Nowe zasoby w kolekcji Artykuły i czasopisma http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/ Biblioteka Politechniki Krakowskiej lipinska@biblos.pk.edu.pl 60 <![CDATA[Selected examples of historical cartography]]> Wed, 20 Jan 2021 10:26:45 +0100 Żaba, Tadeusz ; Piech, Izabela
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Abstrakt: In World War II, the Battle of Monte Cassino (also called the Battle of Rome) was a breakthrough moment of the Italian campaign. The Battle of Monte Cassino, which was remarkably vicious and ruthless, lasted nearly five months. During the entire Italian campaign, which ran from 3 September 1943 to 2 May 1945, the Allies lost nearly 312,000 soldiers and Germans suffered about 435,000 killed and injured, i.e. an average of 1,233 people per day for both sides. The most fierce fights took place on the Gustav Line: Germans, Italians, Americans, French, British, Indians, New Zealanders, Poles, Canadians and South Africans lost about 200,000 soldiers within 129 days. The 2nd Polish Corps alone had 924 dead, 2930 injured and 345 missing. During the recognition of the site and the preparation of the assaults, soldiers of the 12th Geographical Company of the 2nd Polish Corps drew, alongside maps, many perspective sketches of hills and structures from several observation posts. The authors attempted to analyse selected sketches, in terms of their geometric parameters and compatibility with a map made in 1944, based on aerial photographs. Some of these sketches are not perspective drawings but panoramic (mapped on cylindrical or spherical surface), with specified angular graduation and distances. Probably, they were to be used for artillery fire – which is proven by their precision. The art of the terrain’s details is also noteworthy. On the other hand, photogrammetric observations, unlike geodesic ones, are not made directly on the measured object, but indirectly on properly taken photographs. They are called measuring photos or photograms. The basic requirement for measuring photos is their fidelity with a central projection (which, in view of the imperfections of image extraction techniques, is only its closest mathematical model). After taking pictures, the actual dimensions and shape of the area or object recorded in the pictures are determined by awareness of the conditions under which these photos were taken (shooting distance and camera type). For these reasons, photogrammetric methods have been used in archaeology, architecture and preservation of monuments, astronomy, ballistics, construction, geology, mining, hydrology, forensics, forestry, medicine, automotive and shipbuilding industries, and especially in surveying and cartography.]]>
<![CDATA[Data classification based on photogrammetry]]> Wed, 20 Jan 2021 09:00:50 +0100 Piech, Izabela ; Żaba, Tadeusz ; Jankowska, Aleksandra
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Abstrakt: The aim of the paper was to classify data from aerial laser scanning and CIR digital images, which were orientated, connected and aligned by the Agisoft Photoscan software. Then, in order to distinguish the ground a point cloud was generated. This was to create a correct terrain mesh and, in consequence, an orthophotomap. The next stage is to develop a new point cloud using ArcGIS. The land cover from the images was combined with the ground mapped by LiDAR. New heights were calculated relative to the ground surface height 0. The point cloud was converted into a raster form, providing a normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM). It was the first element of the output composition, which also consisted of the NIR and RED channels, acquired from the cloud point generated in Agisoft. The colour composition obtained in such way was subjected to four object-oriented and pixel-oriented classification methods: I – ISO Cluster, II – Maximum Likelihood, III – Random Trees, IV – Support Vector Machine. Object grouping is possible due to information stored in the display content. This technique is prompted by human ability of image interpretation. It draws attention to more variables, so effects similar to human perception of reality are possible to achieve. The unsupervised method is based on a process of automatic search for image fragments, which allows assigning them to individual categories by a statistical analysis algorithm. In turn, supervised method uses “training datasets”, which are used to “teach” the program assigning individual or grouped pixels to classes [Benz UC et al., 2004]. The area studied for land development was the Lutowiska municipality, in the Podkarpackie Voivodeship, Bieszczady County. As a result of the classification, 11 classes of terrain features were distinguished: class 0 – road infrastructure, class 1 – roads, class 2 – buildings, class 3 – waters, class 4 – meadows, class 5 – arable lands, class 6 – pastures, class 7 – high vegetation, class 8 – medium vegetation, class 9 – low vegetation, class 10 – quarry. The area of research covers an area of about 28 km2 . Aerial images were made in 2015. Field vision and photopoint measurement was carried out in May 2018.]]>
<![CDATA[Primary prevention of new pandemic and biomimetic-based adaptation to situation connected with COVID-19 pandemic]]> Wed, 20 Jan 2021 07:40:08 +0100 Dobrowolski, Jan W.; Wolkowski, Zbigniew W.; Zaba, Tadeusz
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Abstrakt: Acceleration of worldwide infection with mutant of coronavirus SARS CoV-19 require new paradigmatic of human activity based on negative feed-back system following basic mechanism of Homeostasis of all living organisms and ecosystems. Condition of effi cient primary prevention is better integration of cooperation of interdisciplinary teams of experts, knowledge-based society and decision-makers on local scale with working global network focused on common action for effi cient protection against contamination of the Human environment with mutagens for reduction risk of incidence new mutants [Ex: Coronaviruses and new pandemics]. Key factor for primary prevention is reduction at the sources emission of immune suppressors, carcinogens and teratogens. Effi cient prevention is depended on without delay worldwide introduction of complementary good practice in innovative environmental biotechnology integrated with ecological engineering and circular bioeconomy-driven sustainable development adopted to different kind of regions. Let us recommend heuristic approach, better fi nancial support of transdisciplinary innovative basic and researchdeveloping studies, improvement application of new IT tools for speed dissemination of scientifi c and technical progress, elimination of bureaucratic barriers and progress in distance problemsolving training and lifelong learning focused on sustainable, knowledge-based society selecting decision-makers with proper imagination and responsibility. Introduction on wider scale innovative biotechnologies [Ex: Recommended by our team modern environmental ecological engineering integrated with renewable sources of energy, laser biotechnology for better adaptation to climate change, aquaculture, apiculture etc.] focused on better prevention against contamination of the air, water and food; would be benefi cial for environmental health. It would be also useful for creation in the near future many green jobs all over the world and for reduction risk of unemployment and hunger. International action for greening cities adopted to climate change could be supported by introduction of proposed new generation of eco-buildings and green habitats. The most important eco-innovation would be designing and construction underground centres integrating innovative biotechnologies for waster, wastes management to biogas; useful for also underground greenhouses for wide scale hydroponic production pollutants-free vegetables, mushrooms, supported by laser biotechnology, apiculture and aquaculture. Such life-supporting system would be following ecosystems structure and function as new contribution to circular bioeconomy, especially useful for big cities. In the case of new epidemic, self-supporting in water and food green-habitats; could be more effi cient in protection inhabitants against infectors. Taking into consideration synergistic effects of chemical, physical, biological pollutants of the human environment as well as impact of immune suppressors decreasing resistance of humans to infections and carcinogenic effects; is necessary for proper evaluation of existing health hazard as well as for prognostic study and effi cient primary prevention against risk of new pandemics.]]>
