Nowe zasoby w kolekcji Bibliografia Publikacji Pracowników PK http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/ Biblioteka Politechniki Krakowskiej lipinska@biblos.pk.edu.pl 60 <![CDATA[Elements of sustainable development in the context of the environmental and financial crisis and the COVID-19 pandemic]]> Fri, 07 Aug 2020 13:35:50 +0200 Kapecki, Tomasz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Sustainable development is the need of the hour today. For over three decades, since the term was used in public little has been done about it. Such important activities for the protection of our ecosystem have been mainly discussed at scientific conferences or in the comfort of academic lecture halls. Successive global crises, especially the ecological, economic, financial and now humanitarian one related to the COVID-19 pandemic have demolished global economies, sidelined the development of a sustainable economy and especially sustainable construction, treating it more as a whim of the rich than expedience. The construction sector accounts for up to 40 per cent of the global carbon dioxide emissions and generates more than 0.5 billion tonnes of waste every year. However, when it comes to improving macroeconomic indicators after another crisis, the easiest way to look for savings is to use the production of emerging markets, without considering their lower economic and environmental awareness. Each time, the lust for profit prevailed over environmental protection. Education, business, and institutional factors failed, as indicated in the conclusions. That was the case until November 17, 2019, when the first man was infected with the coronavirus. Will we draw the right conclusions from that while facing a crisis unprecedented in human history? Can we change priorities from having to being?]]>
<![CDATA[Influence of the thermometer inertia on the quality of temperature control in a hot liquid tank heated with electric energy]]> Fri, 07 Aug 2020 13:26:33 +0200 Taler, Dawid; Sobota, Tomasz; Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena; Taler, Jan
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper presents the medium temperature monitoring system based on digital proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control. For industrial thermometers with a complex structure used for measuring the temperature of the fluid under high pressure, the accuracy of the first-order model is inadequate. A second-order differential equation was applied to describe a dynamic response of a temperature sensor placed in a heavy thermowell (industrial thermometer). The quality of the water temperature control system in the tank was assessed when measuring the water temperature with a jacketed thermocouple and a thermometer in an industrial casing. A thermometer of a new design with a small time constant was also used to measure temperature. The quality of water temperature control in the hot water storage tank was evaluated using a classic industrial thermometer and a new design thermometer. In both cases, there was a K-type sheathed thermocouple inside the thermowell. Reductions in the time constant of the new thermometer are achieved by means of a steel casing with a small diameter hole inside which the thermocouple is precisely fitted. The time constants of the thermometers were determined experimentally with a jump in water temperature. A digital controller was designed to maintain the preset temperature in an electrically heated hot water tank. The function of the regulator was to adjust the power of the electrical heater to maintain a constant temperature of the liquid in the tank.]]>
<![CDATA[Comfort of use assessment in buildings with interior wall insulation based on silicate and lime system in the context of the elimination of mould growth]]> Fri, 07 Aug 2020 13:19:10 +0200 Radziszewska-Zielina, E.; Czerski, P.; Grześkowiak, W. Ł.; Kwaśniewska-Sip, P.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In the article, the authors presented the results of microbiological air quality studies in selected buildings with additional thermal insulation applied from the inside using a silicate and lime system, as well as the results of a survey study concerning the comfort of use of said buildings. The microbiological air quality studies, conducted in buildings immediately prior to and after the application of additional thermal insulation using silicate and lime sheets, demonstrated a significant decrease in the number of mould spores in interior spaces. This was also reflected in the results of a survey study. The survey study was conducted with users of public and commercial buildings andmunicipal housing buildings in Krakow. Thanks to the additional insulation applied from inside using the silicate and lime system, all of the utilitarian parameters of internal spaces had improved. The most significant changes concerned parameters like comfort of use, the aesthetic of the spaces and breathing comfort. According to experts, the silicate and lime system was also rated highly in terms of the analysed parameters.]]>
<![CDATA[New technologies to support students in a BIM design course]]> Fri, 07 Aug 2020 13:16:38 +0200 Zieliński, Rafał
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Abstrakt: The use of computers to train future architects entails frequent adjustment of the curriculum and the application of new technologies. Changes of this type should support the work and development of the students.New software and digital data exchange require that an analysis be conducted of e-learning platforms, tutorials and materials provided to the students. Data availability and forms of access do not guarantee efficiency in the learning process, even for the latest technology. The purpose of this article was to assess the new technologies supporting students’ work, based on the curriculum and laboratory classes conducted as part of the BIM Techniques in Design course carried out in the Faculty of Architecture at Cracow University of Technology (FA-CUT) in Kraków, Poland.]]>
