Nowe zasoby w kolekcji Artykuły i czasopisma http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/ Biblioteka Politechniki Krakowskiej lipinska@biblos.pk.edu.pl 60 <![CDATA[Big Data analytics and anomaly prediction in the cold chain to supply chain resilience]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 14:19:24 +0200 Lorenc, Augustyn; Czuba, Michał; Szarata, Jakub
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Abstrakt: The purpose of the research was to develop a prediction method to prevent disruption related to temperature anomaly in the cold chain supply. The analysed data covers the period of the entire working cycle of the thermal container. In the research, automatic Big Data analysis and mathematical modelling were used to identify the disruption. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to predict possible temperature-related disruption in transport. The provided research proves that it is possible to prevent over 82% of disruptions in the cold chain. The ANN enables analyses of the temperature curve and prediction of the disruption before it occurs. The research is limited to coolbox transportation of food under -20o C, but the method could also be used for Full Transport Load (FTL) in refrigerated transport. The research is based on real data, and the developed method helps to reduce the waste in the cold chain, improve transport quality and supply chain resilience. The presented method enables not only to avoid cold chain breaks but also to reduce product damage as well as improve the transport process. It could be used by cargo forwarders, Third-Party Logistics (3PL) companies to reduce costs and waste. The literature review confirms that there is no similar method to prevent disruption in the transport chain. The use of the Internet of Things (IoT) sensors for collecting data connected with Big Data analysis and ANN enables chain resilience provision.]]>
<![CDATA[Development of stimuli-responsive chitosan/ZnO NPs transdermal systems for controlled cannabidiol delivery]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 08:32:06 +0200 Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Janus, Łukasz; Piątkowski, Marek; Sierakowska, Aleksandra; Szajna, Ernest; Matýsek, Dalibor; Bogdał, Dariusz
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Abstrakt: One of the most common neurological diseases is epilepsy, which not only negatively affects the quality of people’s life but also may lead to life-threatening situations when its symptoms such as seizures cannot be controlled medically. A very serious problem to be overcame is the untreatable form of this disease, which cannot be cured by any currently available medicines. Cannabidiol, which is a natural product obtained from Cannabis Sativa, brings a new hope to people suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy. However, the hydrophobic character of this compound significantly lowers its clinical efficiency. One of the promising methods of this substance bioactivity increase is delivery through the skin tissue. In this article, a new type of advanced transdermal systems based on chitosan and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed according to Sustained Development principles. The chemical modification of the biopolymer confirmed by FT-IR method resulted in the preparation of the material with great swelling abilities and appropriate water vapor permeability. Obtained nanoparticles were investigated over their crystalline structure and morphology and their positive impact on drug loading capacity and cannabidiol controlled release was proved. The novel biomaterials were confirmed to have conductive properties and not be cytotoxic to L929 mouse fibroblasts.]]>
<![CDATA[Two-step finite element model tuning strategy of a bridge subjected to mining-triggered tremors of various intensities based on experimental modal identification]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:28:43 +0200 Boroń, Paweł; Dulińska, Joanna Maria; Jasińska, Dorota
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this paper, a two-step tuning strategy of a finite element (FE) model of a bridge with pot bearings exposed to mining-triggered tremors of various intensities is proposed. In the study, a reinforced concrete bridge 160 m long is considered. Once the modal identification of the bridge was experimentally carried out based on low-energy ambient vibrations, the FE model was tuned by replacing the free-bearing sliding with a Coulomb friction-regularized model. This model of friction split the tangential relative displacement rates between contacting surfaces into a reversible elastic part and irreversible sliding. The elastic microslip (spring-like behavior) prior to macrosliding can be explained by the deformation of asperities (roughness of contacting surfaces on the microscopic scale). The proposed model allows for accurate sliding bearing performance simulation under both low-energy and high-energy mining-induced tremors. In the first step of the FE model tuning strategy, the elastic microslip constant was experimentally estimated based on the modal identification. In the second step, the macro-sliding friction parameter was implemented to address the realistic behavior of the bridge under mining-induced shocks. Finally, the dynamic responses of the bridge to mining-triggered tremors of various intensities were calculated and assessed using the untuned and tuned FE models. The analysis proved that the untuned model was not suitable for dynamic bridge assessment in the case of low-intensity tremors. The stresses obtained for this model turned out to be strongly underestimated. For shocks of higher intensity, frictionless sliding at the bearings gives a relatively good global estimation of the structure performance but undervalues its local response. The analysis also reveals that the tuned Coulomb friction-regularized model allows for the accurate simulation of sliding bearings under both low and high-energy mining-induced tremors.]]>
<![CDATA[Transport zbiorowy na żądanie na przykładzie Krakowa]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:24:42 +0200 Starowicz, Wiesław; Dyrkacz, Grzegorz
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Abstrakt: Usługa przewozów autobusowych na żądanie skierowana jest głównie do osób zamieszkujących obszary o słabym zaludnieniu, gdzie utrzymywanie stałych linii jest wysoce nierentowne. Znacznie skraca czas oczekiwania pasażera na przystanku i zapewnia łatwy dojazd do węzłów przesiadkowych stałych linii komunikacji zbiorowej prowadzących do centrum miasta. Sprzyja zwiększaniu mobilności mieszkańców peryferii miast, zwłaszcza dotychczas nieobsługiwanych z powodu braku dostatecznego popytu na komunikację regularną. Daje możliwość obsługi większego obszaru przy użyciu mniejszej ilości pojazdów. Może stanowić doskonałe uzupełnienie konwencjonalnej oferty przewozowej. W artykule, na tle rozważań teoretycznych o usłudze, przedstawiono wyniki jej funkcjonowania pod nazwą TELE-BUS w Krakowie. Usługa została uruchomiona w 2007 roku. Wśród wyników zawarto analizę zmienności wielkości przewozów, liczby zrealizowanych kursów, średniej rocznej wielkości liczby przewożonych pasażerów w kursie, średniej rocznej długości kursu oraz pracy przewozowej.]]>
<![CDATA[Wpływ w/c na zmianę struktury napowietrzenia]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:19:40 +0200 Nowak-Michta, Aneta
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Abstrakt: Artykuł opisuje wpływ współczynnika wodno-cementowego na stabilność napowietrzenia i w konsekwencji na charakterystykę porów powietrznych, odpowiedzialną za zapewnienie odporności na złuszczanie betonów. Analizę przeprowadzono w oparciu o wyniki badań 6 napowietrzonych i 6 nienapowietrzonych betonów o zmiennym w/c w zakresie 0,53-0,30. Charakterystyki porów powietrznych w stwardniałych betonach określono za pomocą automatycznego systemu RapidAir 457 zgodnie z normą EN 480-11. Struktura napowietrzenia zmienia się wraz ze zmianą współczynnika w/c. W/C nie wpływa na zawartość korzystnych porów od napowietrzenia, jednakże odpowiada za zawartość dużych porów. Najkorzystniejszą strukturę porów uzyskano w betonie, który posiada optymalną lepkość pozwalającą na ucieczkę dużych porów podczas zagęszczania i zapobiegającą koalescencji drobnych porów, a także zawartość superplastyfikatora nie powodującą dodatkowego napowietrzania.]]>
<![CDATA[A study on activities related to habitation (indwelling) and their meanings]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:15:47 +0200 Stachura, Ewa; Binkowska, Katarzyna
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Abstrakt: The process of transformation in Poland contributed to the dynamic development of the housing market and caused a growth of aspirations among Poles related to the housing environment. The diversity of lifestyles has brought about new, different expectations of the residential environment. Meanwhile, most surveys examining housing preferences and focused on the location of housing, services and infrastructure in housing estates, and urban and architectural standards show similar expectations of residents in regards to their housing environment. The phenomenon of the homogenization of expectations regarding the residential environment appears regardless of the household lifecycle, place of residence, or level of wealth (STACHURA 2013). Research methods testing users’ preferences allow an expected set of characteristics of the housing environment to be specified. If the respondents' aspirations regarding the housing environment are similar regardless of the segment they belong to, it may be assumed that possible differences may be revealed by a more detailed study. People perform many activities in their homes. These activities are related to everyday living, family and social life, work or hobbies. Each of them may be in assigned to one or more rooms in a dwelling. Activities may have different meanings and hold a different degree of importance to the residents. When purchasing a new dwelling, buyers prefer homes where the activities most important to them can be carried out in the most satisfactory way. The study attempts to establish the relationships between activities and sub-settings (dwelling or residential environment features) as well as between activities and their meanings. This paper presents an extended method of examining residential preferences: respondents declare, in a survey questionnaire, what activities are carried out in the dwelling, and how they attach meanings to these activities. The pilot study showed that some of the activities are strongly associated with one specific room, while others may be connected to any room. Rooms in Polish homes have many functions. Some of the functions are strictly connected with the type of room (bedroom, bathroom), but there is also a set of everyday activities that can be assigned to different rooms, selected by the resident. The present research revealed that activities can take on different meanings, which determines their level of importance to the dwelling user.]]>
<![CDATA[Design guidelines for multi-service centre in municipality Wilkowice]]> Fri, 09 Apr 2021 07:11:37 +0200 Stachura, Ewa; Borowska, Monika; Domańska, Joanna
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Abstrakt: The transition period in Poland has allowed to establish a new segment of investors which are small towns and municipalities. This new group of investors undertake the task of new investment building new objects and elements of infrastructure. services, many of which manages to successfully finalize. New investments are usually successful in case of favorable location of the town in the region, its tourism attractiveness and good communication links. Already existing services and development also enable to start the new ventures as well as a precise vision and mission of the local government competently translates into strategic objectives then expressed by the idea of investment. This study presents a method of creating an information system for investment decisions in a small town - a seat of the municipality. It is related to the service buildings development. This paper shows the method of analysing and evaluating the location of the planned investment options in the context of the local master plan and the characteristics of the land. A method of a questionnaire survey was used to measure the level of acceptance for the planned investment by the future users. Selected segments of stakeholder groups were interviewed to get the opinions on the future program and architecture of the planned buildings.]]>
<![CDATA[Development of the new Polish method for capacity analysis of motorways and expressways]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 14:20:21 +0200 Olszewski, Piotr; Dybicz, Tomasz; Kustra, Wojciech; Romanowska, Aleksandra; Jamroz, Kazimierz; Ostrowski, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: The paper presents development of the new Polish method for performing capacity analysis of basic segments of dual carriageway roads (motorways and expressways). The method is based on field traffic surveys conducted at 30 motorway and expressway sites (class A and S roads) in Poland. Traffic flows, composition and travel times were observed in 15-min intervals at each site using ANPR filming method. These data were used to calibrate a family of traffic speed-flow relationships for different roads, based on Van Aerde model. Free flow speed of traffic and road class are the basic parameters defining the speed-flow relationship and the value of capacity per lane in pcu/h. Traffic density was adopted as the measure of effectiveness for defining the level of service. The paper describes derivation of formulae for estimation of free flow speed for different types of roads as well as determination of equivalent factors for converting vehicles to passenger car units. The method allows us to determine capacity and the level of service based on existing or forecasted traffic flow.]]>
<![CDATA[New pharmaceutical salts of trazodone]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 14:18:08 +0200 Jaśkowska, Jolanta; Zaręba, Przemysław; Drabczyk, Anna; Kozak, Agnieszka; Madura, Izabela D.; Majka, Zbigniew; Pindelska, Edyta
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Abstrakt: New pharmaceutically acceptable salts of trazodone (trazodone hydrogen bromide and trazodone 1-hydroxy-2-naphthonic acid) for the treatment of central nervous system disorders are synthesized and described. Although trazodone salts are poorly crystalline, single-crystal X-ray diffraction data for trazodone 1-hydroxy-2-naphthonic acid were collected and analyzed as well as compared to the previously described crystal structure of commercially available trazodone hydrochloride. The powder samples of all new salts were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Spectroscopic studies were supported by gauge including projector augmented wave (GIPAW) calculations of carbon chemical shielding constants. The main goal of our research was to find salts with better physicochemical properties and to make an attempt to associate them with both the anion structure and the most prominent interactions exhibited by the protonated trazodone cation. The dissolution profiles of trazodone from tablets prepared from various salts with lactose monohydrate were investigated. The studies revealed that salts with simple anions show a fast release of the drug while the presence of more complex anion, more strongly interacting with the cation, effects a slow-release profile of the active substance and can be used for the preparation of the tables with a delay or prolonged mode of action.]]>
<![CDATA[Urban and architectural design problems in the contemporary city : the case of Sarajevo]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 13:11:59 +0200 Stachura, Ewa; Tufek-Memisevic, Tijana; Sokołowska-Moskwiak, Joanna
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Abstrakt: In the era of globalisation cities grow and develop according to global rules that gain more importance comparing to the local environmental and cultural impact. Analysing the case of one city we can discuss the directions that can be implemented in similar cases (comparing scale, geographical features, urban layout and history). Such an approach was the subject of the International Students Workshop that took place 10-14 November 2014. Sarajevo is a very good example of a city of rich cultural background, stages of successful development and high regional importance. Diversity of the urban layout is the result of development inconsistency due to the frequent shift in regimes [7]. The raises and falls of Sarajevo's development manifest in city structure. They caused imbalance between potential on the one hand and existing standard on the other in some centrally located areas which is the case of Sarajevo's current city center-Marijin Dvor. Therefore the workshop topics and afterwards the workshop design proposals relate directly to the mentioned area. The paper presents and points out Sarajevo center's present urban and architectural potential and obstacles as well as proposes different solutions and approaches in order to improve the city standard.]]>
<![CDATA[Biblioteki akademickie po wdrożeniu reformy szkolnictwa wyższego i w czasie pandemii]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 12:27:50 +0200 Górski, Marek M.; Szewczyk-Kłos, Danuta
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<![CDATA[On hydro-mechanical response of self-healing and self-sealing fractured geomaterials]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 10:06:27 +0200 Pietruszczak, S.; Przecherski, P.