<![CDATA[Descriptive geometry in the time of COVID-19: preliminary assessment of distance education during pandemic social isolation]]> Wed, 20 Jan 2021 07:36:41 +0100 Wojtowicz, Agnieszka; Wojtowicz, Barbara; Kopeć, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: The pandemic forced a change in the teaching of descriptive geometry, a basic subject of many engineering fields. To conduct classes during COVID-19, the following resources were used: the ELF platform, MS Teams, SketchUp, AutoCAD, email. It was decided to prepare the electronic textbook along with geometric problems to be solved, supplemented by on-line consultations with students. Despite difficulties (technological, psychological), the results obtained by students during the pandemic were very good. Although the average grade during distance learning was higher than in the case of traditional education, students reported a clear need for direct contact with the teacher.]]>
<![CDATA[Nowe technologie w badaniach zabytków architektury. Analiza parametryczno-algorytmiczna gotyckiego sklepienia w Szydłowcu]]> Tue, 19 Jan 2021 12:58:23 +0100 Kulig, Anna; Filipowski, Szymon; Wójtowicz, Maciej
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Abstrakt: Przedmiotem opracowania jest gotyckie sklepienie w prezbiterium kościoła w Szydłowcu. Powiązany z nim jest oryginalny dużych rozmiarów ryt, zachowany na ścianie nawy głównej, pełniący podczas realizacji świątyni funkcję swoistego "projektu wykonawczego". To unikat w skali europejskiej i jedyny taki zespół śladów dawnego rzemiosła budowlanego. Ryt, odkryty po pięciu wiekach, wzbudził duże zainteresowanie badaczy wskazujących nieliczne przypadki podobnych rysunków, zachowanych jednak fragmentarycznie na posadzkach, tarasach, ścianach czy sklepieniach. Na przestrzeni lat powstały hipotezy rekonstrukcyjne dotyczące faz rysunkowych i realizacyjnych tego dzieła w Szydłowcu. Autorów artykułu zainteresowały zależności między projektem a zrealizowanym kształtem sklepienia, czyli zagadnienie, w jakim stopniu odwzorowano w naturalnej skali koncepcje zapisane na płaskim rysunku. Dokonano analizy porównawczej przebiegu żeber ze stanem istniejącym wymurowanych segmentów kamiennych łuków żebrowych. Podczas prac zastosowano nowoczesny sprzęt pomiarowy i zaawansowane oprogramowanie. Celem badań było określenie i sklasyfikowanie wzajemnych podobieństw i różnic.]]>
<![CDATA[Dwa oblicza Matery. Problematyka ochrony dziedzictwa kulturowego Matery w procesie rewitalizacji antycznego miasta]]> Tue, 19 Jan 2021 12:57:47 +0100 Stachurska, Marta
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Abstrakt: Artykuł porusza problematykę związaną z ochroną dziedzictwa kulturowego w postępującym procesie silnej rewitalizacji miasta. Rozważania przeprowadzono na przykładzie Matery, włoskiej miejscowości, Europejskiej Stolicy Kultury roku 2019, wpisanej na Listę Światowego Dziedzictwa UNESCO. Fenomen urbanistyczno-architektoniczny Matery stanowi przykład idealnie zachowanej antycznej struktury miasta, zarówno w kontekście wartości architektonicznych i urbanistycznych, jak i kulturowych. W artykule wskazano najistotniejsze czynniki wpływające na obrany kierunek działań rewitalizacyjnych, takie jak: historia miasta, położenie geograficzne wraz z analizą podłoża geologicznego miejscowości, a także relacje społeczne zachodzące między materańczykami i ich stosunek do miejsca, które zamieszkują. W analizie procesu odbudowy zwrócono uwagę na dwa główne nurty wyznaczające jego kształt, tj. zasadę zrównoważonego projektowania oraz silną partycypację lokalnej społeczności.]]>
<![CDATA[Qualitative analysis of the influence of the non-linear material characteristics of flexible adhesive on the performance of lap joints]]> Tue, 19 Jan 2021 09:42:12 +0100 Szeptyński, Paweł; Nowak, Marcin
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Abstrakt: This paper discusses the issue of a lap joint in the form of a thin film attached to a rigid base with the use of a layer of flexible adhesive exhibiting a non-linear constitutive relation between shear stress and distortional strain, which is approximated by the second-order power law. Similarity theory is used to perform a qualitative analysis of the influence of magnitude of non-linearity on the performance of the system. The introduced similarity numbers are proposed to be used in formulation of simple design tools. The analysis is performed by solving the derived governing equations for characteristic cases in a numerical way combining the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm and iterative shooting ruled by a steepest descent method. The results are compared with the results of the plane stress finite element analysis. It can be observed that within considered models the influence of the material non-linearity is of minor importance and in some cases it may be almost entirely surpassed by local effects resulting from boundary conditions. For relatively small load intensity it becomes negligibly small.]]>
<![CDATA[Flame retardancy of biobased composites - research development]]> Tue, 19 Jan 2021 08:56:01 +0100 Sienkiewicz, Anna ; Czub, Piotr
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Abstrakt: Due to the thermal and fire sensitivity of polymer bio-composite materials, especially in the case of plant-based fillers applied for them, next to intensive research on the better mechanical performance of composites, it is extremely important to improve their reaction to fire. This is necessary due to the current widespread practical use of bio-based composites. The first part of this work relates to an overview of the most commonly used techniques and different approaches towards the increasing the fire resistance of petrochemical-based polymeric materials. The next few sections present commonly used methods of reducing the flammability of polymers and characterize the most frequently used compounds. It is highlighted that despite adverse health effects in animals and humans, some of mentioned fire retardants (such as halogenated organic derivatives e.g., hexabromocyclododecane, polybrominated diphenyl ether) are unfortunately also still in use, even for bio-composite materials. The most recent studies related to the development of the flame retardation of polymeric materials are then summarized. Particular attention is paid to the issue of flame retardation of bio-based polymer composites and the specifics of reducing the flammability of these materials. Strategies for retarding composites are discussed on examples of particular bio-polymers (such as: polylactide, polyhydroxyalkanoates or polyamide-11), as well as polymers obtained on the basis of natural raw materials (e.g., bio-based polyurethanes or bio-based epoxies). The advantages and disadvantages of these strategies, as well as the flame retardants used in them, are highlighted. ]]>
<![CDATA[A boosting extreme learning machine for nearinfrared spectral quantitative analysis of diesel fuel and edible blend oil samples]]> Mon, 18 Jan 2021 11:39:18 +0100 Bian, Xihui ; Zhang, Caixia ; Tan, Xiaoyao ; Dymek, Michal; Guo, Yugao ; Lin, Ligang ; Cheng, Bowen ; Hu, Xiaoyu
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Abstrakt: Extreme learning machines (ELMs) have drawn increasing attention due to their characteristics of simple structure, high learning speed and excellent performance. However, a single ELM tends to low predictive accuracy and instability in dealing with quantitative analysis of complex samples. To further improve the predictive accuracy and stability of ELMs, a new quantitative model, called the boosting ELM is proposed. In this approach, a large number of ELM sub-models are sequentially built by selecting a certain number of samples from the original training set according to the distribution of the sampling weights, and then their predictions are aggregated using the weighted median. The activation function and the number of hidden nodes of ELM sub-models are determined simultaneously by the ratio of mean value and standard deviation of correlation coefficients (MSR). The performance of the proposed method is tested with diesel fuel and blended edible oil samples. Compared with partial least squares (PLS) and ELMs, our results demonstrate that the boosting ELM is an efficient ensemble model and has obvious superiorities in predictive accuracy and stability. Therefore, the proposed method may be an alternative for near-infrared (NIR) spectral quantitative analysis of complex samples.]]>
<![CDATA[The role of remote teaching platforms in architectural education]]> Mon, 18 Jan 2021 10:31:49 +0100 Schnotale, Grzegorz
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Abstrakt: In traditional education the class time available for workshops and lectures is limited. Students always should have opportunities to expand their knowledge in their chosen field and there are students who want to invest more time in gaining new skills. For these reasons, at Cracow University of Technology, Kraków, Poland, course material and exercises for students can be made available through an on-line education platform. The Internet is changing the ways of learning and on-line platforms make up-to-date knowledge always available to students. Various learning environments are available through the on-line platform. Educators can upload training materials; for example, a movie, a presentation or various exercises. Contemporary education has to be dynamic and interesting to gain students’ attention. The e-learning framework (ELF) is based on a Moodle learning platform and is in use in the Faculty of Architecture at Cracow University of Technology (FA-CUT). ]]>