<![CDATA[Zastosowanie metody Monte Carlo do parametrycznej identyfikacji akcelerometrów w dziedzinie częstotliwości]]> Wed, 05 Aug 2020 13:01:39 +0200 Tomczyk, Krzysztof
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Artykuł przedstawia zastosowanie metody Monte Carlo do parametrycznej identyfikacji akcelerometrów w dziedzinie częstotliwości. Omówione zostały dwie metody identyfikacji: intuicyjna, realizowana wyłącznie w oparciu o punkty pomiarowe charakterystyki amplitudowo-częstotliwościowej i bazująca na klasycznej metodzie najmniejszych kwadratów oraz procedura oparta na punktach pomiarowych obu charakterystyk częstotliwościowych (amplitudowej i fazowej), realizowana przy wykorzystaniu uogólnionej metody najmniejszych kwadratów. Przedstawiono wyniki identyfikacji dla wybranego akcelerometru typu Althen 731-207, a dla potrzeb realizacji obu metod identyfikacji zastosowano oprogramowanie Mathcad 14.]]>
<![CDATA[Enhancement of the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from synthesis gas by macro- and microstructuring of the catalytic bed]]> Wed, 05 Aug 2020 12:59:48 +0200 Bizon, Katarzyna; Skrzypek-Markiewicz, Krzysztof; Continillo, Gaetano
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This work reports on a modelling study of the influence of the distribution of metallicand acidic active centers within a catalytic fixed-bed reactor for the direct synthesis of dimethylether (DME), conducted to demonstrate the potential of reactor-level and pellet-level structuring ofcatalytic active centers in process integration and intensification. To account for the pellet structure,the analysis was performed with the aid of a heterogeneous model considering both interphase andintrapellet mass transport resistances. The study evaluated, in terms of DME and methanol yield andselectivity, the performance of a tubular reactor loaded with a physical mixture of monofunctionalcatalyst pellets or structured bifunctional catalyst pellets with different arrangements of the catalyticcenters. It was confirmed that bifunctional catalysts overperform significantly a physical mixture ofmonofunctional particles. Moreover, it was shown that the internal structure of a bifunctional catalystpellet is an important feature that deserves to be exploited deeper, in view of further intensification ofthe DME synthesis process to be achieved with a better reactor design.]]>
<![CDATA[Keep the lot: Housing development on the peripheries of cities in Poland, Serbia and the United Kingdom]]> Wed, 05 Aug 2020 12:56:54 +0200 Samuels, Ivor; Kantarek, Anna Agata; Djordjevic, Aleksandra
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Abstrakt: The development patterns generated by large landowners and developers are compared to the self-build lot by lot development by individual home builders. Based on their international comparative research on the determining factors of urban morphology, Samuels, Kantarek and Djordjevic, argue for the later type of growth as more democratic, locally appropriate, varied, and individually responsive.]]>
<![CDATA[Influence of thermal and flow conditions on the thermal stresses distribution in the evaporator tubes]]> Wed, 05 Aug 2020 09:52:52 +0200 Majdak, Marek; Grądziel, Sławomir
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In the article are presented results of thermal and flow numerical analysis of the working conditions of three smooth waterwall tubes, connected by fins, which are heated with different heat fluxes. The analysis is carried out using a numerical model, which allows determining the distribution of the temperature of working fluid flowing through waterwall tubes and distribution of the temperature in cross-section of these tubes. The temperature is calculated in every finite element of fluid or tube in every time step depending on current thermophysical parameters of the fluid and metal from which were made the tubes and fins. On the base of the temperature distribution obtained with the use of the numerical algorithm, it is possible to determine the thermal stress distribution in tubes and fins, which are connecting them and determine where the maximum values of the thermal stresses occur. The analysis for three neighboring waterwall tubes allows determining the stress differences in tubes and fins, in the case when the external tubes are heated with lower heat flux and the internal tube is heated with higher heat flux e this is the case that corresponds to the thermal conditions occurring in the supercritical combustion chamber wall.]]>
<![CDATA[One-component cationic photoinitiators based on coumarin scaffold iodonium salts as highly sensitive photoacid generators for 3D printing IPN photopolymers under visible LED sources]]> Tue, 04 Aug 2020 15:16:42 +0200 Topa, Monika; Hola, Emilia; Galek, Mariusz; Petko, Filip; Pilch, Maciej; Popielarz, Roman; Morlet-Savary, Fabrice; Graff, Bernadette; Lalevée , Jacques; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper describes the development of four new coumarin chromophore-based iodonium salts as efficient one-component cationic photoinitiators upon light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation with maximum emission under the UV-A region at 365 nm and under visible light at 405 nm. They initiate the cationic polymerization of epoxides, oxiranes, and glycidyl and vinyl ethers upon exposure to a UV-A LED and a visible LED. Even small structural variations of iodonium cations carrying different types of aryl moieties and the same coumarin chromophore can affect their properties. The properties and reactivities of a series of iodonium salts containing various cations were compared in the context of different photopolymerization processes. The relationship between the molecular structure of the coumarin-based iodonium salts and their reaction mechanism during the different photopolymerization processes was also investigated. Based on the results from real-time FT-IR spectroscopy and photo-differential scanning calorimetric experiments, it was concluded that the structures of the cations strongly