies into occupancy standards is how to determine architectural attributes of housing space relating to the size, proportions, functional layout and appropriate technological solutions. This subjective assessment will expand the existing knowledge of life styles, cultural conditions of occupants and psychographic relations of occupants and their perception of occupancy space.]]>
<![CDATA[Sustainable housing environment and its impact on consumption patterns]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:33:24 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This article main topic is to discuss key concepts, methods, applications and lessons learned in sustainable architecture, design and housing environment in last 20 years. Sustainable architecture and urban design challenges new and ingenious urban and architectural design at various levels. Examples are the following. – Minimising the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderating the use of materials, energy and development space. – Developing measures to relate form and adapt the design to the site, the region and the climate. – Establishing a harmonious, long lasting relationship between the inhabitants and their surroundings by addressing the essence of good form-giving. As indicated above sustainable housing environment (and architecture) shall be thus well built, easy to use and beautiful. Implementation of sustainability demands is strongly affecting inhabitants (consumers’) behaviour. This article highlights special aspects of sustainability in architecture, design and housing, due to their impact on contemporary consumption.]]>
<![CDATA[A study in Polish housing conditions : methodology and building typology characteristics]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:19:29 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The attributes of the housing environment constitute an important part of the quality of living. Flats and houses, as other products, fulfill the complex needs of users, starting with the provision of shelter and a sense of safety, to satisfaction associated with the social context of occupancy and the perception of its aesthetic values. The housing environment, more than other functional aspects of architecture, shapes the structure of modern cities, and its high quality standards are reflected in the urban potential that promotes economic growth. The new paradigm of sustainable consumption, which is becoming widely popular all over the world, affects housing needs and modifies the housing preferences in Poland. Changes should be monitored in reference to current housing needs in Poland, to have a better view on new trends, as present-day housing conditions affect consumers’ needs and preferences. Knowledge of the relations between the qualitative aspects of housing conditions and expectations should support architects, urban planners and local authorities in creating a functional and aesthetic housing environment endowed with the attributes attractive to occupants. The paper is focused on presenting certain aspects of the present-day housing conditions in Poland. Out of extensive research material resulting from empirical studies, issues that concern the types of settlements, occupancy period, form of ownership (flats or houses) and utilized space have been selected. The derived information enables the evaluation and interpretation of the quality of the housing environment and the occupants’ aspirations. ]]>
<![CDATA[On invariant subspaces in weighted Hardy spaces]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:15:27 +0200 Dil’nyi, V. M.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: We consider the description of translation invariant subspaces of a weighted Hardy space in the half plane. The obtained result includes the Beurling–Lax theorem for the Hardy space as a special case. We discuss the problem of generalization of the definition of inner function.]]>
<![CDATA[Architektura jako przedmiot konsumpcji]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:11:43 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
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<![CDATA[Kulturowe czynniki warunkujące architekturę mieszkaniową : przykład Polski i Turcji]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:01:15 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Zjawisko globalizacji sprawia, że unifikują się style życia ludzi należących do różnych kultur, żyjących w odmiennych warunkach klimatycznych i przyrodniczych. Potrzeby mieszkaniowe w różnych kręgach kulturowych ulegają współcześnie szybkim przekształceniom, nie tracą jednak specyfiki związanej z kulturową przynależnością. Różnice w postrzeganiu i odczuwaniu przestrzeni mieszkalnej w różnych częściach świata są traktowane najczęściej jako mało istotne wobec problemu głodu mieszkaniowego; są więc lekceważone (marginalizowane) w procesie projektowania i traktowane wyłącznie jako lokalny koloryt. W dobie globalizacji, na szybko urbanizujących się obszarach na całym świecie, upowszechnia się nowy „styl międzynarodowy”, nie uwzględniający specyfiki kulturowej w opisywanym znaczeniu. Artykuł prezentuje metodę badań porównawczych dotyczących potrzeb mieszkaniowych w różnych kręgach kulturowych. Badania potrzeb mieszkaniowych służą określeniu ich rdzenia, są również pomocne w sformułowaniu międzykulturowych wytycznych do projektowania architektury mieszkaniowej. Tezę ilustrują przykłady tureckich osiedli mieszkaniowych w mieście Konya i w Stambule.]]>