<![CDATA[Fly-ash-based geopolymers reinforced by melamine fibers]]> Mon, 18 Jan 2021 09:57:28 +0100 Kozub, Barbara; Bazan, Patrycja; Mierzwiński, Dariusz; Korniejenko, Kinga
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Abstrakt: This paper presents the results of research on geopolymer composites based on fly ash with the addition of melamine fibers in amounts of 0.5%, 1% and 2% by weight and, for comparison, without the addition of fibers. The melamine fibers used in the tests retain their melamine resin properties by 100% and are characterized by excellent acoustic and thermal insulation as well as excellent filtration. In addition, these fibers are nonflammable, resistant to chemicals, resistant to UV radiation, characterized by high temperature resistance and, most importantly, do not show thermalrelated shrinking, melting and dripping. This paper presents the results of density measurements, compressive and flexural strength as well as the results of the measurement of thermal radiation changes in samples subjected to a temperature of 600 C. The results indicate that melamine fibers can be used as geopolymer reinforcement. The best result was achieved for 0.5% by weight amount of reinforcement, approximately 53 MPa, compared to 41 MPa for a pure matrix. In the case of flexural strength, the best results were obtained for the samples made of unreinforced geopolymer and samples with the addition of 0.5% by weight of melamine fibers, which were characterized by bending strength values above 9 MPa, amounting to 10.7 MPa and 9.3 MPa, respectively. The thermal radiation measurements and fire-jet test did not confirm the increasing thermal and fire resistance of the composites reinforced by melamine fiber.]]>
<![CDATA[Investigation and optimization of the SLM and WEDM processes’ parameters for the AlSi10Mg-sintered part]]> Mon, 18 Jan 2021 09:03:32 +0100 Franczyk, Emilia; Machno, Magdalena; Zębala, Wojciech
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Abstrakt: Presented study concerns the issue of processing the AlSi10Mg aluminum alloy with a use of WEDM technology. Two types of samples tested during the experiment were previously produced in SLM and in casting processes. The aim of the research was to determine the dependence of the input parameters of SLM (laser scanning speed) and WEDM (current amplitude) processes on the performance of the WEDM process as well as on the roughness of the cut surfaces. The experiment was carried out on a specially prepared test stand, and the results’ analysis was carried out using the ANOVA (analysis of variance). A strong influence of the WEDM current on the process speed and on the Ra and Rz roughness parameters of the produced samples was found. The effect of SLM laser scanning speed was not so strong, but it tended to be uniform. On the other hand, the influence of the tested parameters on the WEDM process energy turned out to be insignificant and irregular. It was also found that for the WEDM process a sample made in SLM technology with relatively high laser scanning speed may be a better choice than the cast one. A case study was carried out to optimize the parameters of the tested processes.]]>
<![CDATA[Modelowanie serii czasowych przepływów w krótkoterminowej prognozie hydrologicznej]]> Fri, 15 Jan 2021 12:22:43 +0100 Siuta, Tomasz
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Abstrakt: Cel pracy W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono przykład opracowania skutecznej prognozy krótkoterminowej w cza-sie rzeczywistym przepływów wezbraniowych w przekroju wodowskazowym wybranej zlewni różnicowej rzeki Wisły. Prognoza ta oparta jest na przepływach obserwowanych w przekrojach wejściowych i wyjścio-wym systemu rzecznego z dobowym opóźnieniem bez uwzględnienia jakichkolwiek danych opadowych. Materiał i metody W celu oceny jakości prognozy opracowano cztery typy modeli serii czasowych chwilowego natężenia prze-pływu dla przekroju wyjściowego Smolice na rzece Wiśle. Pierwszy typ modelu to konwencjonalna liniowa zależność autoregresyjna (AR), drugi-trójwarstwowa sieć neuronowa typu feedforward (SSN), trzeci -dwu-warstwowa rekurencyjna sieć neuronowa i czwarty- trójwarstwowa rekurencyjna sieć neuronowa (RNN). Wszystkie modele były kalibrowane i testowane w oparciu o dane historyczne w formie hydrogramów na-tężenia przepływu. Wyniki i wnioski Spośród wszystkich testowanych typów modeli najdokładniejszą prognozę wartości chwilowej natężenia przepływu w przekroju zamykającym zlewnię uzyskano za pomocą modelu RNN. Ten typ modelu miał również największą zdolność do generalizowania wyników wykazując podobną jakość prognozy w trzech niezależnych testach.]]>
<![CDATA[PEG-POSS star molecules blended in polyurethane with flexible hard segments: morphology and dynamics]]> Fri, 15 Jan 2021 10:32:53 +0100 Raftopoulos, Konstantinos N. ; Hebda, Edyta ; Grzybowska, Anna ; Klonos, Panagiotis A.; Kyritsis, Apostolos ; Pielichowski, Krzysztof
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Abstrakt: A star polymer with a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanne (POSS) core and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) vertex groups is incorporated in a polyurethane with flexible hard segments in-situ during the polymerization process. The blends are studied in terms of morphology, molecular dynamics, and charge mobility. The methods utilized for this purpose are scanning electron and atomic force microscopies (SEM, AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and to a larger extent dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS). It is found that POSS reduces the degree of crystallinity of the hard segments. Contrary to what was observed in a similar system with POSS pendent along the main chain, soft phase calorimetric glass transition temperature drops as a result of plasticization, and homogenization of the soft phase by the star molecules. The dynamic glass transition though, remains practically unaffected, and a hypothesis is formed to resolve the discrepancy, based on the assumption of different thermal and dielectric responses of slow and fast modes of the system. A relaxation α′, slower than the bulky segmental α and common in polyurethanes, appears here too. A detailed analysis of dielectric spectra provides some evidence that this relaxation has cooperative character. An additional relaxation g, which is not commonly observed, accompanies the Maxwell Wagner Sillars interfacial polarization process, and has dynamics similar to it. POSS is found to introduce conductivity and possibly alter its mechanism. The study points out that different architectures of incorporation of POSS in polyurethane affect its physical properties by different mechanisms.]]>
<![CDATA[Modified maximum power point tracking algorithm under time-varying solar irradiation]]> Fri, 15 Jan 2021 09:29:19 +0100 Yildirim, Mehmet Ali; Nowak-Ocłoń, Marzena
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Abstrakt: Solar photovoltaic (PV) energy is one of the most viable renewable energy sources, considered less polluting than fossil energy. However, the average power conversion efficiency of PV systems is between 15% and 20%, and they must operate with high efficiency. Photovoltaic cells have non-linear voltage–current characteristics that are dependent on environmental factors such as solar irradiation and temperature, and have low efficiency. Therefore, it becomes crucial to harvest the maximum power from PV panels. This paper aims to study and analyze the most common and well-known maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms, perturb and observe (P&O) and incremental conductance (IncCond). These algorithms were found to be easy to implement, low-cost techniques suitable for large- and medium-sized photovoltaic applications. The algorithms were tested and compared dynamically using MATLAB/Simulink software. In order to overcome the low performance of the P&O and IncCond methods under time-varying and fast-changing solar irradiation, several modifications are proposed. Results show an improvement in the tracking and overall system efficiencies and a shortened response time compared with original techniques. In addition, the proposed algorithms minimize the oscillations around the maximum power point (MPP), and the power converges faster.]]>
<![CDATA[Quality assessment of compressed and resized medical images based on pattern recognition using a convolutional neural network]]> Fri, 15 Jan 2021 08:46:18 +0100 Urbaniak, Ilona; Wolter, Marcin