affect the photopolymerization reaction rate and the final conversion of the monomer. Photopolymerization kinetic data show that kinetic parameters are affected by the presence of substituents in the phenyl ring of coumarin scaffold based iodonium salts. Indeed, the photoinitiating process remains highly efficient during the ring opening cationic photopolymerization of epoxides, oxiranes and glycidyl monomers, as well as during the extremely fast photopolymerization of vinyl monomers. The photochemical mechanisms of these new salts are investigated for the first time through electron spin resonance, laser flash photolysis and steady-state photolysis experiments and the cyclic voltammetry technique. Molecular orbital calculations are also used to shed some light on the initiation mechanisms. In conclusion, we have shown that new cationic iodonium photoinitiators are interesting from an industrial point of view because they can be used as efficient initiators in constructing IPN polymeric materials in the 3D printing area. These insights can encourage the utilisation of new coumarin based iodonium salts as useful photoinitiators in polymer coating synthesis, as well as for 3D printing processes.]]>
<![CDATA[Preferences in Master’s in Architecture diploma project subject selection – experience in the education of Engineer Architect degree holders]]> Tue, 04 Aug 2020 15:13:22 +0200 Gyurkovich, Mateusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The findings of a study conducted between 2005 and 2020, in which the supervision or co-supervision was examined of more than 100 Master’s projects in the Faculty of Architecture at Cracow University of Technology (FA-CUT), Kraków, Poland, is the subject of this article. In the study, diploma candidates were asked the reasons for choosing the subjects and sites for their projects. The results suggest that student preferences were affected by international co-operation in both research and education, thus reflecting greater project internationalisation and diversity. The co-operation with local municipalities and businesses, which organised best student diploma project competitions, also influenced the preferences. Integrating diploma candidates into educational and research programmes is crucial to the educational outcomes at postgraduate level.]]>
<![CDATA[Study tours in teaching architecture and urbanism: improving the itinerary]]> Tue, 04 Aug 2020 15:12:44 +0200 Homiński, Bartłomiej
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Study tours are an experience-based form of architectural education that is not often used. Summarised in this article are the results of a study conducted between 2017 and 2019 on study tours run as part of a curriculum for overseas students at a technical university in Poland. In treating architectural sightseeing as an experience - as understood under Kolb’s experiential learning theory - the author traced which of the sites visited during the study tours were selected by students for in-depth case studies, and whether there existed a link between these choices and the time spent at a given site. Findings of the study were that students select sites for in-depth case studies where they spenda longer time visiting, and that students rarely engage in in-depth case studies of large urban projects, despite the significant time spent exploring them. There are other factors that affect student choices. The results of this study can aid the planning and enhancing of study tour itineraries. Further research will allow a fuller understanding of the effect of visit time and other factors on the educational outcomes of study tours.]]>
<![CDATA[Changes in Poland that influence architectural education and access to the profession]]> Tue, 04 Aug 2020 15:09:05 +0200 Korbel, Wojciech
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The Polish system of higher education is undergoing a process of transformation. A new law shaping architectural curricula was introduced in July 2019. Analysis has been carried out in this research to determinethe impact of that law on the knowledge, skills and competence of young architects in Poland. The author compared the new legal requirements with similar standards in well-developed educational systems in the USA and the United Kingdom. The consequence of the analysis was to link the subject under study with another overarching issue, i.e. the coherence of legal requirements that shape the education system, with separate provisions that define the criteria for accessing the architectural profession. The study findings have revealed there are inconsistencies in contemporary Polish legislation. As a result of the study, necessary reforms were identified.]]>
<![CDATA[Methods of teaching students versus their preparedness for work as architect engineers]]> Tue, 04 Aug 2020 15:06:48 +0200 Kobylarczyk, Justyna; Kuśnierz-Krupa, Dominika
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this article, the authors present the findings of an assessment of the effectiveness of curricula in the faculties of architecture at Cracow University of Technology, Kraków, Poland; the Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture; and the University of Aviation in Kyiv, Ukraine, in preparing students for work in the profession. A survey was conducted among fourth-year students. The students were asked to list the modules that significantly affect their preparedness for work. The students were also asked about the importance of the manner of teaching and about the activities during classes. The answers obtained at the three universities were not uniform, however the design module was rated the highest by respondents. Some responses indicate that it is important to employ different forms of classes - group discussions, individual critiques and workshops. The findings could prove useful in preparing curricula for each year of study.]]>
<![CDATA[Experimental and numerical investigation of the thermal transmittance of PVC window frames with silica aerogel]]> Tue, 04 Aug 2020 15:03:32 +0200 Berardi, Umberto; Kisilewicz, Tomasz; Kim, Sumin; Lechowska, Agnieszka; Paulos, Jason; Schnotale, Jacek