<![CDATA[Przestrzenne mierniki jakości zamieszkiwania w Polsce: wybór i ocena]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 08:46:43 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Badania rynku nieruchomości mieszkaniowych w Polsce dotyczą przede wszystkim kształtowania się cen nieruchomości mieszkaniowych w przekroju jakościowym oraz przestrzennym, dynamiki budowy nowych lokali mieszkalnych przez różne kategorie inwestorów i dynamiki sprzedaży mieszkań oraz domów wznoszonych przez deweloperów. Nieliczne tylko opracowania zwracają uwagę na wybrane aspekty satysfakcji z zamieszkiwania oraz oczekiwań w tym zakresie konsumentów – potencjalnych nabywców mieszkań. W artykule pokazano, w jaki sposób można sklasyfikować, a następnie zbadać cechy jakościowe, opisujące warunki środowiska mieszkaniowego. Uzyskane wyniki ukazują relacje między percepcją i oceną atrybutów obecnego mieszkania i jego otoczenia a oczekiwanymi cechami w planowanym lokum.]]>
<![CDATA[Modified fast inverse square root and square root approximation algorithms: the method of switching magic constants]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 08:33:09 +0200 Moroz, Leonid V.; Samotyy, Volodymyr V.; Horyachyy, Oleh Y.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Many low-cost platforms that support floating-point arithmetic, such as microcontrollers and field-programmable gate arrays, do not include fast hardware or software methods for calculating the square root and/or reciprocal square root. Typically, such functions are implemented using direct lookup tables or polynomial approximations, with a subsequent application of the Newton– Raphson method. Other, more complex solutions include high-radix digit-recurrence and bipartite or multipartite table-based methods. In contrast, this article proposes a simple modification of the fast inverse square root method that has high accuracy and relatively low latency. Algorithms are given in C/C++ for single- and double-precision numbers in the IEEE 754 format for both square root and reciprocal square root functions. These are based on the switching of magic constants in the initial approximation, depending on the input interval of the normalized floating-point numbers, in order to minimize the maximum relative error on each subinterval after the first iteration—giving 13 correct bits of the result. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithms provide a fairly good trade-off between accuracy and latency after two iterations for numbers of type float, and after three iterations for numbers of type double when using fused multiply–add instructions—giving almost complete accuracy. ]]>
<![CDATA[Smart composite rebars based on DFOS technology as nervous system of hybrid footbridge deck: a case study]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 14:23:24 +0200 Sieńko, Rafał; Bednarski, Łukasz; Howiacki, Tomasz
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The article presents smart arch footbridge in Nowy Sącz (Poland) with hybrid composite-concrete deck. Composite stay-in-place formwork reinforced only with composite rebars was continuously concreted over entire span length of 80 m. The structure was equipped with unique structural health monitoring system based on distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS) technology. Smart composite EpsilonRebars were used for this purpose providing comprehensive knowledge about strains profile over the entire length with spatial resolution starting from as fine as 5 mm. This rebars play a dual role in the structure: as a reinforcement they are included in load bearing capacity calculations and on the other hand they monitor strain state inside the concrete deck. Composite DFOS rebars integrated with the hybrid deck during construction stage allow for the analysis of its structural behaviour from the very beginning, including the thermal-shrinkage strains of early-age concrete or its deadweight. This approach in bridge engineering can be compared to the human nervous system able to detect threats in every point of the object.]]>
<![CDATA[Oczekiwania Polaków wobec przyszłego domu i mieszkania w kontekście wymogów projektowania zrównoważonego (w świetle badań)]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 14:21:11 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Architektura mieszkaniowa tworzy ramy dla zaspokojenia potrzeb mieszkaniowych, umożliwia odczuwanie satysfakcji estetycznej, może wyrażać wartości związane ze stylem życia, reprezentowane przez odbiorcę, manifestować jego prestiż i informować o pozycji społecznej. Spektakularne osiągnięcia współczesnej architektury sprawiły, że została ona „celebrytką”, przedmiotem medialnych doniesień dotyczących najnowszych architektonicznych realizacji i ich twórców: tym samym śledzenie rozwoju architektury stało się rodzajem hobby, któremu poświęcają się nie tylko profesjonaliści. Opisany splot uwarunkowań (wzmocniony dodatkowo przez kody kulturowe) sprawia, że aspiracje Polaków związane z zamieszkiwaniem są wysokie i stale rosną. Uwarunkowania ekonomiczne i prawne sprawiają jednak, że marzenia o „domu jutra” zostają urealnione i stają się preferencjami mieszkaniowymi, czyli konglomeratem potrzeb, wyobrażeń i możliwości nabywczych Polaków. Powstaje więc pytanie o obraz tychże preferencji, szczególnie w kontekście wymogów projektowania zrównoważonego. Znajomość oczekiwań wobec środowiska mieszkaniowego pozwala na wdrożenie działań edukacyjnych i przekonanie Polaków do architektury lepszej jakościowo. Celem artykułu jest prezentacja tych wyników ogólnopolskich badań mieszkańców miast, które dotyczą oczekiwań w zakresie prośrodowiskowych cech architektury mieszkaniowej.]]>