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Abstrakt: Given the explosive growth of the amount of medical image data being produced and transferred over networks every day, employing lossy compression and other irreversible image operations is inevitable. As expected, irreversible image coding may decrease image fidelity by introducing undesired artifacts, which may lead to an invalid diagnosis. The purpose of this study is to propose a no-reference model of assessing the quality of a degraded medical image resulting from irreversible coding, based on pattern recognition with the use of a convolutional neural network (CNN). This deep neural network consists of six convolutional layers followed by two fully connected ones for the final image classification. Such network geometry is a common choice for image classification problems nowadays. We aim to construct a model that is specialized for medical images and could serve as a predictor of image quality for algorithm performance analysis. This technique uses a CNN to classify shapes of randomly chosen grayscale intensities. The shapes and grayscale shadings were chosen with the intention to mimic structures and edges appearing in a medical image. Using the accuracy of a classifier, we attempt to quantitatively measure how the information content in an image deteriorates after applying irreversible operations and how this loss of information affects the ability/inability of the neural network to recognize the shapes. The technique may be used to study the performance of irreversible image coding techniques. Two irreversible operations are employed for image degradation: compression and interpolation. We show the difference of image quality resulting from JPEG and JPEG2000 compression algorithms followed by scaling using several interpolation techniques. The main result of this work is the development of a model to quantitatively measure image quality based on pattern recognition using a deep neural network. The presented model of quantitative assessment of medical image quality may be helpful in determining the thresholds for irreversible image post-processing algorithms parameters (i.e. quality factor in JPEG) in order to avoid misdiagnosis. Further investigation of this problem will involve a connection of the introduced method with specific pathologies and various medical image modalities.]]>
<![CDATA[Pretekst : zeszyty Zakładu Architektury Mieszkaniowej i Kompozycji Architektonicznej]]> Thu, 14 Jan 2021 14:40:15 +0100 rodzaj: redakcja numeru czasopisma
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<![CDATA[Forma architektoniczna, funkcja oraz potencjał zespołów budynków wielorodzinnych zbudowanych w XXI wieku w Krakowie na przykładzie osiedli Kurdwanów Nowy i Piaski Nowe]]> Thu, 14 Jan 2021 13:23:51 +0100 Woźniczka, Magdalena
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Abstrakt: Piaski Wielkie oraz Kurdwanów to dawne przedmieścia Krakowa, których przestrzeń uległa silnym zmianom w ostatnim półwieczu. Pierwsza fala przemian nastąpiła w latach 70. i 80. kiedy to wzniesiono osiedla Piaski Nowe i Kurdwanów Nowy. Dalszy wzrost liczby mieszkańców Krakowa w XXI wieku, przyczynił się do ponownego skierowania uwagi inwestorów na te obszary. Obecnie tereny te są intensywnie zabudowywane. W niektórych rejonach tempo rozwoju infrastruktury drogowej i usługowej jest wolniejsze niż budowa obiektów mieszkaniowych. Tendencję tę widać w Piaskach Nowych, których funkcjonowanie opiera się głównie na ubiegłowiecznej infrastrukturze. Istotne stało się zbadanie form występujących w osiedlach, ich funkcji i potencjału, co pozwoli prowadzić skuteczną politykę przestrzenną w ich obrębie. Artykuł charakteryzuje formy architektoniczne, układy oraz podstawowe funkcje zespołów mieszkaniowych powstałych w latach 1999–2019 w Piaskach Nowych i Kurdwanowie Nowym. Wykonane badania wykazały, że oba osiedla mają predyspozycję do bycia atrakcyjnymi miejscami zamieszkania. Przyczyniają się do tego istniejące zaplecze usług publicznych oraz rozwijające się usługi prywatne. Ważnym czynnikiem jest też położenie miedzy III i IV obwodnicą Krakowa. Analiza form architektonicznych uwidoczniła zmiany w sposobie kształtowania zabudowy – zauważalna jest tendencja do upraszczania brył. Przedstawione realizacje pokazują, że uproszczenie nie jest jednak równoznaczne z końcem możliwości w kreowaniu form. Jest jedynie drogą do nowych rozwiązań.]]>
<![CDATA[Climate change impacts on contaminant loads delivered with sediment yields from different land use types in a Carpathian basin]]> Thu, 14 Jan 2021 11:40:13 +0100 Szalińska, Ewa; Zemełka, Gabriela; Kryłów, Małgorzata; Orlińska-Woźniak, Paulina; Jakusik, Ewa; Wilk, Paweł
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Abstrakt: Soil runoff and sediment transport are considered as an important vector for particle-bound contaminant transfer from source to receiving waters. Under changing climate conditions and rapid basin development, identification of sediment origins is critical for planning further action to reduce erosion effects, and further pollution to surface waters. The goal of this study was to distinguish sediment sources in a Carpathian basin (Wolnica River, southern Poland) and to perform source-oriented contaminant load estimations. Sediment yields (SYLD) and land use specific sediment yields (LUSY) were modeled with the use of the Macromodel DNS/SWAT (Discharge-Nutrients-Sea/Soil and Water Assessment Tool). Sorting of sediment sources was performed by the fingerprinting method using variability of the geochemical composition of soils (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Fe, Hg, total N and P, Σ16 PAHs, and 137Cs) of four land use (LU) types: arable lands (A), grasslands (G), residential areas (R), and forests (F). Statistical analysis revealed six metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Hg) as fingerprint properties providing the best source discrimination in this basin. The contribution of particular land use origin assessed with the use of the mixing model varied in the range of 20–30%. Finally, estimation of land use specific contaminant loads in suspended sediments was performed as a result of a modeling and sediment fingerprinting combination. The final estimates revealed yearly LUSY values varying between 716 t/y for A, 12 t/y for F, and metal loads from 31 kg/y for Zn to values below 100 g/y for Cd and Hg. Long-term predictions (2046–2055) of the metal loads revealed an increase by 75% under the combined RCP 8.5 climate change and land use scenarios. These findings are of great value for land management in the Carpathian basins, especially with regards to the predicted increase of forest cover which significantly alters contaminant signals conveyed through the system.]]>
<![CDATA[Usuwanie przecieków w żelbetowych zbiornikach na wodę]]> Thu, 14 Jan 2021 10:45:29 +0100 Dąbrowski, Wojciech; Żaba, Tadeusz; Zielina, Michał
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<![CDATA[Digital monument reconstruction in architectural studies: synthesis of research on the previously unknown form of the palace in Łobzów (Cracow) from the period of the rule of John III Sobieski]]> Thu, 14 Jan 2021 09:48:18 +0100 Pikulski, Piotr
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Abstrakt: The former palace in Łobzów, which currently houses the Faculty of Architecture of the Cracow University of Technology, has an exceedingly rich architectural history. Since the Middle Ages, it has gone through a series of changes that have significantly altered its form each time. Thanks to modern digital reconstruction technology, it was possible to recreate all of its architectural phases in the form of 3D models on the basis of archaeological studies and the analysis of historical materials. The models were then used to reconstruct the most probable appearance of the building during the period when the Polish king John III Sobieski lived there. Determining the most probable state of the palace’s preservation during King Sobieski’s rule, which had not been investigated thus far, was possible only because of the combining of traditional research methods with modern technology.]]>
<![CDATA[DOE application for analysis of tribological properties of the Al2O3/IF-WS2 surface layers]]> Thu, 14 Jan 2021 09:19:11 +0100 Korzekwa, Joanna; Fal, Michał; Gądek-Moszczak, Aneta
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Abstrakt: The article presents the effect of the processing parameters on tribological properties of aluminum oxide coatings Al2O3 doped with fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS2) by design of experiment (DOE). Anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy was carried out in a ternary solution of SAS (sulfuric, adipic and oxalic acids) with IF-WS2. The thickness, geometric structure of the surface (SGP) and the tribological properties such as friction coefficient of tribological pair: Al2O3/IF-WS2 with polieteroeteroketon filled with graphite, carbon fiber and PTFE (named PEEK/BG) were investigated. The influence of electrolysis time and temperature on the tribological properties of coatings was studied using 2k factorial design. The stabilization of the friction coefficient indicates generation of steady anti-wear and anti-seizure Al2O3/IF-WS2 oxide coatings. DOE suggest i.e. high positive correlation between oxide thickness and time and temperature of the anodizing process]]>