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The poor thermal performance of windows can largely be attributed to their frames, which typically have higher thermal transmittance than the glazing portions. This study investigates an innovative polyvinyl chloride (PVC) window frame modified by inserting silica aerogel granules in the frame cavities. Experimental tests done in a hot box are described and compared with numerical modeling results. The direct object of the comparison was the difference in thermal transmittance of the frame, obtained by insulating frame cavities with aerogel. Both types of tests have confirmed that even with a simple PVC frame, it is possible to achieve at least 30% decrease of its thermal transmittance. The investigations allow discussing the importance of different frame cavities and of the frame orientation. Infrared imaging of the frame within the hot box enables analyzing the significance of the aerogel particle distribution and the edge effects. This paper supports experimentally the results obtained with numerical simulations. The research concludes that filling most of the existing cavities with aerogel granules would reduce the thermal transmittance of the case study frame to 0.80 W/m2K. Finally, this study confirms the feasibility of enhancing window frames with aerogel granules within the frame cavities.]]>
<![CDATA[Cooperative effect of rapeseed oil-based polyol and egg shells on the structure and properties of rigid polyurethane foams]]> Tue, 04 Aug 2020 08:57:30 +0200 Leszczyńska, Milena; Ryszkowska, Joanna; Szczepkowski, Leonard; Kurańska, Maria; Prociak, Aleksander; Leszczyński, Michał K.; Gloc, Michał; Antos-Bielska, Małgorzata; Mizera, Kamila
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Rigid polyurethane foams were manufactured using rapeseed oil-based polyol with hydroxyl number 270 mg KOH/g (10 wt% - 50 wt%) and ground egg shell waste as a natural filler (20 php) in a single-step synthesis procedure. The goal of the study was the investigation of the influence of renewable raw materials on the structure and physico-mechanical, thermal and biological properties of the final foams. The materials were analyzed using a variety of techniques involving: differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and computer tomography as well as other methods in accordance to polish and international standards. The results clearly indicate that the modification of the polyurethane composition with the rapeseed oil-based polyol and egg shells leads to a beneficial influence on the foam structure. Depending on the renewable raw materials content, the modified materials exhibited similar or improved characteristics (compressive strength, surface bacteria adhesion, friability, water absorption, thermal stability, dimensional stability) in comparison to the reference foams obtained using only petrochemical substrates.]]>
<![CDATA[Indoor air quality]]> Mon, 03 Aug 2020 13:10:44 +0200 Müller, Jarosław; Skrzyniowska, Dorota; Sikorska-Bączek, Renata
rodzaj: książka
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<![CDATA[Introduction to BIM concept]]> Mon, 03 Aug 2020 12:21:13 +0200 Müller, Jarosław; Szczepanik-Ścisło, Nina
rodzaj: książka
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<![CDATA[The Tatra Museum of Modern Art]]> Mon, 03 Aug 2020 08:13:38 +0200 Sikorski, Paweł
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<![CDATA[Application of earth pigments in cycloolefin copolymer: protection against combustion and accelerated aging in the full sunlight spectrum]]> Fri, 31 Jul 2020 13:01:22 +0200 Szadkowski, Bolesław; Kuśmierek, Małgorzata; Rybiński, Przemysław; Żukowski, Witold; Marzec, Anna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this paper, we assess various natural earth pigments as potential colorants and stabilizers for ethylene–norbornene copolymer composites. Several cycloolefin copolymer (COC) composites colored with 2 wt% of a selected pigment were prepared using a two-step mixing method. The aging resistance of the polymer composites was investigated in terms of changes to their mechanical properties, following accelerated aging in the full sunlight spectrum (100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 h). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), surface energy measurements, and spectrophotometry were used to assess the color changes, surface defects, and morphology of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study their thermal stability. The combustion characteristics of the prepared COC composites were evaluated based on the microcombustion calorimetry test (MCC). The application of earth pigments resulted in interesting color changes and a significant improvement in the aging resistance of the COC-filled samples, as evidenced by higher aging factor values and lower carbonyl index parameters compared to the reference (COC). The best results were observed for hematite (HM), gold ochre (GO), and red ochre (RO). In addition, the application of earth pigments, especially iron ochre (IO) and red ochre (RO), in COC contributed to a significant reduction in the heat release rate (HRR) values, indicating improved flame retardancy. This research opens the possibility of producing colorful COC composites with enhanced photostability and reduced flammability for use in polymer applications.]]>