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Abstrakt: The paper presents a methodology for describing the mechanical and hydraulic response of fractured geomaterials undergoing self-healing (i.e. recovery of strength/stiffness) and self-sealing (i.e. reduction of permeability). Regaining of strength and decrease in fracture transmissivity are particularly desirable in host rock as well as engineered barrier systems of deep geological repositories for disposal of low and intermediate-level nuclear waste. In this work, an enhanced continuum formulation is provided for describing the effects of fracture healing/sealing processes. Numerical examples are also given that illustrate both hydraulic and mechanical aspects of the proposed approach.]]>
<![CDATA[Choosing a servicing company’s strategy while interacting with freight owners at the road transport market]]> Thu, 08 Apr 2021 09:12:33 +0200 Nugymanova, G.; Nurgaliyeva, M.; Zhanbirov, Zh.; Naumov, V.; Taran, I.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Purpose. To develop the methodology for choosing the strategies of freight forwarding companies in the situation of interaction with freight owners as customers of forwarding services. Methodology. The game-theoretical approach is used to formalize the conflict situation between a freight forwarding company and a cargo owner. A set of services proposed by forwarders is used as the base to represent possible strategies of a forwarder as the vector of probabilities that the respective services are provided for a client. The strategies of the cargo owner are represented as a binary variable that shows whether the client uses the provided services or not. The payoff function for a forwarder is defined as the company's profit and the clients' payoff function - as the fee paid for forwarding services. To determine the influence of the demand parameters on the forwarders' optimal strategies, the demand for transport services is represented as a flow of requests characterized by two numeric parameters delivery distance and consignment weight. Findings. The conducted experimental studies have shown that as a result of the use of the proposed methodology, the optimal strategy of a forwarding company can always be determined from the payoff matrix. The performed simulation experiment allowed us to state that in most cases the forwarders' optimal strategy is mixed (the technological and commercial services should be provided with the given probability while servicing the flow of requests from freight owners). Originality. The studies on the influence of the request flow parameters on the probabilities of choosing the elementary strategies are carried in the paper for the first time. Practical value. The proposed methodology can be used as the basic tool for supporting decisions of freight forwarders while servicing the cargo owners at the market of road freight transportation.]]>
<![CDATA[Time-to-failure forecast for corroded shell of above-ground steel tank used to store liquid fuels]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 15:07:55 +0200 Maslak, M.; Pazdanowski, M.
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Abstrakt: An original simplified procedure to estimate the remaining service time of corroded shell of an on-the-ground steel tank used to store liquid fuels is presented in this paper. Current corrosion progress trend, identified a’posteriori based on the obligatory technical condition monitoring, is extrapolated to the future tank service time under the assumption that the conditions of service would not change and no renovation or modernization works would be undertaken. Failure probability understood as exhaustion of the capability to safely resist the loads applied due to the corrosion progress constitutes the measure of the sought uptime. For comparative purposes several effective inference methods have been proposed for the same input data, based on formally qualitatively different but corresponding description measures. It has been shown, that in the analysis of this type the representative values, usually expressed as quantiles of probability distributions describing random variables in use, need not be specified to verify the safety condition. The proposed algorithm is based on fully probabilistic considerations, and those, according to Authors’ opinion, by their nature lead to more reliable, and at the same time, objective estimates. ]]>
<![CDATA[Obszary współpracy między uczelnią, biznesem a samorządem w zakresie przekształceń przestrzeni zurbanizowanej]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 15:04:16 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja i opis wzajemnych powiązań i obszarów współpracy między uczelnią, biznesem a samorządem. Ich współdziałanie jest warunkiem powodzenia podjętych zadań. Efektywność współpracy uczelni, biznesu i samorządu w zmieniających się warunkach ekonomicznych i społecznych wpływa bowiem na jakość uzyskanych rezultatów. Każdy z podmiotów formułuje strategie i cele działania, uwzględniając współdziałanie z partnerami. Kolejnym celem artykułu jest sformułowanie przesłanek do modelu współpracy, który uwzględniając różnice misji i zadań uczelni, biznesu oraz samorządu, wzmacniałby i przyspieszał działania na rzecz przekształceń przestrzeni zurbanizowanej. Włączenie społeczności lokalnych w opisane działania byłoby ważnym elementem realizacji celów zrównoważonego rozwoju. Istnieje bogata praktyka inicjowania i realizacji projektów na rzecz przestrzeni zurbanizowanej w różnej skali przy udziale trójkąta: uczelnia, biznes, samorząd. W artykule zaprezentowany zostanie case-study: Projekt placu Długosza w Raciborzu.]]>
<![CDATA[Thermal modernization cost and the potential ecological effect–scenario analysis for thermal modernization in Southern Poland]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 14:57:57 +0200 Blazy, Rafał; Błachut, Jakub; Ciepiela, Agnieszka; Łabuz, Rita; Papież, Renata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Air pollution is one of the important environmental problems in Poland. The main cause of its occurrence is emissions associated with individual heating of buildings. The reduction of the primary energy demand in a building is influenced by its proper thermal modernization, including in particular insulating. In view of the above, this article presents the results of studies on the possible environmental benefits of thermal modernization of single-family houses for the area of Southern Poland. The analysis was limited to determining the impact of measures to reduce air pollution emissions by insulating the building envelope of single-family houses. The research was conducted for two voivodeships: Śląskie and Małopolskie. Its aim is to identify the financial costs and achievable ecological effects of the thermal modernization of single-family buildings. The geographical selection of the research area was based on the fact that it covers the most polluted region in Poland. This region is characterized by many features that influence poor air quality. Among these features, the most important are: diversified building structure, a diverse topography, and very high population density. To limit multiple variables, we have selected a scenario method that has already been used in similar research. Four scenarios were established to show the relationship between the value of emission reductions and the level of funding for thermal modernization. The analysis allows a comparison of the effectiveness of individual variants and the transposition of their results into the possibilities of action in the region. This research will help to supplement the knowledge of the impact of insulating building envelopes on reducing pollutant emissions by reducing the energy demand of a building. They also identify a possible link between the level of this reduction and the grant amount for thermal modernization. As a result, it was found that a high share of external funding—stimulating the tendency of the inhabitants of the analyzed voivodeships to effective thermal modernization, and thus reducing the buildings’ energy consumption—has a significant impact on the improvement of air quality. ]]>
<![CDATA[Profit optimization for multi-mode repetitive construction project with cash flows using metaheuristics]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 14:54:04 +0200 Sroka, Bartłomiej; Rosłon, Jerzy ; Podolski, Michał; Bożejko, Wojciech; Burduk, Anna; Wodecki, Mieczysław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The article presents the profit optimization model for multi-unit construction projects. Such projects constitute a special case of repetitive projects and are common in residential, commercial, and industrial construction projects. Due to the specific character of construction works, schedules of such projects should take into account many different aspects, including durations and costs of construction works, the possibility of selecting alternative execution modes, and specific restrictions (e.g., deadlines for the completion of units imposed by the investor). To solve the NP-hard problem of choosing the order of units’ construction and the best variants of works, the authors used metaheuristic algorithms (simulated annealing and genetic search). The objective function in the presented optimization model was the total profit of the contractor determined on the basis of the mathematical programming model. This model takes into account monthly cash flows subject to direct and indirect costs, penalties for missing deadlines, costs of work group discontinuities, and borrowing losses. The presented problem is very important for maintaining a good financial condition of the enterprise carrying out construction projects. In the article, an experimental analysis of the proposed method of solving the optimization task was carried out in a model that showed high efficiency in obtaining suboptimal solutions. In addition, the operation of the proposed model has been presented on a calculation example. The results obtained in it are fully satisfying.]]>
<![CDATA[Automatyczne systemy zliczania pasażerów w miejskim transporcie zbiorowym]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 14:47:52 +0200 Aleksandrowicz, Jan; Starowicz, Wiesław
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Abstrakt: Artykuł poświęcony jest tematyce automatycznych systemów zliczania pasażerów. Przedstawiono w nim typy wykorzystywanych technologii w procesie detekcji pasażerów pojazdów miejskiego transportu publicznego wsiadających i wysiadających na przystankach. Zaprezentowano zastosowanie dla danych zbieranych w sposób automatyczny. W artykule opisano doświadczenia Miejskiego Przedsiębiorstwa Komunikacyjnego SA w Krakowie w procesie testowania i wdrażania automatycznych systemów zliczania pasażerów. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań w artykule zaproponowano metodykę przeprowadzania pomiarów w pojazdach mających na celu weryfikację pracy systemu. Dodatkowo przedstawiono istotne elementy analizy zebranych danych. Artykuł zakończono planem dalszych badań w zakresie automatycznych systemów zliczania pasażerów oraz podsumowaniem rezultatów dotychczasowych prac.]]>
<![CDATA[Effects of material constructions on supersonic flutter characteristics for composite rectangular plates reinforced with carbon nano-structures]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 10:44:49 +0200 Muc, Aleksander; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In this paper effects of material constructions on natural frequencies and critical aerodynamic pressures are investigated. It is assumed that the rectangular plate is made of a polymeric matrix reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets or carbon nanotubes. A general closed analytical method of solution is presented. It is demonstrated that three parameters define entirely the location of the critical flutter pressure. The influence of material properties and transverse shear effects is characterized by a set of multipliers. They can be easily adopted in design procedures.]]>
<![CDATA[Procedure proposal for establishing the class of dynamic accuracy for measurement sensors using simulation signals with one constraint]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 10:39:39 +0200 Tomczyk, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: This study proposes a procedure to establishing the class of dynamic accuracy (CDA) for measurement sensors using simulation signals with one constraint. The parameters of the mathematical model of the sensor, along with the associated uncertainties and the algorithm dedicated to determining the upper bound of dynamic error (UBDE), are the basis of this procedure. The influence of the uncertainties on the UBDE values is also analysed. The approach that we have developed here is a new proposal to evaluate the dynamic error of sensors that are intended for measuring dynamic quantities. This approach can be used to compare the accuracy of the same type of sensors but which are produced by competing companies in the same manner as for the accuracy class defined for instruments intended for static measurements. The implementation of these methods is presented on the example of a sensor to measure acceleration. All of the numerical calculations were performed using the MathCad15 program.]]>
<![CDATA[Eccentricity in induction machines – a useful tool for assessing its level]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 10:21:45 +0200 Petryna, Janusz; Duda, Arkadiusz; Sułowicz, Maciej
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: In the condition monitoring of induction machines operating in various industry sectors, the assessment of eccentricity is as important as the assessment of the condition of windings, bearings, mechanical vibrations, or noise. The reasons for the eccentricity can be various for example, rotor imbalance, damage or wear of the bearings, improper alignment of the rotor and the load machine, and finally, assembly errors after overhaul. Disregard of this phenomenon during routine tests may result in the development of vibrations transmitted to the stator windings, faster wear of the bearings, and even, in extreme cases, rubbing of the rotor against the stator surface and damage to the windings and local overheating of the machine core. On the basis of years of experience in the diagnosis of large induction machines operating in various industries, the article deals with the problem of developing reliable indicators for assessing the levels of commonly accepted types of eccentricity. Starting from field calculations and analyzing various cases of eccentricity, the methodology for determining the indicators for evaluation from the stator current spectrum is shown. The changes in the values of these indices for various cases of simultaneous occurrence of static and dynamic eccentricity are shown. The calculation results were verified in the laboratory. Also shown are three interesting cases from diagnostic practice in the evaluation of high-power machines in the industry. It has been shown that the proposed indicators are useful and enable an accurate diagnosis of levels of eccentricity.]]>