<![CDATA[Biologiczne oczyszczanie ścieków zawierających formaldehyd. Cz. II**. Oczyszczanie w warunkach niedotlenionych i beztlenowych. Wspomaganie fizyczno-chemiczne]]> Wed, 13 Jan 2021 14:25:12 +0100 Baczyński, Tomasz
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Abstrakt: Dokonano przeglądu literatury dotyczącej badań nad biologicznym oczyszczaniem ścieków zawierających formaldehyd w warunkach niedotlenionych i beztlenowych. Omówiono ścieżki degradacji formaldehydu oraz oddziaływanie inhibicyjne. Przedstawiono także wyniki badań nad wspomaganiem oczyszczania biologicznego metodami fizyczno-chemicznymi.]]>
<![CDATA[Biologiczne oczyszczanie ścieków zawierających formaldehyd. Cz. I. Charakterystyka ścieków i oczyszczanie w warunkach tlenowych]]> Wed, 13 Jan 2021 13:28:27 +0100 Baczyński, Tomasz
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Abstrakt: Przedstawiono przegląd literatury dotyczącej badań nad biologicznym oczyszczaniem ścieków zawierających formaldehyd. Podano ogólną charakterystykę tego związku oraz rodzajów ścieków, w których on występuje. Zestawiono oraz omówiono wyniki prac doświadczalnych nad biologicznym oczyszczaniem ścieków formaldehydowych przeprowadzonych w warunkach tlenowych, zarówno z nitryfikacją, jak i bez niej. Ponadto przedstawiono w zarysie ścieżki biodegradacji oraz oddziaływanie inhibicyjne formaldehydu w takich warunkach.]]>
<![CDATA[Comparison of CFD and multizone modeling from contaminant migration from a household gas furnace]]> Wed, 13 Jan 2021 11:52:18 +0100 Szczepanik-Scislo, Nina; Scislo, Lukasz
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Abstrakt: In Central and Eastern Europe, a growing popularity of gas heaters as the main source of heat and domestic hot water can be observed. This is the result of new laws and strategies for funding that have been put in place to encourage households to stop using coal and replace it with cleaner energy sources. However, there is a growing concern that gas furnaces are prone to malfunction and can be a threat to occupants through CO (carbon monoxide) generation. To see how a faulty gas furnace with a clogged exhaust may affect a household, a series of multizone and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out using the CONTAM software and CFD0 editor created by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The simulations presented different placements of the furnace and ventilation outlet in an attached garage. The results showed how the placement influenced contaminant migration and occupant exposure to CO. It changed the amount of CO that infiltrated to the attached house and influenced occupant exposure. The results may be used by future users to minimize the risk of CO poisoning by using the proper natural ventilation methods together with optimal placement of the header in the household. ]]>
<![CDATA[Hybrid bilayer PLA/chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds doped with ZnO, Fe3O4, and Au nanoparticles with bioactive properties for skin tissue engineering]]> Wed, 13 Jan 2021 11:12:27 +0100 Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Janus, Łukasz; Piątkowski, Marek; Bogdał, Dariusz; Matýsek, Dalibor
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Burns affect almost half a million of Americans annually. In the case of full-thickness skin injuries, treatment requires a transplant. The development of bioactive materials that promote damaged tissue regeneration constitutes a great alternative to autografts. For this reason, special attention is focused on three-dimensional scaffolds that are non-toxic to skin cells and can mimic the extracellular matrix, which is mainly composed of nanofibrous proteins. Electrospinning, which enables the preparation of nanofibers, is a powerful tool in the field of biomaterials. In this work, novel hybrid poly (lactic acid)/chitosan biomaterials functionalized with three types of nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully developed. ZnO, Fe3O4, and Au NPs were investigated over their morphology by TEM method. The top layer was obtained from PLA nanofibers, while the bottom layer was prepared from acylated chitosan. The layers were studied over their morphology by the SEM method and their chemical structure by FT-IR. To verify their potential in burn wound treatment, the scaffolds’ susceptibility to biodegradation as well as moisture permeability were calculated. Also, biomaterials conductivity was determined in terms of electrostimulation. Finally, cytotoxicity tests were carried out by XTT assay and morphology analysis using both fibroblasts cell line and primary cells. The hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds displayed a great potential in tissue engineering.]]>
<![CDATA[New housing complexes in post-industrial areas in city centres in Poland versus cultural and natural heritage protection-with a particular focus on Cracow]]> Wed, 13 Jan 2021 10:10:30 +0100 Gyurkovich, Mateusz ; Gyurkovich, Jacek
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Abstrakt: The cityscape changes constantly, reflecting the socio-economic conditions of a given urbanised area—both globally and in any given country. Post-industrial buildings and complexes have been its important elements since the nineteenth century. At present, many of them are undergoing adaptive reuse. The oldest, which are parts of post-industrial heritage and define the local identity, are now located in city centres. Some are revitalised and often adapted into multi-family housing. This paper fills a gap in the research on revitalised areas in Polish city centres, especially the ones converted into housing. It notes the links between these projects with elements of urban green-blue infrastructure, as well as the methods of protection of the reused postindustrial heritage. Studies from 2000–2020 on Polish multi-family housing architecture prove that the quality of buildings and semi-public green spaces is becoming increasingly important to developers and buyers. Properly used and exposed post-industrial heritage can contribute to raising the attractiveness of such spaces. In combination with city greenery systems, they can form attractive townscape sequences, as proven by Cracow cases. The paper’s conclusions indicate that the preservation and exposition of post-industrial heritage in newly built housing complexes is affected by numerous factors. The most important of these are legal determinants based on both state-level and local law. Economic factors also play a major role, as they directly affect projects. The skills and talent of designers who can create unique proposals that expose surviving relicts and a given place’s genius loci even in the most restrictive of economic and legal conditions, are also not without significance.]]>
<![CDATA[Smart, tunable CQDs with antioxidant properties for biomedical applications-ecofriendly synthesis and characterization]]> Wed, 13 Jan 2021 09:10:52 +0100 Janus, Łukasz; Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Piątkowski, Marek; Bogdał, Dariusz
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Abstrakt: Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are nanoobjects of a size below 10 nm. Due to their favorable features, such as tunable luminescence, unique optical properties, water solubility, and lack of cytotoxicity, they are willingly applied in biomedicine. They can be obtained via bottom-up and top-down methods. However, to increase their quantum yield they must undergo post-processing. The aim of the following research was to obtain a new type of CQDs modified with a rhodamine b derivative to enhance their fluorescence performance without biocompability deterioration. For their preparation glucose was used as a precursor and four different carbonizing agents which affected semi- and final products luminescence properties. The ready nanomaterials were investigated over their chemical structure by FTIR and NMR, whereas morphology was investigated by the TEM method. Their optical properties were determined by UV–VIS spectroscopy. Fluorescence behavior, photo- and pH-stability, as well as solvatochromism showed their applicability in various biomedical applications due to the controlled properties. The samples exhibited excellent antioxidant activity and lack of cytotoxicity on L929 mouse fibroblasts. The results showed that proposed strategy enables preparation of the superior nanomaterials with outstanding luminescence properties such as quantum yield up to 17% which can be successfully applied in cell labelling, bioimaging, and theranostics.]]>