<![CDATA[The impact of atmospheric aerosol particles on the brightness of the night sky]]> Fri, 31 Jul 2020 12:53:23 +0200 Ściężor, Tomasz; Czaplicka, Anna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper analyses the impact of various types of aerosols, both of natural and anthropogenic origin, on the brightness of the night sky glow in southern Poland. The particles of particulate matter, related to the combustion of solid fuels in the winter, the volcanic or desert dust, as well as mists and haze, are considered as the artificial light scattering sources. Measurements of the brightness of the cloudless and moonless night sky were done in 2009–2016, both within the city of Krakow and in suburban areas, as well as in mountainous ones. The strong linear correlation between the brightness of such sky and the concentration of particulate matter is shown. The acoustic sounding of the atmosphere (SODAR) has indicated the possibility of a relationship between the brightness of the night sky and the amount of such particulates, which accumulate in atmospheric boundary layers. The usefulness of the theoretical model of horizontal transport of dust in the atmosphere (FAPPS) for forecasting the brightness of the night sky glow is also pointed out. A clear effect of the Saharan origin dust clouds on the brightness of the night sky glow is shown. This brightness, in the conditions of a low level of light pollution, is associated with the forecasted optical density of such clouds. It is also demonstrated, that with the thickening of mist, the impact of distant light sources on the brightness of the night sky decreases, but the one of a nearby sources becomes more significant. The conclusion states that anthropogenic particulate matter has the greatest impact on the brightness of the cloudless night sky glow in winter. In areas heavily polluted with light, fogs and mist are particularly important. In areas with low levels of light pollution, the clear impact of desert dust is visible.]]>
<![CDATA[Impact on road safety and operation of rerouting traffic in rural Travel Time Information System]]> Fri, 31 Jul 2020 12:48:48 +0200 Kiec, Mariusz; D’Agostino, Carmelo; Pazdan, Sylwia
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The Travel Time Information System (TTIS) is an Intelligent Traffc Control System installed in Poland. As is common, travel time is the only factor in the decision about rerouting traffc, while a route recommendation may consider multiple criteria, including road safety. The aim of the paper is to analyze the safety level of the entire road network when traffc is rerouted on paths with different road categories, intersection types, road environments, and densities of access points. Furthermore, a comparison between traffc operation and road safety performance was carried out, considering travel time and delay, and we predicted the number of crashes for each possible route. The results of the present study allow for maximizing safety or traffc operation characteristics, providing an effective tool in the management of the rural road system. The paper provides a methodology that can be transferred to other TTISs for real-time management of the road network.]]>
<![CDATA[Experimental insights into consolidation rates during one-dimensional loading with special reference to excess pore water pressure]]> Thu, 30 Jul 2020 11:58:14 +0200 Olek, Bartłomiej Szczepan
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Consolidation rate has significant influence on the settlement of structures founded on soft fine-grained soil. This paper presents the results of a series of small-scale and large-scale Rowe cell consolidation tests with pore water pressure measurements to investigate the factors affecting the consolidation process. Permeability and creep/resistance structure factors were considered as the governing factors. Intact and reconstituted marine clay from the Polish Carpathian Foredeep basin as well as clay–sand mixtures was examined in the present study. The fundamental relationship correlating consolidation degrees based on compression and pore water pressure was assessed to indicate the nonlinear soil behaviour. It was observed that the instantaneous consolidation parameters vary as the process progresses. The instantaneous coefficient of consolidation first drastically increases or decreases with increase in the degree of consolidation and stabilises in the middle stage of the consolidation; it then decreases significantly due to viscoplastic effects occurring in the soil structure. Based on the characteristics of the relationship between coefficient of consolidation and degree of dissipation at the base, the consolidation range that complies with theoretical assumptions was established. Furthermore, the influence of coarser fraction in clay–sand mixtures in controlling the consolidation rates is discussed.]]>
<![CDATA[A new approach to micromachining: high-precision and innovative additive manufacturing solutions based on photopolymerisation technology]]> Thu, 30 Jul 2020 11:54:17 +0200 Fiedor, Paweł; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The following article introduces additive manufacturing and its most important features supporting the conscious choice of 3D printing methods for applications in micro and nanomanufacturing. The micromanufacturing method covers photopolymerisation based methods such as Stereolithography (SLA), Digital Light Processing (DLP), Liquid Crystal Display – DLP coupled method, Two-Photon Polymerisation (TPP) and Inkjet based methods. Functional photocurable material with magnetic, conductive or specific optical materials applicable in the 3D printing process was also reviewed.]]>
<![CDATA[Urbanization – its hidden impact on water losses: Prądnik river basin, Lesser Poland]]> Thu, 30 Jul 2020 09:57:48 +0200 Lepeška, Tomáš; Wojkowski, Jakub; Wałęga, Andrzej; Młyński, Dariusz; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Olah, Branislav
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Urban development causes multiple water losses. Some of them may be ignored but some could have a huge influence on the whole catchment, including soil drought. As urban sprawl rises, space for unaffected infiltration and retention is increasingly limited. The objective of this study was to backcast and to estimate water-retention loss due to urbanization during the period of 1990–2018. We used landcover data, meteorological and hydrological data and data on soil water-holding capacity. Water-retention loss was expressed as soil water retention capacity loss, net precipitation loss and total sum of precipitation loss. Historical change in urban extension has led to large impacts on the hydrological cycle of the study area. Progressive urban development caused water-retention losses which range from 3.380 to 14.182 millions of cubic meters - depending on the methodology used. Hydrological analysis showed the lack of a significant trend (decrease trend) of low flow which is caused by the high percentage of natural land use in the upper part of catchment. Our results show that backcasting of water retention change using CLC data (a) brings new and plausible data on retention loss, (b) is possible to replicate and (c) data used are common and easy-to-get.]]>