<![CDATA[Analiza jakości transportu zbiorowego realizowanego przez prywatnych przewoźników na trasie Alwernia–Kraków]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 10:04:34 +0200 Kołodziej, Gabriela; Starowicz, Wiesław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań punktualności kursowania przewoźników oraz preferencji i zadowolenia mieszkańców Gminy Alwernia w zakresie prywatnego transportu zbiorowego pomiędzy Alwernią a miastem Kraków. Przewozy te charakteryzują się niską punktualnością oraz niskim kosztem przejazdu. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników sporządzono ranking ważności cech jakości dla pasażerów, określono lukę jakościową oraz wskazano przykładowe rozwiązania służące podniesieniu poziomu jakości.]]>
<![CDATA[Badania sondażowe na temat przystosowania transportu zbiorowego do potrzeb osób niewidomych i słabowidzących w Krakowie]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 09:59:54 +0200 Pierzchała, Jarosław; Starowicz, Wiesław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Artykuł ma na celu przedstawienie problemów, sytuacji oraz niedogodności, z którymi najczęściej stykają się podczas podróży środkami miejskiego transportu zbiorowego w Krakowie osoby niewidome i słabowidzące. Podstawą do identyfikowania problemów i ocen były badania sondażowe przeprowadzone wśród osób niewidomych i słabowidzących. Badano problemy w zlokalizowaniu przystanku, najlepsze źródła informacji o rozkładzie jazdy i nadjeżdżającym pojeździe, problemy podczas wsiadania do pojazdu, podczas podróży i wysiadania oraz oceny skrajne niezadowolenia i zadowolenia z miejskiego transportu zbiorowego. Według ankietowanych transport zbiorowy w Krakowie staje się powoli coraz bardziej im przyjazny. Ogólna jego ocena w skali 1 -10 wynosi 6.]]>
<![CDATA[Dobre praktyki w miejskim transporcie zbiorowym w Krakowie ułatwiające podróżowanie osobom o ograniczonej mobilności]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 09:55:16 +0200 Dyrkacz, Grzegorz; Starowicz, Wiesław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Ciągły rozwój miast determinuje konieczność wprowadzania cyklicznych zmian w funkcjonowaniu transportu zbiorowego. W artykule opisane są dobre praktyki jakie stosuje Miejskie Przedsiębiorstwo Komunikacyjne SA w Krakowie w celu ciągłego podnoszenia jakości świadczonych przez siebie usług. Priorytetowo traktuje bezpieczeństwo w podróży oraz ciągłe podnoszenie komfortu pasażerów w ich codziennych przejazdach transportem zbiorowym w Krakowie, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem osób o ograniczonej mobilności ruchowej. Artykuł omawia szereg działań na różnych płaszczyznach począwszy od przystanków i infrastruktury towarzyszącej przez eksploatowany tabor, szkolenia pracowników, które sprawiają, że korzystanie z transportu zbiorowego w Krakowie jest coraz łatwiejsze i bardziej komfortowe. Aby nadążyć nad zmieniającymi się oczekiwaniami pasażerów oraz nowymi technologiami dostępnymi w dzisiejszym świecie, niezbędne jest kontynuowanie wdrażania innowacji, które sprawiać będą, że transport zbiorowy będzie się stawał coraz atrakcyjniejszy w stosunku do transportu indywidualnego, a nie będzie mało dostępny dla osób o ograniczonej mobilności.]]>
<![CDATA[Koncepcja systemu oceniającego styl jazdy kierowcy w transporcie drogowym ładunków]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 09:49:34 +0200 Smoleń, Piotr; Starowicz, Wiesław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono koncepcję systemu oceny stylu jazdy kierowcy w oparciu o dane telematyczne, rejestrowane przez terminal GPS zainstalowany w pojeździe. Koncepcja obejmuje zespół wskaźników oceny, metod ich pomiaru oraz algorytm oceniający styl jazdy kierowcy prowadzącego pojazd, służący do drogowego przewozu towarów według zasad techniki prowadzenia pojazdu ecodriving (ang.: jazda oszczędna). Koncepcja systemu zakłada, że kierowca będzie oceniany według zaproponowanych parametrów, a jego końcowa ocena zostanie sprowadzona do mierzalnej i porównywalnej wartości liczbowej, dzięki której może być porównywany z innymi kierowcami oraz z wynikami archiwalnymi konkretnego kierowcy. Symulacja działania algorytmu została przeprowadzona na rzeczywistych danych telematycznych udostępnionych przez jedną z małopolskich firm przewozowych na przykładzie 11 kierowców.]]>
<![CDATA[Public transport accessibility to upper secondary schools measured by the potential quotient : the case of Kraków]]> Wed, 07 Apr 2021 09:24:57 +0200 Rosik, Piotr; Puławska-Obiedowska, Sabina; Goliszek, Sławomir
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Abstrakt: The spatial differences in public transport accessibility to upper secondary schools are examined in this article, using the potential accessibility model, and based on the example of the city of Kraków. In order to achieve this goal, the potential quotient index has been used, taking into account both the demand for educational services operationalised with the population aged 15–19, and the supply of services depicted by the supply of places for pupils in different types of upper secondary school. A supplementary objective is to present recommendations for transport and educational policy implemented in the city in the context of potential locations of new upper secondary schools based on, among other parameters, the mean centre of the potential accessibility distribution and the potential accessibility dispersion index. We conclude that to better balance access to different types of schools throughout the city in the future, a new location for a general upper secondary school could be considered in the southern or eastern parts of Kraków.]]>
<![CDATA[Kondycjonowanie osadów ściekowych osadami z uzdatniania wody]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 13:08:46 +0200 Górka, Justyna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Badano możliwości wykorzystania osadów z uzdatniania wody w procesie przeróbki osadów ściekowych. W skali laboratoryjnej prze­prowadzono badania nad wpływem osadów zawierających koagulant glinowy na proces odwadniania osadów ściekowych. Sprawdzono wpływ dawek osadów z uzdatniania wody wymieszanych sposobem objętościowym oraz względem zawartości suchej masy organicznej. Stwierdzono zwiększenie skuteczności odwadniania przy zastosowaniu objętościowego sposobu mieszania. Nieznaczny wpływ osadów z uzdatniania wody na właściwości filtracyjne osadów ściekowych zaobserwowano dla próbek zmieszanych w zależności od zawartości suchej masy organicznej. Im większy był udział osadów z uzdatniania wody w mieszaninie osadów ściekowych, tym parametry odwadnialności były korzystniejsze.]]>
<![CDATA[Silicon as a component of ferric oxide scale covering ductile iron pipes after annealing]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 13:04:08 +0200 Wassilkowska, Anna; Dąbrowski, Wojciech
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Abstrakt: All ductile iron pipe producers use the annealing process to improve the metal structure. It lasts several hours in a hot air atmosphere, when the surface of pipes is covered by ferric oxide scale, consisting usually of two significantly different layers, being the subject of the research reported here. In the U.S.A., commercially produced pipes are not protected by zinc coatings, because it is believed that ferric oxides are not a solid undercoat for such coatings, while the EN 545:2010 standard used in Europe requires the use of zinc or zinc-aluminum coatings, depending on soil corrosivity. To evaluate which approach has more potential, it is necessary first of all to recognize the structure of ferric oxides after the annealing process and then to understand their role as a base for zinc coatings. The microstructure of oxide scales grown on the external surface of industrial ductile iron pipes was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. In the ductile iron matrix, the concentration of silicon is reported to be much lower than in the layer of oxide scale growing directly on the pipe surface. In several samples, some cracks between the oxide layers were not successfully avoided in spite of using a professional saw with a continuous cooling process. Each time the cracks were horizontal and occurred along two boundaries: between the ductile iron matrix and the first oxide layer or between the two oxide layers rich in silicon and essentially silicon free. ]]>
<![CDATA[Multi-objective Pareto optimization of parallel synthesis of embedded computer systems]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:58:21 +0200 Drabowski, Mieczysław
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Abstrakt: The paper presents problems of optimization of the synthesis of embedded systems, in particular Pareto optimization. The model of such a system for its design for high-level of abstract is based on the classic approach known from the theory of task scheduling, but it is significantly extended, among others, by the characteristics of tasks and resources as well as additional criteria of optimal system in scope structure and operation. The metaheuristic algorithm operating according to this model introduces a new approach to system synthesis, in which parallelism of task scheduling and resources partition is applied. An algorithm based on a genetic approach with simulated annealing and Boltzmann tournaments, avoids local minima and generates optimized solutions. Such a synthesis is based on the implementation of task scheduling, resources identification and partition, allocation of tasks and resources and ultimately on the optimization of the designed system in accordance with the optimization criteria regarding cost of implementation, execution speed of processes and energy consumption by the system during operation. This paper presents examples and results for multicriteria optimization, based on calculations for specifying nondominated solutions and indicating a subset of Pareto solutions in the space of all solutions.]]>
<![CDATA[Research and modification of the universal method of scheduling and operational planning of objects with a network representation of discrete type production]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:54:15 +0200 Telenyk, Sergii; Pavlov, Alexander; Misura, Elena; Lisetsky, Taras; Khalus, Elena; Melnikov, Oleg
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: We study the efficiency of the universal method of scheduling and operational planning for objects with a network representation of discrete production processes (UMSOP) by means of statistical modeling. We claim the efficiency of the method in general and of using PSC-algorithms to solve NP-hard single-stage scheduling problems used in UMSOP. We present a modification of UMSOP, which consists in a proposition to use a new efficient approximation algorithm as a part of the operational planning model. The algorithm is created for the single-stage scheduling problem that allows to solve the operational plan adjusting problems more efficiently, comparing to the single-stage scheduling problem used in UMSOP. We show that the obtained solution is conditionally optimal and give a lower bound to the optimal value of this new problem’s functional.]]>
<![CDATA[Ergonomic design improves cross-cultural road sign comprehension]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:51:20 +0200 Ben-Bassat, T.; Shinar, D.; Caird, J. K.; Dewar, R. E.; Lehtonen, E.; Sinclair, M.; Zakowska, L.; Simmons, S.; Liberman, G.; Pronin, M.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Background: Traffic sign design can have a substantial impact on road safety and traffic flow.The current study had three objectives: 1) Cross-validate the importance of ergonomic signdesign; 2) Evaluate the ability of ergonomics experts to predict sign comprehension by theaverage driver; 3) Offer improved sign designs for poorly designed road signs. In a previousstudy (Ben Bassat et al., 2019), human factors and ergonomics experts evaluated severalalternative designs for 31 different road signs, based on three ergonomics criteria – familiar-ity, standardization, and message/symbol compatibility. Some of these signs were tested inthe current study and the correlation between the results of the two studies was analyzed. Method: In this study, 805 licensed drivers from five countries were tested on their compre-hension of 24 conventional signs and 32 alternative signs. Signs were individually presentedon a screen and as soon as the participant decided on the meaning, the sign disappeared, andan experimenter wrote the stated meaning. The verbal responses were coded as correct (per-fectly or partially), wrong, or opposite of the true meaning. Sign identification response timewas also recorded. Results: In all countries across all signs, more drivers comprehended the alternativeergonomically superior signs, and the identification response times were shorter for thesesign designs. Furthermore, the correlation between ergonomics experts’ ratings as found in previous study and the percent of comprehension for each sign design was statistically significant and positive with r = 0.61. Conclusions: Road signs should be designed according to ergonomics-based criteria. Humanfactors experts’ opinions can be a useful tool in improving the design of poorly compre-hended signs (or icons) and in designing new signs (or icons).]]>
<![CDATA[Non-contact video-based remote photoplethysmography for human stress detection]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:49:53 +0200 Nikolaiev, Sergii; Telenyk, Sergii; Tymoshenko, Yury