<![CDATA[New housing architecture in Poland after 1990 – attempt at classification]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 14:10:00 +0200 Stachura, Ewa J.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The scope of the paper is to present the results of studies on modern Polish housing architecture emerging after 1990: the classification, description and analysis of characteristic features of new houses and housing estates in their urban context. In the majority of cases new housing architecture is blended into the existing urban and social structures and, together, they provide a new quality of the housing environment. To describe and analyze Polish housing architecture examples representing the classified categories were selected out of abounding works of architecture, i.e. the houses and estates that are typical of a certain category and representing different concepts of space, unique in view of some urban and architectural solutions and novelty of form. Rapid changes that occurred in the Polish housing architecture in the last 20 years were supported by creative attitudes: openness to architectural trends worldwide, ability to implement new technological and material solutions. The conditions for effective use of knowledge and abilities of specialists involved in the construction process, especially architects, were created by new institutional and administrative solutions. However, liberal economy in the period of transition did not result in many council and communal housing ventures. The role of the state investor was taken over by developers who build houses and housing estates for sale or rent. This is a typical feature of the Polish housing architecture in the discussed period.]]>
<![CDATA[Study on thermal performance of a PCM enhanced hydronic radiant floor heating system]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 13:41:24 +0200 Larwa, Barbara; Cesari, Silvia; Bottarelli, Michele
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Radiant floor systems enhanced with Phase Change Materials (PCMs) could achieve significant energy savings while improving the thermal comfort of occupants in lightweight buildings. Effective integration of PCMs typically requires customised solutions based on a comprehensive analysis due to their complex nature. The objective of the present study is the experimental and numerical investigation of a hydronic radiant floor heating system integrated with macroencapsulated PCM. Experimental tests were carried out on a laboratory-scale by the University of Ferrara, Italy, within the H2020 European project IDEAS. A 2D model was then implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics and calibrated in steady as well as in transient state according to the experimental tests. The behaviour of the system, including temperature distribution and heat flux, were analysed under different conditions. The impact of using dry and wet sand, as well as the effect of the position of PCM – above or under heating pipes – on thermal performance, were investigated. Results showed that the use of high thermal conduction in mortar increases much faster the overall performance of the PCM integrated underfloor heating system. Furthermore, the coupling technology with PCM containers installed under piping significantly enhances the positive effect of wet sand.]]>
<![CDATA[Presentation of non-existent city monuments: a study on marking medieval fortifications]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 12:27:30 +0200 Stachura, E.
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The urban layout of many European cities was shaped in the Middle Ages. Cities first evolved within their walls and as they developed and expanded larger rings of fortifications were constructed, which overlapped the original defence systems. Medieval fortifications often followed the natural terrain in order to strengthen their defensive potential. While in many cities and towns, the city fortifications have survived only in part the course of the walls, location of city gates and towers can be determined by archaeological research. Tangible urban and architectural heritage forms the essential element of local identity and inspires the imagination of the residents and tourists. Tangible urban and architectural heritage forms an essential element of local identity and inspires the imagination of residents and tourists. The loss of an original plan form of a walled town circuit threatens the identity of the medieval precinct within the modern city while even only fragmentary traces of a medieval wall system enable recognition and understanding of the original urban layout, past buildings and landscapes. For this reason, even non-existent phantom buildings and their hidden underground remnants will bear testimony to the original layout and should be marked in the cityscape. The paper presents the case study of the City of Raciborz (Poland) founded in the Middle Ages. Primarily, the city fortifications system included a perimeter of defensive walls with nine towers and three city gates. Today only remnants of walls and one tower are evident. The location and appearance of two out of three gates are well documented also the underground remains have been preserved. This paper aims to study the possibility of marking and displaying the non-existent city gates. Concept projects will illustrate this study.]]>
<![CDATA[Speech quality measurement methods and models over ip-networks]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 12:25:26 +0200 Tymchenko, Oleksandr; Khamula, Orest; Havrysh, Bohdana; Vasiuta, Svitlana; Jagiełło, Adam
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: The MOS-based speech quality measurement methods allow us to determine generic encoder quality assessments on IP networks. However, they have several cautions to working within real-time, as they require the involvement of highly qualified experts. The paper considers alternative methods of quality assessment based on PESQ PSQM algorithms, taking into account network factors such as delay, jitter, and packet loss during network congestion. Also, the paper shows the efficiency of using MSE calculation. Conducted an experimental study of the relationship between MSE and PESQ score for different speech signal encoders and performed conversion of MSE – MOS. The results are easily adaptable to new types of encoders and to assess the deterioration of voice signal transmission when exposed to a variety of network factors.]]>