<![CDATA[Machine learning techniques for transmission parameters classification in multi-agent managed network]]> Thu, 30 Jul 2020 09:36:47 +0200 Żelasko, Dariusz; Pławiak, Paweł; Kołodziej, Joanna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Looking at the rapid development of computer networks, it can be said that the transmission quality assurance is very important issue. In the past there were attempts to implement Quality of Service (QoS) techniques when using various network technologies. However QoS parameters are not always assured. This paper presents a novel concept of transmission quality determination based on Machine Learning (ML) methods. Transmission quality is determined by four parameters - delay, jitter, bandwidth and packet loss ratio. The concept of transmission quality assured network proposed by Pay&Require was presented as a novel multi-agent approach for QoS based computer networks. In this concept the essential part is transmission quality rating which is done based on transmission parameters by ML techniques. Data set was obtained based on the experience of the users test group. For our research we designed a machine learning system for transmission quality assessment. We obtained promising results using four classifiers: Nu-Support Vector Classifier (NuSVC), C-Support Vector Classifier (C-SVC), Random Forest Classifier, and K-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) algorithm. Classification results for different methods are presented together with confusion matrices. The best result, 87% sensitivity (overall accuracy), for the test set of data, was achieved by Nu-SVC and Random Forest (13/100 incorrect classifications).]]>
<![CDATA[Efekty ekologiczne prowadzenia gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym w gospodarce odpadami komunalnymi]]> Thu, 30 Jul 2020 09:33:00 +0200 Gronba-Chyła, Anna; Generowicz, Agnieszka
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
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<![CDATA[Ceramika budowlana z odpadów jako przykład gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym]]> Thu, 30 Jul 2020 09:31:45 +0200 Gronba-Chyła, Anna; Generowicz, Agnieszka
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
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<![CDATA[Biogazownie alternatywnym źródłem energii]]> Thu, 30 Jul 2020 09:30:21 +0200 Iwaszczuk, Aleksander
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
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<![CDATA[Mechanochemical synthesis of BaTiO3 powders and evaluation of their acrylic dispersions]]> Wed, 29 Jul 2020 11:54:59 +0200 Kudłacik-Kramarczyk, Sonia; Drabczyk, Anna; Głąb, Magdalena; Dulian, Piotr; Bogucki, Rafał; Miernik, Krzysztof; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka; Tyliszczak, Bożena
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Barium titanate is a ferroelectric perovskite with unique electric properties; therefore, it is widely applied in the fabrication of inorganic coatings or thin films, capacitors, or in the production of devices for energy storage and conversion. This paper describes the mechanochemical synthesis of BaTiO3 from BaO and TiO2 using a ball mill. XRD analysis allowed concluding that barium titanate was formed after 90 min of mechanochemical grinding. It was also proved by spectroscopic analysis and the band corresponding to Ti–O vibrations on obtained Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectra. The specific surface area of obtained powder was 25.275 m2/g. Next, formed perovskite was dispersed in an acrylic poly(ethylene glycol) (superabsorbent polymer suspension, SAP) suspension prepared using microwave radiation. Final suspensions differed in the concentration of SAP applied. It was proven that the increase of SAP concentration does not affect the acidity of the suspension, but it does increase its dynamic viscosity. A sample with 83 wt.% of SAP reached a value of approximately 140 mPa∙s. Dispersions with higher values of SAP mass fraction exhibited lower sedimentation rates. Molecules such as SAP may adsorb to the surface of particles and thus prevent their agglomeration and make them well monodispersed. Based on the performed experiments, it can be concluded that acrylic poly(ethylene glycol) suspension is a suitable fluid that may stabilize barium titanate dispersions.]]>
<![CDATA[Jak daleko "świeci" Kraków?]]> Wed, 29 Jul 2020 11:22:30 +0200 Ściężor, Tomasz
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<![CDATA[Determination of mortar strength in historical brick masonry using the penetrometer test and double punch test]]> Wed, 29 Jul 2020 11:18:47 +0200 Łątka, Dawid; Matysek, Piotr