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Abstrakt: This paper presents the experimental results for stress index calculation using developed by the authors information technology for non-contact remote human heart rate variability (HRV) retrieval in various conditions from video stream using common wide spread web cameras with minimal frame resolution of 640x480 pixels at average frame rate of 25 frames per second. The developed system architecture based on remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) technology is overviewed including description of all its main components and processes involved in converting video stream of frames into valuable rPPG signal. Also, algorithm of RR-peaks detection and RR-intervals retrieval is described. It is capable to detect 99.3% of heart contractions from raw rPPG signal. The usecases of measuring stress index in a wide variety of situations starting with car and tractor drivers at work research and finishing with students passing exams are presented and analyzed in detail. The results of the experiments have shown that the rPPG system is capable of retrieving stress level that is in accordance with the feelings of experiments’ participants.]]>
<![CDATA[Hardware implementation of radial-basis neural networks with Gaussian activation functions on FPGA]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:45:01 +0200 Shymkovych, Volodymyr; Telenyk, Sergii; Kravets, Petro
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This article introduces a method for realizing the Gaussian activation function of radial-basis (RBF) neural networks with their hardware implementation on field-programmable gaits area (FPGAs). The results of modeling of the Gaussian function on FPGA chips of different families have been presented. RBF neural networks of various topologies have been synthesized and investigated. The hardware component implemented by this algorithm is an RBF neural network with four neurons of the latent layer and one neuron with a sigmoid activation function on an FPGA using 16-bit numbers with a fixed point, which took 1193 logic matrix gate (LUTs—LookUpTable). Each hidden layer neuron of the RBF network is designed on an FPGA as a separate computing unit. The speed as a total delay of the combination scheme of the block RBF network was 101.579 ns. The implementation of the Gaussian activation functions of the hidden layer of the RBF network occupies 106 LUTs, and the speed of the Gaussian activation functions is 29.33 ns. The absolute error is ± 0.005. The Spartan 3 family of chips for modeling has been used to get these results. Modeling on chips of other series has been also introduced in the article. RBF neural networks of various topologies have been synthesized and investigated. Hardware implementation of RBF neural networks with such speed allows them to be used in real-time control systems for highspeed objects.]]>
<![CDATA[Metaetyka systemów społecznych : teorioetyczne aspekty koncepcji Niklasa Luhmanna]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 12:02:16 +0200 Jaśtal, Jacek
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Jedna z koncepcji historycznego rozwoju etyki stwierdza, że „teorie moralne nie mogą być oceniane w sposób zrozumiały inaczej niż w kategoriach sukcesu lub porażki w rozwiązywaniu problemów historycznie uwarunkowanych” (T. Irwin). Celem artykułu jest próba odpowiedzenia na pytanie, czy teoria systemów N. Luhmanna może być wykorzystana do wyjaśnienia historycznej zmienności teorii etycznych i spełnić rolę swojego rodzaju metaetyki. Wymaga to zbadania, czy teoria ta pozwala wyjaśnić funkcję moralności, jej społeczną, kulturową i historyczną zmienność oraz rolę teorii etycznych. Wydaje się, że teoria L. Luhmanna przechodzi ten test w sposób co najmniej zadawalający, choć za cenę odrzucenia wielu założeń przyjmowanych w etyce tradycyjnej. ]]>
<![CDATA[The risk of lightning losses in a structure equipped with RTC devices according to the standard EN 62305-2.2008]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 11:45:43 +0200 Wróbel, Zofia; Jagiełło, Adam St.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Incorrect adjustment of railway traffic control devices (rtc) to the specificity of the area in terms of lightning density may result in their damage by lightning-caused electromagnetic pulses. An associated risk assessment, as the standard in the analyses of the strength of rtc devices, should be made. However, manufacturers of rtc devices typically do not perform tests with respect to such high overvoltage conditions. Particularly in the case of the EN 62305-2 standard, the manufacturers of new rail traffic control devices usually do not carry out such analyses. In this paper, an analysis of the damage vulnerability of rtc devices caused by lightning discharges for a selected structure, including a signal box equipped with digital rtc devices is presented. The necessity of conducting a lightning damage vulnerability analysis for rtc devices is demonstrated. A part of the railway track where lightning discharges occur was analyzed. The results of the risk analysis obtained with the use of the DEHN Risk Tool software and based on the standard EN 62305-2 (2008, Lightning protection. Part 2. Risk management) are presented. Due to the fact that railway devices are not included in the current standard, three documents were adopted for the analysis: two editions of EN/IEC 62305-2 (from 2008 and 2012) and the recommendations of the ITU-International Telecommunication Union ITU-T K.39 (10/1996). The presented analysis is performed according to the 2008 standard version and to the chosen device.]]>
<![CDATA[Muszyna Zdrój – 10 years of spatial changes in the town and in the spa]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 11:38:29 +0200 Wójcikowski, Wojciech Karol
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Abstrakt: The aim of the article is to present activities in Muszyna Zdrój, located in the region of southern Poland spa resorts. In Poland there are 45 spa resorts (mostly small towns and villages) half of them were developed in the southern part of Poland and many of them are interesting examples of the transformations of the urban public space in the spa resorts. Almost all those settlements are locate in the outstanding natural environment including landscapes, climate and above all in the water, confirm a number of studies and a long tradition of conducting treatment advances in medicinal uses of many diseases. After a period of stagnation caused by ownership transformations in health resorts associated with the privatization and the reprivatisation of property nationalized after the Second World War. As well as long-term negligence in the period of system change in Poland after 1989. The activities carried out during last 10 years in Muszyna Zdrój like in the other health resorts located in the south of Poland focused to improve the quality of public spaces in these towns. Muszyna Zdrój is one of the most effective in attracting financial resources from European funds for all designed activities example. Muszyna Zdrój is a small historical town with developed in the beginning of XX century spa resort. The main advantages of the spa were climate, values of the landscape and sources of mineral waters. The spa resort is separate by the River Poprad from the town and develop separately. After few years of dynamic spatial changes in Muszyna Zdrój, the town and the spa resort become revitalized. Now Muszyna Zdrój is one of the good example of recent spatial changes in the health resorts of the whole of southern Poland spas. The main revitalization activities in the health resort consisted in creating a modern place for outside events, walking areas, place when everyone can drink the mineral water from the source and rest in different and attractive parks or spend time in outside mineral pools. New paths along the Poprad River and parks, designed and implemented in the spa part of the resort serves both residents, visitors and numerous tourists visiting the town and the spa. Activities undertaken in Muszyna Zdrój serve not only to improve the attractiveness of the town by improving the quality of public spaces for the comfort of visitors and tourists, but also for the sake of residents as well as natural resources of mineral resources thanks to which the spa towns have been functioning for centuries.]]>
<![CDATA[Studium parametryczne wytrzymałości na docisk w konstrukcjach z betonu]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 11:33:42 +0200 Seruga, Andrzej; Sokal, Piotr
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Abstrakt: Przedstawiono studium parametryczne wpływu wytrzymałości na ściskanie betonu, wpływu stosunku pola przekroju próbki do pola powierzchni docisku oraz stopnia zbrojenia spiralą na wytrzymałość betonu na docisk. Podano alternatywne wzory do obliczania wytrzymałości na docisk betonu elementów zbrojonych spiralami.]]>
<![CDATA[Zastosowanie splotów dużej nośności w prefabrykowanych elementach strunobetonowych]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 11:27:08 +0200 Seruga, Andrzej; Midro, Marcin
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Pierwszy most z betonu sprężonego splotami dużej nośności (7Φ6 mm) zbudowano w USA w roku 2009. Na podstawie analizy literatury i zrealizowanych konstrukcji przedstawiono korzyści zastosowania tego rodzaju splotów. Zaprezentowano również wyniki badań doświadczalnych przeprowadzonych w USA. Na podstawie tych wyników określono wymaganą minimalną wytrzymałość betonu na ściskanie w chwili zwolnienia naciągu, warunkującą uzyskanie odpowiedniej przyczepności betonu i długości transmisji.]]>
<![CDATA[Bridge Dynamics]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 10:05:05 +0200 rodzaj: redakcja numeru czasopisma
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<![CDATA[Contemporary housing environment of Poland : dwelling attributes assessment]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:37:44 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
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Abstrakt: This study examines housing conditions in Poland. Housing is an important part of the quality of life in the contemporary society. Dwellings satisfy not only personal needs but are also security, shelter and social status. The issues concerned with housing needs and preferences are multidisciplinary. They attract researchers from many disciplines, namely - economics, sociology, psychology, urban planning and architecture (Stachura, 2009). This paper looks at the rapidly changing housing environment in Poland with respect to the current housing conditions and their implications for the future innovative consumption. An important aspect of studies into occupancy standards is how to determine architectural attributes of housing space relating to the size, proportions, functional layout and appropriate technological solutions. This subjective assessment will expand the existing knowledge of life styles, cultural conditions of occupants and psychographic relations of occupants and their perception of occupancy space.]]>
<![CDATA[Sustainable housing environment and its impact on consumption patterns]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:33:24 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
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Abstrakt: This article main topic is to discuss key concepts, methods, applications and lessons learned in sustainable architecture, design and housing environment in last 20 years. Sustainable architecture and urban design challenges new and ingenious urban and architectural design at various levels. Examples are the following. – Minimising the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderating the use of materials, energy and development space. – Developing measures to relate form and adapt the design to the site, the region and the climate. – Establishing a harmonious, long lasting relationship between the inhabitants and their surroundings by addressing the essence of good form-giving. As indicated above sustainable housing environment (and architecture) shall be thus well built, easy to use and beautiful. Implementation of sustainability demands is strongly affecting inhabitants (consumers’) behaviour. This article highlights special aspects of sustainability in architecture, design and housing, due to their impact on contemporary consumption.]]>
<![CDATA[A study in Polish housing conditions : methodology and building typology characteristics]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:19:29 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
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Abstrakt: The attributes of the housing environment constitute an important part of the quality of living. Flats and houses, as other products, fulfill the complex needs of users, starting with the provision of shelter and a sense of safety, to satisfaction associated with the social context of occupancy and the perception of its aesthetic values. The housing environment, more than other functional aspects of architecture, shapes the structure of modern cities, and its high quality standards are reflected in the urban potential that promotes economic growth. The new paradigm of sustainable consumption, which is becoming widely popular all over the world, affects housing needs and modifies the housing preferences in Poland. Changes should be monitored in reference to current housing needs in Poland, to have a better view on new trends, as present-day housing conditions affect consumers’ needs and preferences. Knowledge of the relations between the qualitative aspects of housing conditions and expectations should support architects, urban planners and local authorities in creating a functional and aesthetic housing environment endowed with the attributes attractive to occupants. The paper is focused on presenting certain aspects of the present-day housing conditions in Poland. Out of extensive research material resulting from empirical studies, issues that concern the types of settlements, occupancy period, form of ownership (flats or houses) and utilized space have been selected. The derived information enables the evaluation and interpretation of the quality of the housing environment and the occupants’ aspirations. ]]>
<![CDATA[On invariant subspaces in weighted Hardy spaces]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:15:27 +0200 Dil’nyi, V. M.