<![CDATA[3D hierarchical, nanostructured chitosan/PLA/HA scaffolds doped with TiO2/Au/Pt NPs with tunable properties for guided bone tissue engineering]]> Tue, 12 Jan 2021 13:43:32 +0100 Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Janus, Łukasz; Piątkowski, Marek; Bogdał, Dariusz; Matysek, Dalibor
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Abstrakt: Bone tissue is the second tissue to be replaced. Annually, over four million surgical treatments are performed. Tissue engineering constitutes an alternative to autologous grafts. Its application requires three-dimensional scaffolds, which mimic human body environment. Bone tissue has a highly organized structure and contains mostly inorganic components. The scaffolds of the latest generation should not only be biocompatible but also promote osteoconduction. Poly (lactic acid) nanofibers are commonly used for this purpose; however, they lack bioactivity and do not provide good cell adhesion. Chitosan is a commonly used biopolymer which positively affects osteoblasts' behavior. The aim of this article was to prepare novel hybrid 3D scaffolds containing nanohydroxyapatite capable of cell-response stimulation. The matrixes were successfully obtained by PLA electrospinning and microwave-assisted chitosan crosslinking, followed by doping with three types of metallic nanoparticles (Au, Pt, and TiO2). The products and semi-components were characterized over their physicochemical properties, such as chemical structure, crystallinity, and swelling degree. Nanoparticles' and ready biomaterials' morphologies were investigated by SEM and TEM methods. Finally, the scaffolds were studied over bioactivity on MG-63 and effect on current-stimulated biomineralization. Obtained results confirmed preparation of tunable biomimicking matrixes which may be used as a promising tool for bone-tissue engineering.]]>
<![CDATA[The short-circuit protections in hybrid systems with low-power synchronous generators]]> Tue, 12 Jan 2021 12:08:13 +0100 Rozegnał, Bartosz ; Albrechtowicz, Paweł ; Mamcarz, Dominik ; Radwan-Pragłowska, Natalia ; Cebula, Artur
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Abstrakt: Single-phase short-circuits are most often faults in electrical systems. The analysis of this damage type is taken for backup power supply systems, from small power synchronous generators. For these hybrid installations, there is a need for standard protection devices, such as fuses or miniature circuit breaker (MCB) analysis. Experimental research mentioned that a typical protective apparatus in low-voltage installations, working correctly during supplying from the grid, does not guarantee fast off-switching, while short-circuits occur during supplication from the backup generator set. The analysis of single-phase short-circuits is executed both for current waveform character (including sub-transient and transient states) and the carried energy, to show the problems with the fuses and MCB usage, to protect circuits in installations fed in a hybrid way (from the grid and synchronous generator set).]]>
<![CDATA[Facile synthesis of surface-modified carbon quantum dots (CQDs) for biosensing and bioimaging]]> Tue, 12 Jan 2021 11:02:20 +0100 Janus, Łukasz; Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Piątkowski, Marek; Bogdał, Dariusz
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Abstrakt: Recently, fluorescent probes became one of the most efficient tools for biosensing and bioimaging. Special attention is focused on carbon quantum dots (CQDs), which are characterized by the water solubility and lack of cytotoxicity. Moreover, they exhibit higher photostability comparing to traditional organic dyes. Currently, there is a great need for the novel, luminescent nanomaterials with tunable properties enabling fast and effective analysis of the biological samples. In this article, we propose a new, ecofriendly bottom-up synthesis approach for intelligent, surface-modified nanodots preparation using bioproducts as a raw material. Obtained nanomaterials were characterized over their morphology, chemical structure and switchable luminescence. Their possible use as a nanodevice for medicine was investigated. Finally, the products were confirmed to be non-toxic to fibroblasts and capable of cell imaging. ]]>
<![CDATA[Realization of PLM application integration with AR technology]]> Tue, 12 Jan 2021 10:32:53 +0100 Duda, J.; Oleszek, S.
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Abstrakt: The Augmented Reality (AR) can be used to simulate and improve production processes in a virtual manufacturing system before their physical implementation. These techniques make it possible to connect the real world with the virtual one in real time and in a threedimensional environment. Their effective application to the implementation of the product development phases would significantly limit its subsequent reworking and modifications. The difficulty, however, is to design and integrate AR with virtual production systems. The paper presents a proposal for a technical procedure for the implementation of the integration of a commercial PLM and a proprietary AR system.]]>
<![CDATA[Application of natural colorants in green polyethylene composites with lignocellulosic fillers: the influence of steam sterilization on mechanical properties and surface quality]]> Mon, 11 Jan 2021 14:49:28 +0100 Kufel, Anna; Kuciel, Stanisław
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Abstrakt: The concept of the presented research was to assess the applicability of natural colorants in dyeing biocomposites filled with natural fillers. As dyes, ground coffee, turmeric, couscous and ground paprika were used. Additionally, wood flour and walnut shell flour were added to improve strength parameters. The fillers were not dyed prior to processing, but the pigments were processed with the matrix and the filler. The optical observa-tion and the influence of steam sterilization on mechanical properties were carried out, taking into consideration esthetics and performance of the pro-duct. The results showed that natural colorants can be successfully used to dye composites. Low-density biocomposites with increased rigidity were obtained. Composites were characterized by lower tensile strength than neat green polyethylene which was approximately 18 MPa. The high result for tensile modulus was obtained for composition with coffee – it increased to 2045 MPa.]]>
<![CDATA[Tribo-mechanical properties of composites based on polyoxymethylene reinforced with basalt fiber and silicon carbide whiskers]]> Mon, 11 Jan 2021 13:21:40 +0100 Bazan, Patrycja; Nykiel, Marek; Kuciel, Stanisław
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Abstrakt: This paper presents an analysis of the hybrid reinforcement of polyoxymethylene composites. Basalt fibers and monocrystalline silicon carbide fibers were used as reinforcement. Basic tests of mechanical properties were carried out, such as the static tensile and flexural test. The tests were repeated under external factors, such as the influence of water aging and a wide range of exploitation temperatures. The materials were also subjected to tribological tests, that is, determination of the friction coefficient and the specific wear rate. Strength tests revealed an increase in the stiffness of the material as well as a reduction the friction coefficient and abrasive wear. The addition of monocrystalline fibers significantly limited water absorption, stabilized the strength properties in the water environment as well as provided better material's resistance to dynamic impact.]]>
<![CDATA[The potential of novel chitosan-based scaffolds in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) treatment through tissue engineering]]> Mon, 11 Jan 2021 13:10:24 +0100 Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Stangel-Wójcikiewicz, Klaudia; Piątkowski, Marek; Janus, Łukasz; Matýsek, Dalibor; Majka, Marcin; Amrom, Dalia
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Abstrakt: The growing number of female reproductive system disorders creates a need for novel treatment methods. Tissue engineering brings hope for patients, which enables damaged tissue reconstruction. For this purpose, epithelial cells are cultured on three-dimensional scaffolds. One of the most promising materials is chitosan, which is known for its biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of the following study was to verify the potential of chitosan-based biomaterials for pelvic organ prolapse regeneration. The scaffolds were obtained under microwave-assisted conditions in crosslinking reactions, using dicarboxylic acids and aminoacid as crosslinkers, including l-glutamic acid, adipic acid, malonic acid, and levulinic acid. The products were characterized over their physicochemical and biological properties. FT–IR analysis confirmed formation of amide bonds. The scaffolds had a highly porous structure, which was confirmed by SEM analysis. Their porosity was above 90%. The biomaterials had excellent swelling abilities and very good antioxidant properties. The cytotoxicity study was performed on vaginal epithelial VK2/E6E7 and human colon cancer HCT116 cell lines. The results showed that after certain modifications, the proposed scaffolds could be used in pelvic organ prolapse (POP) treatment.]]>