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Abstrakt: This paper presents the results of the minor destructive testing of mortars in masonry structures of four buildings erected at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. The buildings were erected in the historical centre of Cracow. The objective of testing was to determine mortar compressive strength in masonry joints. The in situ tests were carried out with the use of a penetrometer RSM-15 with the standardised impact energy equalling 4.55 nm. Laboratory tests on mortar specimens taken from the structures were also performed. The double punch test method was used in the laboratory tests. On account of the specificity of the tested historical mortars, the typical procedures used in penetrometer and double punch tests were modified. For penetrometer tests, a new feature called "a surface disturbance zone" was introduced. Additionally, a procedure for determining a surface disturbance zone range was included. As confirmed in the paper, the consideration of the surface disturbance zone in the analysis of test results is crucial for the correct evaluation of mortar compressive strength. The thicknesses of bed joints in the tested historical masonry considerably exceeded the requirements included in the standard EN 1996-1-1. Thus, the thickness of the mortar specimens taken from historical masonry for the double punch tests clearly exceeded the thickness of specimens extracted from the typical structures erected nowadays. This article provides a method of considering a specimen thickness parameter in the analysis of double punch test results. The in situ test results with the use of penetrometer and double punch methods confirmed that the mortar strength in tested historical buildings ranged from 1.4 to 2.9 MPa. Mortar compressive strength values determined by both applied methods were similar.]]>
<![CDATA[Integration of the water and sewage system model with the GIS application]]> Tue, 28 Jul 2020 13:57:25 +0200 Żaba, Tadeusz; Piech, Izabela
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Abstrakt: The GIS system has permanently entered the current operations of water supply companies. Due to the intensive development of cities and the resulting dynamic development of technical infrastructure, which is inherent in the functioning of the city, more and more extensive functionalities are expected from the GIS application. To fulfil the obligation to ensure continuity of water supply and sewage collection, it is necessary to constantly expand the system, extending it with new possibilities and integrate it with other software used in the company. We expect the created application not only to allow spatial identification of network sections, but also to simulate various operating conditions of the water supply and sewage collection system, and facilitate making current decisions related to the system operation and its regulation. Also, situations in which the system works in conditions that deviate from typical parameters are important. These situations can be caused by breakdowns, increased demand for water or heavy rainfall. To achieve the ability to support decisions independently of the GIS system, it is necessary to properly tare the hydraulic models of the system, and an extensive measurement system from which data is sent to the SCADA system via a data transmission system. The cooperation of the GIS and SCADA systems and hydraulic models allows for the creation of integrated software to support operational services. The paper presents a practical example of integration of the GIS system with hydraulic models of a water and sewage system, as well as available functionalities that allow improving the management of the water and sewage system in Krakow.]]>
<![CDATA[The noise analysis of a touchless car wash]]> Tue, 28 Jul 2020 10:58:42 +0200 Czerwiński, Andrzej; Dziechciowski, Zygmunt
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Abstrakt: The study examines the environmental noise levels associated with operation of a touchless car wash. As the number of automated car wash facilities is steadily increasing, their noise impacts are becoming a major concern. Measurements and analysis of noise allowed for identification of the dominant noise sources, evaluation of their environmental impacts and sound characteristics. Results are provided in the form of plotted time histories, spectral analysis data and spectrograms. It was found that the main source is the noise of nozzles supplied with wa ter under high pressure. Calculations were taken of sound levels generated by the noise sources within the car wash and the results were used to determine the noise level exposure at varying distances for several modes of the car wash operation. Due to the high share of higher frequency components in the noise spectrum of sources, it is im portant in numerical simulations to assume full power spectrum (e.g. in octave bands) in exchange for the global value for the “A” correction filter. It appears that noise generated by the car wash can have an adverse effect on the existing noise environment and that effective monitoring and control measures will be required when pursuing the issuance of the construction permit and then during the car wash operation.]]>
<![CDATA[Ocena potencjalnych zagrożeń dla jakości wody w sieci wodociągowej miasta Krakowa]]> Tue, 28 Jul 2020 10:00:52 +0200 Zimoch, Izabela; Żaba, Tadeusz; Skulska, Weronika
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<![CDATA[Wyznaczenie awaryjnej wydajności ZUW Bielany dla zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa krakowskiego systemu dystrybucji wody]]> Tue, 28 Jul 2020 10:00:24 +0200 Tadeusz Żaba; Izabela Zimoch; Monika Pitala
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Abstrakt: Głównym zadaniem przedsiębiorstwa wodociągowego jest dostawa wody niezależnie od mogących wystąpić sytuacji awaryjnych. W artykule dokonano analizy niezbędnej objętości wody dla zasilenia strefy zaopatrywanej ze zbiorników Kopiec.]]>
<![CDATA[Wielokryterialna ocena aplikacji wspomagających planowanie podróży transportem publicznym w miastach]]> Tue, 28 Jul 2020 09:59:44 +0200 Solecka, Katarzyna; Cholewa, Monika
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Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawione zostały najpopularniejsze aplikacje wspomagające planowanie podróży po mieście. Wybór aplikacji do podróżowania został dokonany na podstawie przeglądu literatury oraz rankingów internetowych. Do porównania przyjęto 8 najbardziej popularnych aplikacji. Zostały one porównane trzema sposobami względem ich najważniejszych funkcji: na podstawie przeglądu zasobów internetowych, na podstawie badań ankietowych przeprowadzonych wśród użytkowników aplikacji oraz z wykorzystaniem jednej z metod wielokryterialnego wspomagania decyzji - metody kompensacyjno-koniunkcyjnej. Uzyskane wyniki pokazały funkcjonalność każdej z aplikacji i wskazały te, które są najczęściej i najchętniej stosowane przez podróżujących.]]>