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Abstrakt: We consider the description of translation invariant subspaces of a weighted Hardy space in the half plane. The obtained result includes the Beurling–Lax theorem for the Hardy space as a special case. We discuss the problem of generalization of the definition of inner function.]]>
<![CDATA[Architektura jako przedmiot konsumpcji]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:11:43 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
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<![CDATA[Kulturowe czynniki warunkujące architekturę mieszkaniową : przykład Polski i Turcji]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 09:01:15 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Zjawisko globalizacji sprawia, że unifikują się style życia ludzi należących do różnych kultur, żyjących w odmiennych warunkach klimatycznych i przyrodniczych. Potrzeby mieszkaniowe w różnych kręgach kulturowych ulegają współcześnie szybkim przekształceniom, nie tracą jednak specyfiki związanej z kulturową przynależnością. Różnice w postrzeganiu i odczuwaniu przestrzeni mieszkalnej w różnych częściach świata są traktowane najczęściej jako mało istotne wobec problemu głodu mieszkaniowego; są więc lekceważone (marginalizowane) w procesie projektowania i traktowane wyłącznie jako lokalny koloryt. W dobie globalizacji, na szybko urbanizujących się obszarach na całym świecie, upowszechnia się nowy „styl międzynarodowy”, nie uwzględniający specyfiki kulturowej w opisywanym znaczeniu. Artykuł prezentuje metodę badań porównawczych dotyczących potrzeb mieszkaniowych w różnych kręgach kulturowych. Badania potrzeb mieszkaniowych służą określeniu ich rdzenia, są również pomocne w sformułowaniu międzykulturowych wytycznych do projektowania architektury mieszkaniowej. Tezę ilustrują przykłady tureckich osiedli mieszkaniowych w mieście Konya i w Stambule.]]>
<![CDATA[Przestrzenne mierniki jakości zamieszkiwania w Polsce: wybór i ocena]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 08:46:43 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
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Abstrakt: Badania rynku nieruchomości mieszkaniowych w Polsce dotyczą przede wszystkim kształtowania się cen nieruchomości mieszkaniowych w przekroju jakościowym oraz przestrzennym, dynamiki budowy nowych lokali mieszkalnych przez różne kategorie inwestorów i dynamiki sprzedaży mieszkań oraz domów wznoszonych przez deweloperów. Nieliczne tylko opracowania zwracają uwagę na wybrane aspekty satysfakcji z zamieszkiwania oraz oczekiwań w tym zakresie konsumentów – potencjalnych nabywców mieszkań. W artykule pokazano, w jaki sposób można sklasyfikować, a następnie zbadać cechy jakościowe, opisujące warunki środowiska mieszkaniowego. Uzyskane wyniki ukazują relacje między percepcją i oceną atrybutów obecnego mieszkania i jego otoczenia a oczekiwanymi cechami w planowanym lokum.]]>
<![CDATA[Modified fast inverse square root and square root approximation algorithms: the method of switching magic constants]]> Tue, 06 Apr 2021 08:33:09 +0200 Moroz, Leonid V.; Samotyy, Volodymyr V.; Horyachyy, Oleh Y.
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Abstrakt: Many low-cost platforms that support floating-point arithmetic, such as microcontrollers and field-programmable gate arrays, do not include fast hardware or software methods for calculating the square root and/or reciprocal square root. Typically, such functions are implemented using direct lookup tables or polynomial approximations, with a subsequent application of the Newton– Raphson method. Other, more complex solutions include high-radix digit-recurrence and bipartite or multipartite table-based methods. In contrast, this article proposes a simple modification of the fast inverse square root method that has high accuracy and relatively low latency. Algorithms are given in C/C++ for single- and double-precision numbers in the IEEE 754 format for both square root and reciprocal square root functions. These are based on the switching of magic constants in the initial approximation, depending on the input interval of the normalized floating-point numbers, in order to minimize the maximum relative error on each subinterval after the first iteration—giving 13 correct bits of the result. Our experimental results show that the proposed algorithms provide a fairly good trade-off between accuracy and latency after two iterations for numbers of type float, and after three iterations for numbers of type double when using fused multiply–add instructions—giving almost complete accuracy. ]]>
<![CDATA[Oczekiwania Polaków wobec przyszłego domu i mieszkania w kontekście wymogów projektowania zrównoważonego (w świetle badań)]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 14:21:11 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
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Abstrakt: Architektura mieszkaniowa tworzy ramy dla zaspokojenia potrzeb mieszkaniowych, umożliwia odczuwanie satysfakcji estetycznej, może wyrażać wartości związane ze stylem życia, reprezentowane przez odbiorcę, manifestować jego prestiż i informować o pozycji społecznej. Spektakularne osiągnięcia współczesnej architektury sprawiły, że została ona „celebrytką”, przedmiotem medialnych doniesień dotyczących najnowszych architektonicznych realizacji i ich twórców: tym samym śledzenie rozwoju architektury stało się rodzajem hobby, któremu poświęcają się nie tylko profesjonaliści. Opisany splot uwarunkowań (wzmocniony dodatkowo przez kody kulturowe) sprawia, że aspiracje Polaków związane z zamieszkiwaniem są wysokie i stale rosną. Uwarunkowania ekonomiczne i prawne sprawiają jednak, że marzenia o „domu jutra” zostają urealnione i stają się preferencjami mieszkaniowymi, czyli konglomeratem potrzeb, wyobrażeń i możliwości nabywczych Polaków. Powstaje więc pytanie o obraz tychże preferencji, szczególnie w kontekście wymogów projektowania zrównoważonego. Znajomość oczekiwań wobec środowiska mieszkaniowego pozwala na wdrożenie działań edukacyjnych i przekonanie Polaków do architektury lepszej jakościowo. Celem artykułu jest prezentacja tych wyników ogólnopolskich badań mieszkańców miast, które dotyczą oczekiwań w zakresie prośrodowiskowych cech architektury mieszkaniowej.]]>
<![CDATA[New housing architecture in Poland after 1990 – attempt at classification]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 14:10:00 +0200 Stachura, Ewa J.
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Abstrakt: The scope of the paper is to present the results of studies on modern Polish housing architecture emerging after 1990: the classification, description and analysis of characteristic features of new houses and housing estates in their urban context. In the majority of cases new housing architecture is blended into the existing urban and social structures and, together, they provide a new quality of the housing environment. To describe and analyze Polish housing architecture examples representing the classified categories were selected out of abounding works of architecture, i.e. the houses and estates that are typical of a certain category and representing different concepts of space, unique in view of some urban and architectural solutions and novelty of form. Rapid changes that occurred in the Polish housing architecture in the last 20 years were supported by creative attitudes: openness to architectural trends worldwide, ability to implement new technological and material solutions. The conditions for effective use of knowledge and abilities of specialists involved in the construction process, especially architects, were created by new institutional and administrative solutions. However, liberal economy in the period of transition did not result in many council and communal housing ventures. The role of the state investor was taken over by developers who build houses and housing estates for sale or rent. This is a typical feature of the Polish housing architecture in the discussed period.]]>
<![CDATA[Study on thermal performance of a PCM enhanced hydronic radiant floor heating system]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 13:41:24 +0200 Larwa, Barbara; Cesari, Silvia; Bottarelli, Michele
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Abstrakt: Radiant floor systems enhanced with Phase Change Materials (PCMs) could achieve significant energy savings while improving the thermal comfort of occupants in lightweight buildings. Effective integration of PCMs typically requires customised solutions based on a comprehensive analysis due to their complex nature. The objective of the present study is the experimental and numerical investigation of a hydronic radiant floor heating system integrated with macroencapsulated PCM. Experimental tests were carried out on a laboratory-scale by the University of Ferrara, Italy, within the H2020 European project IDEAS. A 2D model was then implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics and calibrated in steady as well as in transient state according to the experimental tests. The behaviour of the system, including temperature distribution and heat flux, were analysed under different conditions. The impact of using dry and wet sand, as well as the effect of the position of PCM – above or under heating pipes – on thermal performance, were investigated. Results showed that the use of high thermal conduction in mortar increases much faster the overall performance of the PCM integrated underfloor heating system. Furthermore, the coupling technology with PCM containers installed under piping significantly enhances the positive effect of wet sand.]]>
<![CDATA[Multi-domain and multi-material topology optimization in design and strengthening of innovative sustainable structures]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 12:21:14 +0200 Tajs-Zielińska, Katarzyna; Bochenek, Bogdan
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Abstrakt: Expectations and challenges of modern sustainable engineering and architecture stimulate intensive development of structural analysis and design techniques. Designing durable, light and eco-friendly constructions starts at the conceptual stage, where new efficient design and optimization tools need to be implemented. Innovative methods, like topology optimization, become more often a daily practice of engineers and architects in the process of solving more and more demanding up-to-date engineering problems efficiently. Topology optimization is a dynamically developing research area with numerous applications to many research and engineering fields, ranging from the mechanical industry, through civil engineering to architecture. The motivation behind the present study is to make an attempt to broaden the area of topology optimization applications by presenting an original approach regarding the implementation of the multi-domain and multi-material topology optimization to the design and the strengthening/retrofitting of structures. Moreover, the implementation of the design-dependent self-weight loading into the design model is taken into account as a significantly important issue, since it influences the final results of the topology optimization process, especially when considering massive engineering structures. As an optimization tool, the original efficient heuristic algorithm based on Cellular Automata concept is utilized.]]>
<![CDATA[Hydromorphological evaluation of the river training impact on a multi-thread river system (Belá River, Carpathians, Slovakia)]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 12:07:35 +0200 Kidová, Anna; Radecki‑Pawlik, Artur; Rusnák, Miloš; Plesiński, Karol