<![CDATA[Multi-domain and multi-material topology optimization in design and strengthening of innovative sustainable structures]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 12:21:14 +0200 Tajs-Zielińska, Katarzyna; Bochenek, Bogdan
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Expectations and challenges of modern sustainable engineering and architecture stimulate intensive development of structural analysis and design techniques. Designing durable, light and eco-friendly constructions starts at the conceptual stage, where new efficient design and optimization tools need to be implemented. Innovative methods, like topology optimization, become more often a daily practice of engineers and architects in the process of solving more and more demanding up-to-date engineering problems efficiently. Topology optimization is a dynamically developing research area with numerous applications to many research and engineering fields, ranging from the mechanical industry, through civil engineering to architecture. The motivation behind the present study is to make an attempt to broaden the area of topology optimization applications by presenting an original approach regarding the implementation of the multi-domain and multi-material topology optimization to the design and the strengthening/retrofitting of structures. Moreover, the implementation of the design-dependent self-weight loading into the design model is taken into account as a significantly important issue, since it influences the final results of the topology optimization process, especially when considering massive engineering structures. As an optimization tool, the original efficient heuristic algorithm based on Cellular Automata concept is utilized.]]>
<![CDATA[Hydromorphological evaluation of the river training impact on a multi-thread river system (Belá River, Carpathians, Slovakia)]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 12:07:35 +0200 Kidová, Anna; Radecki‑Pawlik, Artur; Rusnák, Miloš; Plesiński, Karol
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper evaluates the impact of river training works designed to address problems associated with fooding on the braided-wandering Belá River in Slovakian Carpathians. This impact was investigated after the food event in July 2018 on 11 river reaches where the river engineering and management intervention was applied. We analyzed its impact by spatio-temporal variations in river morphology (12 channel parameters) and changes in cross-section and hydraulic parameters (fow velocity, shear stress, stream power, W/D ratio) between pre- and post-food management periods. The research hypotheses related to decreasing geodiversity in managed river reaches, a rapid increase in fow velocity during an extreme food in river reaches where there is no sufcient foodplain inundation due to artifcially high banks built by river training works, and increasing erosive force in the channel zone thanks to river management intervention were confrmed. The intervention in the braidplain area of the Belá River resulted in an undesirable simplifcation of the river pattern, loss of geomorphic diversity, loss of channel–foodplain connectivity, and disturbance and restraint of hydromorphological continuity. Identifcation of main conficts of the Belá River management is important for clarifying the diferent approaches of stakeholders in the study area and aims to provide an objective illustration of their consequences. The presented analyses could help in future management issues as well as in the more critical decision-making process in vulnerable and rare braided river systems on the present when we are losing so many natural rivers by human decisions. ]]>
<![CDATA[Kształtowanie architektury domów i mieszkań z wykorzystaniem wyników badań preferencji mieszkaniowych Polaków]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 11:30:12 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Transformacja i związane z nią przekształcenia społeczne (np. wzrost aspiracji w zakresie zamieszkiwania) i ekonomiczne (m. in. urynkowienie dużej części zasobów spółdzielczych i komunalnych) sprawiły, że w ostatnim dwudziestoleciu lawinowo wzrósł popyt na domy i mieszkania, a w odpowiedzi nastąpił gwałtowny przyrost nowych siedlisk wznoszonych przez deweloperów. Wspomniane procesy znajdują swoje odzwierciedlenie w przebiegu i w jakości procesu urbanizacji. Polityka mieszkaniowa państwa w Polsce ma ograniczony zakres, a najważniejszym podmiotem po stronie podażowej rynku mieszkaniowego jest inwestor prywatny – deweloper, realizujący w przeważającej większości małe i średnie zespoły mieszkaniowe, które wpisywane są w istniejącą tkankę miejską, bądź lokowane na terenach otwartych. Opracowanie zawiera próbę empirycznego przedstawienia wpływu uczestników fazy projektowej procesu inwestycyjnego na decyzje o cechach środowiska mieszkaniowego. Obejmuje także ocenę stopnia wykorzystania wiedzy o preferencjach konsumentów w procesie konstruowania wytycznych do projektowania. ]]>
<![CDATA[Die Blau-Grüne Metamorphose]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 09:24:31 +0200 Racoń-Leja, Kinga; Kowalski, Przemysław
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
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<![CDATA[Urban Laboratory]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 09:15:41 +0200 Kowalski, Przemysław; Mensing-de Jong, Angela; Racoń-Leja, Kinga; Zdráhalová, Jana