<![CDATA[Korozja biologiczna kompozytów z matrycą mineralną]]> Mon, 27 Jul 2020 13:29:54 +0200 Stanaszek-Tomal, Elżbieta
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<![CDATA[Styl zakopiański Stanisława Witkiewicza i jego differentia specifica]]> Mon, 27 Jul 2020 12:41:56 +0200 Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: Praca jest próbą zrekonstruowania metody twórczej Stanisława Witkiewicza dokonaną na podstawie jego pism rozproszonych. Styl zakopiański stał się fenomenem w szerokim spektrum polskich stylów narodowych. Inspiracją dla klasycznych stylów narodowych na ogół był arbitralnie dobrany zbiór form zaczerpniętych z określonego stylu historycznego związanego z danym narodem bądź państwem. Często był to zbiór eklektyczny. Stanisław Witkiewicz konsekwentnie unikał zapożyczeń i wtórności, wykorzystując wyłącznie inspiracje z ludowej sztuki Podhala. W metodologii jego architektury elementy o charakterze "racjonalnym", jak: postulat funkcjonalnego rozplanowania pomieszczeń, propagowanie prawidłowego nasłonecznienia wnętrz oraz utrzymywania ich czystości, a także eksponowanie konstrukcji budynków, przeplatały się z elementami o charakterze "romantycznym", jak np.: wprowadzanie ornamentyki, głównie o tematyce roślinnej, oraz kreowanie warstwy symbolicznej architektury, przesyconej pierwiastkami swoistej mitologii.]]>
<![CDATA[Projektowanie w ciasnej i wymagającej lokalizacji]]> Mon, 27 Jul 2020 12:40:18 +0200 Mizia, Małgorzata
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Abstrakt: Zakopane jest regionalnym miastem turystycznym unikalnym w skali całej Polski. Jedyny górski kurort o wyjątkowej historii i klimacie. Modne miejsce wypoczynku i wyczynu. Wymaga obecnie nie tylko troski o zrównoważony rozwój, ale naprawy zaniedbań i uzupełnienia braków wymaganych do komfortowego funkcjonowania oraz dopełnienia oferty zarówno użytkowej, jak i kulturalnej. Drobna w skali architektura Podhala musi sprostać wyzwaniom współczesnym. Uświadomieniu możliwości rozwoju tego miejsca sprzyja prezentacja realizacji podziemnych z całego świata jako jednej z dróg rozwiązywania problemów przeciążonych miast. Przykłady wskazują sposoby rozładowania presji potrzeb, a zarazem odciążenie naziemnego programu usługowego miast i zwiększenie zasobów zieleni.]]>
<![CDATA[Compression-induced phase transitions of bicalutamide]]> Mon, 27 Jul 2020 09:32:50 +0200 Szafraniec-Szczesny, Joanna; Szefer, Ewa; Pielichowski, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: The formation of solid dispersions with the amorphous drug dispersed in the polymeric matrix improves the dissolution characteristics of poorly soluble drugs. Although they provide an improved absorption after oral administration, the recrystallization, which can occur upon absorption of moisture or during solidification and other formulation stages, serves as a major challenge. This work aims at understanding the amorphization-recrystallization changes of bicalutamide. Amorphous solid dispersions with poly(vinylpyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP/VA) were obtained by either ball milling or spray drying. The applied processes led to drug amorphization as confirmed using X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Due to a high propensity towards mechanical activation, the changes of the crystal structure of physical blends of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and polymer upon pressure were also examined. The compression led to drug amorphization or transition from form I to form II polymorph, depending on the composition and applied force. The formation of hydrogen bonds confirmed using infrared spectroscopy and high miscibility of drug and polymer determined using non-isothermal dielectric measurements contributed to the high stability of amorphous solid dispersions. They exhibited improved wettability and dissolution enhanced by 2.5- to 11-fold in comparison with the crystalline drug. The drug remained amorphous upon compression when the content of PVP/VA in solid dispersions exceeded 20% or 33%, in the case of spray-dried and milled systems, respectively.]]>
<![CDATA[Layer-by-layer deposition of copper and phosphorus compounds to develop flame-retardant polyamide 6/montmorillonite hybrid composites]]> Mon, 27 Jul 2020 09:32:18 +0200 Majka, Tomasz M.; Witek, Monika; Radzik, Paulina; Komisarz, Karolina; Mitoraj, Agnieszka; Pielichowski, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: Nowadays, increasing attention is devoted to the search for polymeric composite materials that are characterized by reduced flammability. In this work, the layer-by-layer (LbL) technique was applied to form multilayered protective coatings for polyamide 6/montmorillonite (PA6/MMT) hybrid nanocomposites. This time, the double layers LbL deposition was used in order to improve the thermal properties or flammability of PA6 materials. Our goal was to check how five, 10, and 15 triple-layer deposition onto the surface of PA6 and PA6/MMT composites influenced these relevant properties. For this reason, disodium H-phosphonate, sodium montmorillonite, and iodo-bis(triphenylphosphino)copper were used for polyelectrolyte solution preparation. It was found that the LbL method could be successfully used to improve the flammability characteristics of polyamide 6-based composites. Nevertheless, the deposition of the copper complex should be combined with other flame retardants—preferentially containing phosphorus—which enable synergistic effects to occur. Moreover, microscopic observations confirmed that the surfaces on which the formation of interwoven fibrous crystal structures was observed had a tendency to protect the entire material against the destructive effects of heat, contributing, among other things, to reduce the maximum point of heat release rate (PHRR).]]>