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Abstrakt: The paper evaluates the impact of river training works designed to address problems associated with fooding on the braided-wandering Belá River in Slovakian Carpathians. This impact was investigated after the food event in July 2018 on 11 river reaches where the river engineering and management intervention was applied. We analyzed its impact by spatio-temporal variations in river morphology (12 channel parameters) and changes in cross-section and hydraulic parameters (fow velocity, shear stress, stream power, W/D ratio) between pre- and post-food management periods. The research hypotheses related to decreasing geodiversity in managed river reaches, a rapid increase in fow velocity during an extreme food in river reaches where there is no sufcient foodplain inundation due to artifcially high banks built by river training works, and increasing erosive force in the channel zone thanks to river management intervention were confrmed. The intervention in the braidplain area of the Belá River resulted in an undesirable simplifcation of the river pattern, loss of geomorphic diversity, loss of channel–foodplain connectivity, and disturbance and restraint of hydromorphological continuity. Identifcation of main conficts of the Belá River management is important for clarifying the diferent approaches of stakeholders in the study area and aims to provide an objective illustration of their consequences. The presented analyses could help in future management issues as well as in the more critical decision-making process in vulnerable and rare braided river systems on the present when we are losing so many natural rivers by human decisions. ]]>
<![CDATA[Kształtowanie architektury domów i mieszkań z wykorzystaniem wyników badań preferencji mieszkaniowych Polaków]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 11:30:12 +0200 Stachura, Ewa
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Abstrakt: Transformacja i związane z nią przekształcenia społeczne (np. wzrost aspiracji w zakresie zamieszkiwania) i ekonomiczne (m. in. urynkowienie dużej części zasobów spółdzielczych i komunalnych) sprawiły, że w ostatnim dwudziestoleciu lawinowo wzrósł popyt na domy i mieszkania, a w odpowiedzi nastąpił gwałtowny przyrost nowych siedlisk wznoszonych przez deweloperów. Wspomniane procesy znajdują swoje odzwierciedlenie w przebiegu i w jakości procesu urbanizacji. Polityka mieszkaniowa państwa w Polsce ma ograniczony zakres, a najważniejszym podmiotem po stronie podażowej rynku mieszkaniowego jest inwestor prywatny – deweloper, realizujący w przeważającej większości małe i średnie zespoły mieszkaniowe, które wpisywane są w istniejącą tkankę miejską, bądź lokowane na terenach otwartych. Opracowanie zawiera próbę empirycznego przedstawienia wpływu uczestników fazy projektowej procesu inwestycyjnego na decyzje o cechach środowiska mieszkaniowego. Obejmuje także ocenę stopnia wykorzystania wiedzy o preferencjach konsumentów w procesie konstruowania wytycznych do projektowania. ]]>
<![CDATA[Elements of pathway for quick and reliable health monitoring of concrete behavior in cable post-tensioned concrete girders]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 09:12:53 +0200 Bednarz, Lukasz; Bajno, Dariusz; Matkowski, Zygmunt; Skrzypczak, Izabela; Leśniak, Agnieszka
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Abstrakt: The paper discusses the problems connected with long-term exploitation of reinforced concrete post-tensioned girders. The scale of problems in the world related to the number of cable post-tensioned concrete girders built in the 1950s and still in operation is very large and possibly has very serious consequences. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation of the results of measurements of the deflection and strength and homogeneity of concrete in cable–concrete roof girders of selected industrial halls located in Poland, exploited for over 50 years. On the basis of the results of displacement monitoring in the years 2009–2020, the maximum increments of deflection of the analyzed girders were determined. Non-destructive, destructive, and indirect evaluation methods were used to determine the compressive strength of concrete. Within the framework of the indirect method recommended in standard PN-EN 13791, a procedure was proposed by the authors to modify the so-called base curve for determining compressive strength. Due to the age of the analyzed structural elements, a correction factor for the age of concrete was taken into account in the strength assessment. The typical value of the characteristic compressive strength is within the range 20.3–28.4 MPa. As a result of the conducted tests, the concrete class assumed in the design was not confirmed, and its classification depended on the applied test method. The analyzed girders, in spite of their long-term exploitation, can be still used for years on the condition that regular periodical inspections of their technical condition are carried out. The authors emphasize the necessity for a permanent and cyclic diagnostic process and monitoring of the geometry of girders, as they are expected to operate much longer than was assumed by their designers.]]>
<![CDATA[Synthesis and characterization of polymer-based coatings modified with bioactive ceramic and bovine serum albumin]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 08:47:22 +0200 Florkiewicz, Wioletta; Słota, Dagmara; Placek, Angelika; Pluta, Klaudia; Tyliszczak, Bożena; Douglas, Timothy E. L.; Sobczak-Kupiec, Agnieszka
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Abstrakt: This study involves the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and describes the preparation and characterization of polymer coatings based on poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) and modified with bovine serum albumin and hydroxyapatite. Hydroxyapatite was obtained by wet chemical synthesis and characterized by X-ray diffraction and FTIR spectroscopy, and its Ca/P molar ratio was determined (1.69 ± 0.08). The ceramic and bovine serum albumin were used in the preparation of composite materials with the polymeric matrix. The chemical composition of coatings was characterized with FTIR spectroscopy, and their morphology was recorded with SEM imaging. Moreover, the measurements of surface roughness parameters and stereometric research were performed. The prepared coatings were subjected to in vitro studies in simulated body fluid and artificial saliva. Changes in chemical composition and morphology after immersion were examined with FTIR spectroscopy and SEM imaging. Based on the conducted research, it can be stated that applied modifiers promote the biomineralization process. The roughness analysis confirmed prepared materials were characterized by the micrometer-scale topography. The materials morphology and roughness, and the morphology of the newly formed apatite deposit, were dependent on the type of the used modifier, and the artificial fluid used in in vitro studies.]]>
<![CDATA[The Svalbard Church in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen, as an example of a social space in an area with an extremely cold climate]]> Thu, 01 Apr 2021 08:43:04 +0200 Jagiełło-Kowalczyk, Magdalena; Żabicka, Agnieszka
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Abstrakt: The main object of this study is the social space of the Svalbard Church (Svalbard Kirke in Longyearbyen on the island of Spitsbergen, a part of the Svalbard archipelago). It is an example of a social space that is atypical when European conditions are concerned. During the study of the architecture and urban layouts of Spitsbergen, as well as studying its inhabitants, the authors focused on the role and significance of social spaces in the lives of residents, their general characteristics and their positives and negatives, the manner of their use by various social groups, as well as their quality and functional solutions. The Svalbard Church, which is an example of a social space, was investigated while focusing on its characteristics as a place and on its context, the function and form of its architectural and urban layout, its structural system, construction materials, colour and its detail in reference to its distinct climate conditions. The goal of the study was to identify the quality of this space and its suitability to its users. The study was performed using critical analysis, on-site observation and included a survey. The survey was performed among a group of respondents composed of the users of the investigated space, divided into the following age groups: 19 or younger, 20–25 years of age, 26–44 years of age, 45–66 years of age and over 67 years of age.]]>
<![CDATA[Strain and displacement measurement based on distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS) system integrated with FRP composite sandwich panel]]> Wed, 31 Mar 2021 11:43:04 +0200 Kulpa, Maciej; Howiacki, Tomasz; Wiater, Agnieszka; Siwowski, Tomasz; Sieńko, Rafał
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Abstrakt: An increase in application of advanced materials and high-tech monitoring systems is being observed in bridge engineering in recent years. The main goal is aimed at optimizing maintenance costs spent during entire lifecycle of a bridge. The paper describes the concept of the smart fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sandwich deck panel, dedicated for newly-designed and renovated bridges. This panel is equipped with the distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS) system, integrated with composite laminates. The DFOS system is provided to control strain and displacement measurement, further used in the structural health monitoring of a bridge. The DFOS system is characterized by the following features: accurate, reliable and distributed strain measurements, possibility of assessing shape and displacements, detection of local damages, reliable protection of the sensors, no need for surface installations, high durability, measurements from the real zero state of the structural element. Exemplary results of distributed fibre optic strain and displacement measurements performed under laboratory conditions on laminate specimens as well as the beam cut from the prototype panels are presented and compared to conventional measurements and FEM predictions.]]>
<![CDATA[Substantiation of loading hub location for electric cargo bikes servicing city areas with restricted traffic]]> Wed, 31 Mar 2021 11:29:39 +0200 Naumov, Vitalii
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Abstrakt: Electric cargo bicycles have become a popular mode of transport for last-mile goods deliveries under conditions of restricted traffic in urban areas. The indispensable elements of the cargo bike delivery systems are loading hubs: they serve as intermediate points between vans and bikes ensuring loading, storage, and e-vehicle charging operations. The choice of the loading hub location is one of the basic problems to be solved when designing city logistics systems that presume the use of electric bicycles. The paper proposes an approach to justifying a loading hub location based on computer simulations of the delivery process in the closed urban area under the condition of stochastic demand for transport services. The developed mathematical model considers consignees and loading hubs as vertices in the graph representing the transport network. A single request for transport services is described based on the set of numeric parameters, among which the most significant are the size of the consignment, its dimensions, and the time interval between the current and the previous requests for deliveries. The software implementation of the developed model in Python programming language was used to simulate the process of goods delivery by e-bikes for two cases—the synthetically generated rectangular network and the real-world case of the Old Town district in Krakow, Poland. The loading hub location was substantiated based on the simulation results from a set of alternative locations by using the minimum of the total transport work as the efficiency criterion. The obtained results differ from the loading hub locations chosen with the use of classical rectilinear and center-of-gravity methods to solve a simple facility location problem.]]>
<![CDATA[Characteristics of fulvic acids generated in communes waste landfills]]> Wed, 31 Mar 2021 11:18:10 +0200 Orliński, Tomasz; Anielak, Anna M.