<![CDATA[ZnO nanorods functionalized with chitosan hydrogels crosslinked with azelaic acid for transdermal drug delivery]]> Mon, 11 Jan 2021 12:15:52 +0100 Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Janus, Łukasz; Piątkowski, Marek; Sierakowska, Aleksandra; Matysek, Dalibor
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Abstrakt: The growing number of people suffering from civilization diseases increases the amount of medication taken. Thus, novel methods for drug delivery must be developed which will constitute an alternative to oral administration. A new hope for patients bring transdermal drug delivery systems. To overcome skin barrier function, they must be prepared from materials which increase cell membrane permeability for the medication. Therefore, there is an increasing need for novel, advanced transdermal systems capable of controlled active substance release under specific stimuli. The aim of this research was to obtain novel hydrogel-based transdermal delivery systems through crosslinking process of chitosan using azelaic acid followed by doping with ZnO nanorods to enhance its drug sorption properties. Ready materials were investigated over their structure, morphology and durability. Drug loading capacity, controlled drug release ability and its kinetics were determined on medication used in treatment of cardiovascular system diseases - acetylsalicylic acid. Finally, lack of cytotoxicity was confirmed by XTT assay and cell morphology study carried out on L929 mouse fibroblasts. Obtained results show a great potential of the developed transdermal delivery systems in active substances administration through skin tissue and may help to protect digestive tract of the patients in the future.]]>
<![CDATA[Spatial differentiation of road safety in Europe based on NUTS-2 regions]]> Mon, 11 Jan 2021 11:16:24 +0100 Wachnicka, Joanna; Palikowska, Katarzyna; Kustra, Wojciech; Kiec, Mariusz
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Abstrakt: Road safety varies significantly across the regions in Europe. To understand the factors behind this differentiation and the effects they have, data covering 263 NUTS-2 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) regions across Europe (European Union and Norway) have been analysed. The assessment was made using Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). As a dependent variable the Road Fatality Rate (RFR – number of fatalities in a given year per one million population of the region) was used. The GWR was developed from 2014 data and took account of variables that characterise economic, infrastructural and social development. The model was validated using 2016–2018 data. The following factors were found to be statistically significant: gross domestic product per person (GDPPC), number of passenger cars per inhabitant (MRPC), share of passenger vehicles (PPC), life expectancy at birth (LIFE), as well as variables related to the border of the regions, innerborder (IB) and outerborder (OB). Results suggest that the GWR has an advantage over the global linear model which does not address regional proximity. The model allows for identification of the differences in the level of road safety in regions, estimated on the basis of the RFR and the available data in Eurostat databases. This in turn allows for indicating regions in which activities to improve road safety should have the highest priority. The model shows a large spatial diversity of factors affecting the RFR, which indicates the need to take different actions to improve road safety depending on the region. The results suggest that the GWR model can be useful for predicting and more efficient management of road safety at the regional level in Europe.]]>
<![CDATA[Coumarin-modified CQDs for biomedical applications—two-step synthesis and characterization]]> Mon, 11 Jan 2021 10:28:37 +0100 Janus, Łukasz; Radwan-Pragłowska, Julia; Piątkowski, Marek; Bogdał, Dariusz
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Abstrakt: Waste biomass such as lignin constitutes a great raw material for eco-friendly carbon quantum dots (CQDs) synthesis, which find numerous applications in various fields of industry and medicine. Carbon nanodots, due to their unique luminescent properties as well as water-solubility and biocompatibility, are superior to traditional organic dyes. Thus, obtainment of CQDs with advanced properties can contribute to modern diagnosis and cell visualization method development. In this article, a new type of coumarin-modified CQD was obtained via a hybrid, two-step pathway consisting of hydrothermal carbonization and microwave-assisted surface modification with coumarin-3-carboxylic acid and 7-(Diethylamino) coumarin-3-carboxylate. The ready products were characterized over their chemical structure and morphology. The nanomaterials were confirmed to have superior fluorescence characteristics and quantum yield up to 18.40%. They also possessed the ability of biomolecules and ion detection due to the fluorescence quenching phenomena. Their lack of cytotoxicity to L929 mouse fibroblasts was confirmed by XTT assay. Moreover, the CQDs were proven over their applicability in real-time bioimaging. Obtained results clearly demonstrated that proposed surface-modified carbon quantum dots may become a powerful tool applicable in nanomedicine and pharmacy.]]>
<![CDATA[Cell viability and collagen deposition on hydroxyapatite coatings formed on pretreated substrates]]> Fri, 08 Jan 2021 13:04:14 +0100 Yanovska, A.; Radwan-Pragłowska, J.; Piątkowski, M.; Janus, Ł.
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Abstrakt: A method of thermal deposition that involves localized high peak temperatures at the electrode-electrolyte interface was proposed for hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings deposition. Active surface layers were obtained by HA incorporation from the aqueous electrolyte into the substrate surface due to the decrease of HA solubility with increasing of substrate temperature. Commercially Ti-6Al-4V alloy (grade 4) substrates were pretreated by sandblasting combined with various chemical pre-treatments: 20% NaOH, 20% oxalic acid, and both. After both types of pre-treatment and HA thermal deposition, we can observe uniform coatings with a rough surface. HA presence was confirmed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. According to received data, samples after 6.5 bar, one cycle of sandblasting and etching in 20% oxalic acid 2 h, 20% H3PO4 1 min as well as untreated samples showed the highest wettability. All measured contact angles are lower than 90°, which means that obtained HA surfaces are hydrophilic and indicates that the wetting of the surface is favorable, and the fluid will spread over a large area of the surface. Resazurin reduction assay showed satisfactory U2OS osteoblastic cell adhesion in 1 day of the experiment. There is no significant difference between non-treated polished surfaces and HA-covered with sandblasting pre-treatment. In contrast – the polished surface with HA coating demonstrates significantly less cell adhesion. It was confirmed low collagen production both in untreated and polished-HA surfaces in comparison with the sandblasted-HA ones. The obtained data suggest that roughness plays an important role in cell adhesion and proliferation, but HA coating provides additional stimuli for cell activity (collagen synthesis).]]>
<![CDATA[The study of physico-mechanical properties of polylactide composites with different level of infill produced by the FDM method]]> Fri, 08 Jan 2021 12:55:51 +0100 Gaweł, Anna; Kuciel, Stanisław
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Abstrakt: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in physical-mechanical properties of the samples manufactured by 3D printing technology with the addition of varying degrees of polylactide (PLA) infill (50, 70, 85 and 100%). Half of the samples were soaked in physiological saline. The material used for the study was neat PLA, which was examined in terms of hydrolytic degradation, crystallization, mechanical strength, variability of properties at elevated temperatures, and dissipation of mechanical energy depending on the performed treatment. A significant impact of the amount of infill on changeable mechanical properties, such as hydrolytic degradation and crystallization was observed. The FDM printing method allows for waste–free production of light weight unit products with constant specyfic strength.]]>
<![CDATA[Addendum to the paper “High‐order symmetric cubature rules for tetrahedra and pyramids”]]> Fri, 08 Jan 2021 10:58:25 +0100 Jaśkowiec, Jan; Sukumar, N.