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
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<![CDATA[Elements of pathway for quick and reliable health monitoring of concrete behavior in cable post-tensioned concrete girders]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 09:12:53 +0200 Bednarz, Lukasz; Bajno, Dariusz; Matkowski, Zygmunt; Skrzypczak, Izabela; Leśniak, Agnieszka
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The paper discusses the problems connected with long-term exploitation of reinforced concrete post-tensioned girders. The scale of problems in the world related to the number of cable post-tensioned concrete girders built in the 1950s and still in operation is very large and possibly has very serious consequences. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation of the results of measurements of the deflection and strength and homogeneity of concrete in cable–concrete roof girders of selected industrial halls located in Poland, exploited for over 50 years. On the basis of the results of displacement monitoring in the years 2009–2020, the maximum increments of deflection of the analyzed girders were determined. Non-destructive, destructive, and indirect evaluation methods were used to determine the compressive strength of concrete. Within the framework of the indirect method recommended in standard PN-EN 13791, a procedure was proposed by the authors to modify the so-called base curve for determining compressive strength. Due to the age of the analyzed structural elements, a correction factor for the age of concrete was taken into account in the strength assessment. The typical value of the characteristic compressive strength is within the range 20.3–28.4 MPa. As a result of the conducted tests, the concrete class assumed in the design was not confirmed, and its classification depended on the applied test method. The analyzed girders, in spite of their long-term exploitation, can be still used for years on the condition that regular periodical inspections of their technical condition are carried out. The authors emphasize the necessity for a permanent and cyclic diagnostic process and monitoring of the geometry of girders, as they are expected to operate much longer than was assumed by their designers.]]>
<![CDATA[Synthesis and characterization of polymer-based coatings modified with bioactive ceramic and bovine serum albumin]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 08:47:22 +0200 Florkiewicz, Wioletta; Słota, Dagmara; Placek, Angelika; Pluta, Klaudia; Tyliszczak, Bożena; Douglas, Timothy E. L.; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This study involves the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and describes the preparation and characterization of polymer coatings based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) and modified with bovine serum albumin and hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite was obtained by wet chemical synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy, and its Ca/P molar ratio was determined (1.69 ± 0.08). The ceramic and bovine serum albumin were used in the preparation of composite materials with the polymeric matrix. The chemical composition of coatings was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy, and their morphology was recorded with SEM imaging. Moreover, the measurements of surface roughness parameters and stereometric research were performed. The prepared coatings were subjected to in vitro studies in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva. Changes in chemical composition and morphology after immersion were examined with FTIR spectroscopy and SEM imaging. Based on the conducted research, it can be stated that applied modifiers promote the biomineralization process. The roughness analysis confirmed prepared materials were characterized by the micrometer-scale topography. The materials morphology and roughness, and the morphology of the newly formed apatite deposit, were dependent on the type of the used modifier, and the artificial fluid used in in vitro studies.]]>
<![CDATA[The Svalbard Church in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen, as an example of a social space in an area with an extremely cold climate]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 08:43:04 +0200 Jagiełło-Kowalczyk, Magdalena; Żabicka, Agnieszka
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The main object of this study is the social space of the Svalbard Church (Svalbard Kirke in Longyearbyen on the island of Spitsbergen, a part of the Svalbard archipelago). It is an example of a social space that is atypical when European conditions are concerned. During the study of the architecture and urban layouts of Spitsbergen, as well as studying its inhabitants, the authors focused on the role and significance of social spaces in the lives of residents, their general characteristics and their positives and negatives, the manner of their use by various social groups, as well as their quality and functional solutions. The Svalbard Church, which is an example of a social space, was investigated while focusing on its characteristics as a place and on its context, the function and form of its architectural and urban layout, its structural system, construction materials, colour and its detail in reference to its distinct climate conditions. The goal of the study was to identify the quality of this space and its suitability to its users. The study was performed using critical analysis, on-site observation and included a survey. The survey was performed among a group of respondents composed of the users of the investigated space, divided into the following age groups: 19 or younger, 20–25 years of age, 26–44 years of age, 45–66 years of age and over 67 years of age.]]>