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Abstrakt: The leachate problem is important and difficult to solve in Poland and in the world. The composition and their properties leachates depend on the age of the landfill, type of waste, climatic conditions and the mode of operation of the landfill. A significant part of landfilled waste is subject to so-called humification. This process stabilizes organic substances in the landfill and creates humic substances that penetrate into the leachate. The leaks contain many toxic impurities, such as PAHs, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and other substances hazardous to human health and life, which can be sorbed by humic substances. Leachates from three municipal landfills, differing in the characteristics of the stored waste, were studied. Fulvic acids (FAs) were extracted on the basis of affinity for specific solvents along with the use of sorption. The obtained acids were subjected to a qualitative analysis of the content of micro-impurities, essential elements forming the structure of the fulvic acid molecule, and their infrared spectra were tested. It has been noticed that with the age of waste deposited, the content of elemental carbon increases, and the amount of oxygen and hydrogen decreases. The degree of purity of fulvic acids was influenced by the time of waste storage, and the sulfur content depended on their characteristics. With the time of waste storage, the characteristics of the acids obtained were approaching humic acids, and the intensity of absorption bands clearly increased. The spectra obtained correlate well with those of fulvic acids available in the literature, and the findings provide scientific confirmation of the need for further research on the characteristics of fulvic acids.]]>
<![CDATA[Solution for a two-year renewal cycle of structured road markings]]> Wed, 31 Mar 2021 11:02:36 +0200 Burghardt, Tomasz E.; Pashkevich, Anton; Bartusiak, Jacek
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Abstrakt: Road markings are a necessary safety feature that guides drivers. For visibility in darkness, when accident risk and severity are the highest, road markings must be reflectorised with glass beads to be visible when vehicle headlights shine on them. Renewal of thick-layer structured road markings that have lost retroreflectivity but have retained the structure mostly intact is performed through application of thin-layer paint coatings. Based on a field experiment, it was demonstrated that selection of premium glass beads profoundly extends the durability of the renewed markings, which could be further enhanced through the use of high-performance waterborne paint. Whereas the standard system based on solventborne paint and typically used glass beads failed after a single winter, the use of premium road marking system at least doubled the service life. The extended road marking service life translates to 50% savings in material consumption, 50-97% lower emissions of volatile organic compounds, and a decrease in long-term financial expense by 5-26%.]]>
<![CDATA[Thermal degradation of POSS-containing nanohybrid linear polyurethanes based on 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate]]> Wed, 31 Mar 2021 10:06:42 +0200 Ozimek, Jan; Sternik, Dariusz; Radzik, Paulina; Hebda, Edyta; Pielichowski, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: Synthesized from 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), 1,4-butanediol (BDO), poly(tetramethylene)glycol (PTMG), and propanediolisobutyl-POSS (PHI‑POSS) nanohybrid polyurethanes (PU) were examined by TG/FTIR/MS coupled method to determine the mechanism of thermal improvement caused by POSS addition. The measurements were made in both; inert and oxidizing atmosphere for composites containing 0, 6, and 10 % of PHI-POSS. Depending on the concentration of additive, and the surrounding atmosphere we noticed from 5 to 15 °C improvement on different stages of degradation. Among the released gases, mostly tetrahydrofuran (THF), butanediol (BDO), and HDI were recorded, as well as various PTMG-derived ethers and alcohols formed during the depolymerization of segments present in the amorphous phase, as well as amines and amides as decomposition products of segments in the crystalline phase. Interestingly, the release of formates and formaldehyde before the first stage of degradation was observed in the oxidizing atmosphere. The effect of POSS addition causes: (i) reduction of the number of hard domains intensifies the first stage of degradation, but simultaneously increases the onset and the temperature of the maximum rate of decomposition at different stages through preventing some rearrangements leading to breaking of chain, and (ii) formation under elevated temperature conditions of silica-rich char residues that act as a barrier for gas and mass transport.]]>
<![CDATA[Frictionless mobility of submicron particles in model viscid fluid]]> Wed, 31 Mar 2021 09:53:51 +0200 Stanek, J.; Fornal, P.; Dziedzic-Kocurek, K.
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Abstrakt: The mechanism of inter- and intracellular diffusional transport by vesicles in living organisms is poorly understood at the molecular scale. The diffusion of submicron and nanoparticles in dense media has been treated by numerous theoretical models. We face this problem experimentally using Mössbauer spectroscopy. On a characteristic for this method narrow time scale (≈10^−7 s), the velocity distribution of 120 nm spherical Fe2O3 particles suspended in a 60% water solution of sucrose was determined by analyzing the 57Fe Mössbauer spectral line profile. The particles usually exhibit classical Brownian motion, but their main diffusion mechanism is related to infrequent ( f≈10^6 1/s) but distant (d≈1 nm) translations. During such movements, the particles experience a minimal friction described by the temporal local viscosity, ηloc≈28 μPa·s.]]>
<![CDATA[Development of accurate classification of heavenly bodies using novel machine learning techniques]]> Wed, 31 Mar 2021 08:12:43 +0200 Wierzbiński, Michał; Pławiak, Paweł; Hammad, Mohamed; Acharya, U. Rajendra
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Abstrakt: The heavenly bodies are objects that swim in the outer space. The classification of these objects is a challenging task for astronomers. This article presents a novel methodology that enables an efficient and accurate classification of cosmic objects (3 classes) based on evolutionary optimization of classifiers. This research collected the data from Sloan Digital Sky Survey database. In this work, we are proposing to develop a novel machine learning model to classify stellar spectra of stars, quasars and galaxies. First, the input data are normalized and then subjected to principal component analysis to reduce the dimensionality. Then, the genetic algorithm is implemented on the data which helps to find the optimal parameters for the classifiers. We have used 21 classifiers to develop an accurate and robust classification with fivefold cross-validation strategy. Our developed model has achieved an improvement in the accuracy using nineteen out of twenty-one models. We have obtained the highest classification accuracy of 99.16%, precision of 98.78%, recall of 98.08% and F1-score of 98.32% using evolutionary system based on voting classifier. The developed machine learning prototype can help the astronomers to make accurate classification of heavenly bodies in the sky. Proposed evolutionary system can be used in other areas where accurate classification of many classes is required. ]]>
<![CDATA[Hyperspectral classification of blood-like substances using machine learning methods combined with genetic algorithms in transductive and inductive scenarios]]> Wed, 31 Mar 2021 07:19:12 +0200 Pałka, Filip; Książek, Wojciech; Pławiak, Paweł; Romaszewski, Michał; Książek, Kamil
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This study is focused on applying genetic algorithms (GAs) to model and band selection in hyperspectral image classification. We use a forensic-inspired data set of seven hyperspectral images with blood and five visually similar substances to test GA-optimised classifiers in two scenarios: when the training and test data come from the same image and when they come from different images, which is a more challenging task due to significant spectral differences. In our experiments, we compare GA with a classic model optimisation through a grid search. Our results show that GA-based model optimisation can reduce the number of bands and create an accurate classifier that outperforms the GS-based reference models, provided that, during model optimisation, it has access to examples similar to test data. We illustrate this with experiments highlighting the importance of a validation set.]]>
<![CDATA[Green Public Procurement criteria for road marking materials from insiders’ perspective]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 14:23:37 +0200 Burghardt, Tomasz E. ; Pashkevich, Anton
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Abstrakt: European Union Green Public Procurement (GPP) criteria for road marking materials (comprising paints, plastic masses, and tapes) have been recently published. Among the criteria, the key is limitation in the contents of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC); as a novelty in Europe, several solvents would be exempt from the VOC content calculations. Other parameters include exclusion of hazardous materials, heavy metals, and ingredients that would cause significant hazard warnings. In addition, contents of titanium dioxide and the quantity of recycled materials in glass beads are specified and durability of road marking systems is included. In this review, the key points of the GPP are assessed and uncertainties are pinpointed and discussed. Particular attention is given to solvents, which belong to inalienable ingredients in road marking paints. Amongst demonstrated weaknesses of the GPP, the use of nominal VOC contents instead of Ozone Formation Potential and downplaying the impact of service life on overall emissions and materials consumption appear to be the most important. Results from field testing of road marking paints are provided to exemplify this weakness.]]>
<![CDATA[Quantitative interpretation of the response of Solvent-Quenched Pressure Sensitive Paints (SQ-PSPs) to pressure]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 14:00:22 +0200 Pilch, Maciej; Ortyl, Joanna; Popielarz, Roman
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Abstrakt: A semi-empirical equation describing the response of Solvent-Quenched Pressure Sensitive Paints (SQ-PSP) to pressure has been derived on the basis of phenomenological and thermodynamic considerations. Next, a method for determination of the coefficients present in the equation was proposed and fidelity of the predictions based on the equation was verified by comparison of the predictions to real experimental data. The model SQ-PSPs were composed of pressure-sensitive europium(III) complexes incorporated into polyacrylate or polysiloxane polymer matrices containing toluene in the role of the quencher. It has been found that the proposed equation fits very well to experimental data, so it can be used for calibration of the SQ-PSPs response to changes of pressure in the applications of SQ-PSPs for mapping pressure distribution on surfaces.]]>
<![CDATA[City_Campus_City: TU Bergakademie Freiberg]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 12:29:24 +0200 Mensing-de Jong, Angela; Racoń-Leja, Kinga; Kowalski, Przemysław; Zdrahálová, Jana
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Abstrakt: Die Schaffung oder der Erhalt eines attraktiven und inspirierenden Umfelds für die sogenannte „Creative Class“ der Wissensgesellschaft gehört zu den wichtigsten Zielen und Aufgaben, denen sich Universitäten, Städte und Regionen im Sinne ihrer Zukunftsfähigkeit widmen. Die Stadt Freiberg hat im Zusammenspiel mit der TU Bergakademie ein besonderes Entwicklungspotenzial, das in den vergangenen Jahren bereits zu bemerkenswerten Projekten geführt hat.]]>
<![CDATA[Ijburg – W poszukiwaniu równowagi]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 11:10:53 +0200 Mielnik, Anna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Celem artykułu jest wskazanie potrzeby przywrócenia racjonalnego podejścia do dzisiejszego planowania urbanistycznego i architektury. Wiele badań i projektów dotyczących współczesnego miasta koncentruje się głównie na różnych rodzajach „nowatorskich” konfiguracji miejskich, które mają poradzić sobie z obecnymi i przyszłymi problemami. Wydaje się jednak, że często brakuje w nich historycznej, kulturowej, psychologicznej i społecznej świadomości. A przecież postrzeganie i rozumienie miasta opiera się głównie na jego obrazach, wspomnieniach i konotacjach z przeszłości. Wciąż podejmowane są próby zbliżenia się do racjonalnej równowagi między starym a nowym, tradycyjnym a nowoczesnym, formą a funkcją, pięknem a postępowymi aspektami miasta. Tekst stanowi studium przypadku dzielnicy Amsterdamu — IJburg — jako przykładu dużego przedsięwzięcia, który może ułatwić omówienie roli i potencjału tkwiącego w tradycyjnej typologii urbanistycznej i architektonicznej, pomocnego w procesie tworzenia nowych układów miejskich. Wnioski przedstawione w tekście, oparte na analizowanym projekcie dzielnicy IJburg, koncentrują się na wskazaniu typów urbanistycznych i architektonicznych z przeszłości jako narzędzi projektowych, które wciąż mogą zapewniać niezwykłe twórcze i instrumentalne możliwości oraz funkcjonować jako nośniki znaczenia i tożsamości kulturowej.]]>
<![CDATA[Klasyfikacja zagrożeń w łańcuchu dostaw i wybrane metody analizy i oceny ryzyka]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:47:39 +0200 Kisielewski, Piotr; Stanek, Agnieszka
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono zagrożenia w aspekcie terminowości dostaw oraz wynikające z zagrożeń ryzyko strat finansowych. Opóźnienia dostaw są jednym z najpoważniejszych problemów w sieci powiązań między przedsiębiorstwami, dlatego w artykule przedstawiono możliwość zastosowania metod programowania sieciowego w celu analizy i oceny ryzyka na przykładzie łańcucha dostaw z branży motoryzacyjnej. W pracy podano przykład mapy ryzyka, która jest szczególnie istotna przy wyborze sposobów minimalizacji ryzyka i eliminacji jego skutków.]]>
<![CDATA[Analiza porównawcza nowych systemów miejskiego transportu indywidualnego]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:43:16 +0200 Górska, Katarzyna; Kisielewski, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule omówiony został problem nowo pojawiających się form indywidualnego transportu miejskiego, jako alternatywy dla systemu taksówek i użytkowania własnych pojazdów samochodowych. Celem pracy było przedstawienie kierunków możliwego rozwoju miejskiego transportu indywidualnego w oparciu o wyniki przeprowadzonej ankiety.]]>
<![CDATA[The synergy of ecosystems of blue and green infrastructure and its services in the metropolitan area–chances and dangers]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:41:59 +0200 Blazy, Rafał; Hrehorowicz-Gaber, Hanna; Hrehorowicz-Nowak, Alicja; Płachta, Arkadiusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Ecosystems have become synanthropized, and the degree of their transformation depends on their susceptibility to anthropopressure, but they are necessary for the functioning of the anthropogenic environment. They provide many ecosystem services, yet they are often not protected in any way, and their value is not taken into account at all in the process of creating local development plans. The analysis of the blue and green infrastructure covered three municipalities: Łapanów, Gdów, and Dobczyce. To calculate the benefits of ecosystem services, the method of calculating the Ve coefficient was adopted, which would enable a more accurate financial evaluation of the local development plan and make the previously synthetic economic coefficient of net present value (NPV) real. Besides, the impact of water bodies on the financial benefits of ecosystem services was analyzed. Only the protection of ecosystems introduced by including it in the local development plan enables full ecosystem synergy. Next to anthropological ecosystems, there are also natural ecosystems, which are necessary for the proper functioning of the commune. The network of those includes green (in the case of vegetated areas) and blue (in the case of surface waters) infrastructure, and their synergy is the key to the sustainable development of the commune.]]>
<![CDATA[Analiza łańcucha dostaw owoców z Polski do Chin]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:39:46 +0200 Kisielewski, Piotr; Popek, Anna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule omówione zostały wymagania eksportowe owoców jako towaru łatwo psującego się oraz analiza łańcucha dostaw na przykładzie procesu eksportu jabłek z Polski do Chin.]]>
<![CDATA[Badania symulacyjne wybranego węzła komunikacyjnego dużego miasta]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:34:46 +0200 Kisielewski, Piotr; Talarek, Przemysław
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Obiektem badań był wybrany węzeł komunikacyjny dużego miasta. Cel pracy stanowiło opracowanie propozycji zmiany rozkładu jazdy kursów tramwajowych celem minimalizacji czasu oczekiwania pasażerów. W pracy przeprowadzono pomiary potoków pasażerskich dla aktualnego rozkładu jazdy tramwajów. Na podstawie obserwacji dokonano aproksymacji intensywności napływu pasażerów w czasie. W pracy sformułowano model matematyczny obiektu, funkcję celu optymalizacji i ograniczenia. Opracowano oryginalny algorytm symulacyjny, w którym kryterium oceny zmienionego rozkładu jazdy był stosunek łącznego czasu oczekiwania pasażerów przed i po wprowadzeniu zmian kursów rozkładowych pociągów tramwajowych. W podsumowaniu pracy sformułowano wnioski z badań.]]>
<![CDATA[Wspomaganie logistyki transportu miejskiego z wykorzystaniem techniki informatycznej]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:20:33 +0200 Kisielewski, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono koncepcję wielomodułowego, zintegrowanego systemu informatycznego wspomagającego logistykę komunikacji miejskiej z wykorzystaniem serwera optymalizacji procesów. W pracy zaprezentowano modułową strukturę funkcjonalną wraz ze schematem przepływu informacji w systemie. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na wykorzystanie techniki informatycznej w zakresie modelowania sieci transportowej, projektowania rozkładu jazdy, budowy zadań dla pojazdów i służb dla kierowców, konstrukcji harmonogramów pracy, dyspozycji dobowej, rozliczeń przewozów oraz statystyki i raportowania. W skrócie zaznaczono możliwości wykorzystania technologii mobilnych we wspomaganiu logistyki transportu.]]>
<![CDATA[Innowacje w systemach indywidualnego transportu miejskiego]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:17:20 +0200 Jamrozik, Marika; Kisielewski, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule przedstawiono krótką charakterystykę oraz zasady funkcjonowania nowych, innowacyjnych systemów transportu miejskiego. Celem pracy było poznanie poprzez ankietyzację opinii mieszkańców na temat istniejących i możliwych do wprowadzenia systemów miejskiego transportu indywidualnego w Polsce na tle rozwiązań światowych. W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki analizy statystycznej ankiety i sformułowano wnioski podsumowujące.]]>
<![CDATA[Ocena komfortu podróży w komunikacji miejskiej]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:11:33 +0200 Kisielewski, Piotr; Semczyszyn, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Wielkie aglomeracje miejskie nie byłyby w stanie funkcjonować bez sprawnych układów komunikacyjnych. Ułatwiają one i przyśpieszają przemieszczanie się osób z określonego miejsca do punktu docelowego. Istotną częścią układów komunikacyjnych jest transport miejski, a w szczególności transport zbiorowy. Ma on ogromny wpływ na jakość życia w mieście, ochronę środowiska, rozwój gospodarczy miasta. Artykuł omawia zagadnienia komfortu podróżowania pasażerów korzystających z komunikacji miejskiej, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem poziomu napełnienia, tj. liczby pasażerów podróżujących. Badania przeprowadzono na podstawie obserwacji wybranej linii tramwajowej w aglomeracji krakowskiej.]]>
<![CDATA[The selected problems of public transport organization using mathematical tools on the example of Poland]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:04:35 +0200 Gołębiowski, Piotr; Żak, Jolanta; Kisielewski, Piotr
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Public transport plays an increasingly important role in satisfying the transport needs. Travellers’ requirements regarding the quality of services are increasing. In addition to passenger comfort, other parameters are important (timetable and the state of transport infrastructure). Therefore, methods that determine the appropriate organization of public transport for an area should be sought. The purpose of the article is to present the most commonly used optimization methods and tools that have been applied to the chosen problems of organization of public transport mainly in Poland (described in the articles of mainly Polish scientists), but against the background of global research. The article characterizes the functioning of public transport in Poland. The selected problems of public transport functioning, which can be solved by using optimization methods and tools were discussed. The chosen methods that were used to formulate and solve the identified problems were indicated. The effects of this article will form part of the work on the POIR.01.01.01-00-0970/17-00 project "IT system for computer-aided public transport planning" financed by the National Centre for Research and Development.]]>
<![CDATA[Autonomizacja jazdy tramwajem jako narzędzie wspierające pracę motorniczych]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 08:56:21 +0200 Górowski, Maciej; Konieczek, Zbigniew
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule został omówiony projekt dotyczący autonomizacji jazdy tramwajem realizowany jako narzędzie wpierające pracę motorniczych. W ramach tego zadania odbył się pierwszy w Polsce przejazd tramwajem sterowanym w trybie autonomicznym. Tramwaj wyposażono w precyzyjny układ nawigacji satelitarnej oraz system sterowania, które zapewniają, że pojazd bez motorniczego porusza się po trasie. Docelowym założeniem projektu jest wdrożenie dla prowadzących asystenta jazdy, który będzie ich wspierał, wyręczając z części obowiązków. Ma też za zadanie nadzorowanie bezpieczeństwa jazdy.]]>
<![CDATA[The application of Ni-Ti SMA wires in the external prestressing of concrete hollow cylinders]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 08:02:47 +0200 Dębska, Aleksandra; Gwoździewicz, Piotr; Seruga, Andrzej; Balandraud, Xavier; Destrebecq, Jean-François
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: An innovative method for prestressing structural elements through the use of shape memory alloys (SMAs) is gaining increasing attention in research as this method does not require the use of mechanical anchorages for tendons. The activation of the memory effect by means of temperature variations (Joule effect) in effect produces high stresses in SMA components attached to concrete components as reported in the literature. This paper presents the work performed for the purpose of prestressing concrete hollow cylinders with the use of nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) SMA wires. In the tests, a variety of hollow cylinders were made using the same concrete mix and with the same wall thickness (20 mm), but with different external diameters (200 mm, 250 mm, and 300 mm). Their prestressing was achieved by the means of Ni-Ti SMA wires of different diameters (1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm) wrapped around the cylinders. Longitudinal and circumferential strain during the thermal activation of the SMA wires by Joule heating was measured using gauges located on the internal surface of the hollow cylinders. The experimental protocol, recorded observations, and discussion of the effectiveness of the prestressing of concrete elements as a function of the test parameters are included in the text in detail. Comments on the conditions for effective prestressing of concrete cylinders with SMA wires are proposed in the conclusions of the paper. ]]>
<![CDATA[The travel behaviour of Polish women and adaptation of transport systems to their needs]]> Tue, 30 Mar 2021 08:02:41 +0200 Nosal Hoy, Katarzyna; Puławska-Obiedowska, Sabina
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Although knowledge of women’s travel behaviours is essential to guarantee equality in transport, there is still a lack of awareness of gender-differentiated behaviour and gender issues are not often incorporated into urban policy. The aim of the article is to present a first attempt at a wider-scale diagnosis of women’s travel behaviours and needs as well as existing barriers to transportation access for woman in Poland, with respect to current findings. Documents on history, culture, social factors and labour market data were reviewed to indicate factors that may explain travel behaviours. The data of the Travel Studies for seven Polish cities were analysed to diagnose gender differences in travel. Public policies and initiatives were analysed to examine the level of awareness of women’s needs and the adaptation of transport to these needs. The results proved that the greatest differences in the trip purpose was observed for age group 25–49, in which women make more trips for errands, and men for work. Women travel more, which is observed among 25–59-year-olds, if the main occupation is considered. Women travel more on foot and by public transport, while men by private car and the results indicate that it is mostly visible for people aged 25–59. The age groups 39–49 for women and 30–49 for men are the most dependent on the car. The differences may be explained by historical, cultural and social factors, and these factors can be also seen as barriers to achieving equal access to transport. A low level of awareness of women’s mobility needs is one of the reasons that Polish transport systems are not fully adapted to their needs.]]>
<![CDATA[A study of the water supply system failure in terms of the seasonality: analysis by statistical approaches]]> Mon, 29 Mar 2021 15:03:08 +0200 Młyński, Dariusz; Bergel, Tomasz; Młyńska, Anna; Kudlik, Kazimierz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Among the many factors affecting water supply system failures are the weather conditions that change over the year. Since this is an important research issue, as part of this study, investigation of water supply system failure seasonality by the selected statistical approaches was presented. The basis of the research was monthly number of the pipelines' failures from the multi-year period of 2007–2017 of the municipal water network located in southern Poland. Mann–Kendall test results proved decreasing seasonal trend of the failure rate indexes λ. In turn, the results of the Colwell indexes' calculations allowed it to be stated that seasonal course of the water pipelines' failure events can be relatively easy to predict. As it turned out, it is difficult to determine unambiguously the impact of a given period of the year on the water pipeline failure events' occurrence. However, greater failure-free operation of the water pipelines may be expected in spring and summer months than in autumn and winter months. Because using Colwell indexes for seasonality analysis has no limitations compared to other methods, Colwell indexes may be considered as reliable tools for the assessment of the seasonal course of the water pipelines' failure events.]]>
<![CDATA[Foreign trade effects on regional growth in Ukraine]]> Mon, 29 Mar 2021 13:25:42 +0200 Shevchuk, Victor
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The effects of foreign trade in general and foreign output in particular upon regional growth in Ukraine are estimated with the dynamic Arellano-Bond estimator. An annual dataset of the 2002–2017 period is used. It has been found that regional growth in Ukraine benefits from gross domestic product (GDP) growth in the Eurozone and Russia, while foreign output effects are negative in the case of Central and Eastern European countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia). As expected, higher investments in physical capital positively influence both regional output and exports, while contributing to a decrease in imports. Both regional exports and imports bring about a higher rate of regional growth, being related to foreign output in the same fashion as regional output. Although both exports and imports are factors behind a higher rate of regional growth, the reverse causality seems to be rather weak. Regional foreign trade is negatively correlated with the distance from the Western border of Ukraine. If account for both current and lagged effects is taken, there appears a weak expansionary effect of the exchange rate depreciation on regional growth, with a decrease in exports and higher imports as well.Economic conditions of the Ukraine’s Eastern regions are inferior to regional growth and foreign trade. Somewhat counterintuitively, the crisis developments of 2009 are found to be at least neutral with respect to regional growth, with a clear stimulating effect on exports and imports.]]>