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Abstrakt: In Jaśkowiec and Sukumar (Int J Numer Methods Eng., doi: 10.1002/nme.6528, 2020), we presented high‐order (p = 2–20) symmetric cubatures rules for tetrahedra and pyramids. This algorithm was sensitive to the initial location of the cubature nodes, and it did not converge for p > 11 over prisms and hexahedra (cubes). In this addendum, we resolve this issue and obtain high‐order symmetric rules over prisms and cubes. For the prism, we use the initial guess for the cubature rule as the tensor product of a cubature rule over a triangle and a univariate Gauss quadrature rule, and for the cube the initial guess is the tensor product of univariate Gauss quadrature rules. Verification and convergence tests are presented to affirm the accuracy of the cubature rules. On applying the cubature algorithm described in Jaśkowiec and Sukumar (Int J Numer Methods Eng., 121 (11), 2418‐2436, 2020), we also construct non‐symmetric high‐order (p = 2–20) cubature rules over prisms, cubes, and pyramids. In the Supplementary Materials, all cubature rules (128 digits of precision) are provided in a text file and in Matlab® format.]]>
<![CDATA[Application of pseudohomogeneous and heterogeneous models in assessing the behavior of a fluidized-bed catalytic reactor]]> Fri, 08 Jan 2021 09:25:32 +0100 Bizon, Katarzyna
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Abstrakt: Comparative analysis of the steady-state and transient properties of a bubbling fluidized-bed catalytic reactor obtained according to different mathematical models of the emulsion zone was performed to verify the commonly used assumption regarding the pseudohomogeneous nature of this zone. Four different mathematical models of the fluidized-bed reactor dynamics were formulated, based on different thermal and diffusional conditions at the gas-solid interface and within the catalyst pellet, namely the model based on the assumption of pseudohomogeneous character for the emulsion zone, and a group of two-scale models accounting for the heterogeneous character of this zone. It was demonstrated that, while the pseudohomogeneous model of the emulsion zone predicts almost identical behavior of the reactor at steady-state as the proposed heterogeneous models, it may fail in the prediction of the reactor start-up behavior, especially when dealing with highly exothermic processes run at relatively high fluidization velocity.]]>
<![CDATA[Characteristics of plastic waste processing in the modern recycling plant operating in Poland]]> Fri, 08 Jan 2021 08:56:21 +0100 Szostak, Elżbieta; Duda, Piotr; Duda, Andrzej; Górska, Natalia; Fenicki, Arkadiusz; Molski, Patryk
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Abstrakt: Although Poland is one of the leading recipients of the waste stream in the European Union (EU), it is at the same time below the average in terms of efficiency of their use/utilization. The adopted technological solutions cause waste processing rates to be relatively low in Poland. As a result, the report of the Early Warning and Response System (EWRS) of the EU indicated Poland as one of the 14 countries of the EU which are at risk in terms of possibility of achieving 50% recycling of waste. This article discusses the implemented technological solutions, and shows the profitability of the investment and the values of the process heat demand both for extractor and reactor. The experimental part analyzed the composition of the input and output of the process and compared it to the required fuel specifications. Attention was drawn to the need to improve the recycling process in order to increase the quality of manufactured fuel components. As potential ways of solving the problem of low fuel quality, cleaning the sorted reaction mass from solid particles and extending the technological line with a distillation column have been proposed. The recommended direction of improvement of the technology is also the optimization of the process of the reactor’s purification and removal of contaminants.]]>
<![CDATA[Impact of warm-up period on optical coordinate measuring machine measurement accuracy]]> Thu, 07 Jan 2021 14:52:49 +0100 Harmatys, Wiktor; Gąska, Adam; Gąska, Piotr; Gruza, Maciej; Sładek, Jerzy
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Abstrakt: The multisensor optical coordinate measuring machines utilizes various systems used for point coordinates acquisitions. Different sources of light, power supply units and other electric devices along with motors responsible for machine movement along coordinate system axes introduces temperature variation into its measuring volume. It may be especially problematic after turning a machine on as it took some time before temperature of system stabilize. This paper tries to answer if accurate measurements can be performed during machine warm-up period. Applied methodology is based on the measurements of hole plate standard performed during machine warm-up and after a temperature stabilization. Additionally the amount of time needed for the temperature stabilization can be estimated. Obtained results show that although utilized temperature compensation reduce systematic errors related with temperature variations, the warm-up period may introduce the noticeable change of point measurement uncertainty.]]>
<![CDATA[Challenges for the DOE methodology related to the introduction of Industry 4.0]]> Thu, 07 Jan 2021 14:37:58 +0100 Pietraszek, Jacek; Radek, Norbert; Goroshko, Andrii V.
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Abstrakt: The introduction of solutions conventionally called Industry 4.0 to the industry resulted in the need to make many changes in the traditional procedures of industrial data analysis based on the DOE (Design of Experiments) methodology. The increase in the number of controlled and observed factors considered, the intensity of the data stream and the size of the analyzed datasets revealed the shortcomings of the existing procedures. Modifying procedures by adapting Big Data solutions and data-driven methods is becoming an increasingly pressing need. The article presents the current methods of DOE, considers the existing problems caused by the introduction of mass automation and data integration under Industry 4.0, and indicates the most promising areas in which to look for possible problem solutions.]]>
<![CDATA[Investigations of the optical and thermal properties of the pyrazoloquinoline derivatives and their application for OLED design]]> Thu, 07 Jan 2021 14:10:59 +0100 Lewińska, Gabriela ; Khachatryan, Karen; Danel, Krzysztof S.; Danel, Zoriana; Sanetra, Jerzy; Marszałek, Konstanty W.
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Abstrakt: In this study, the photo-optical properties of the series of new 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline derivatives were investigated. Pyrazoloquinoline studies were conducted to explain the electroluminescent effect in organic LEDs. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra for the materials under consideration were examined, and quantum chemical calculations were made. Differential scanning calorimetric and thermogravimetric measurements were carried out for the manufactured materials. The phase situation of the materials was determined, and glassy transitions were detected for three of the investigated materials. Degradation temperatures were obtained. Single-layer luminescent diodes based on the ITO/PEDOT:PSS/active layer/Al scheme were fabricated. Current–voltage and brightness–voltage characteristics of the diodes were determined, ignition voltage was calculated, and electroluminescence types were determined. ]]>
<![CDATA[Application of Probabilistic Power Spectral Density technique to monitoring the long-term vibrational behaviour of CERN Seismic Network Stations]]> Thu, 07 Jan 2021 13:02:18 +0100 Łacny, Łukasz; Ścisło, Łukasz; Guinchard, Michael
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Abstrakt: In this paper, a statistical method called Probabilistic Power Spectral Density based on the standard spectral density plots is presented and utilized. The practical application and utility of this method areshown based on the seismic data collected over a long period from three seismic stations connected within the so-called CERN Seismic Network.The analysis was used to observe and monitor the increase in ambient vibration levels over a longperiod during the heightened heavy machinery work close to LHC Point 1 (ATLAS detector).]]>
<![CDATA[Estimation of the effect of redox treatment on microstructure and tendency to brittle fracture of anode materials of YSZ–NiO(Ni) system]]> Thu, 07 Jan 2021 12:48:41 +0100 Vasyliv, B.; Kulyk, V.; Duriagina, Z.; Mierzwinski, D.; Kovbasiuk, T.; Tepla, T.
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Abstrakt: The effect of reduction treatment in a high-temperature (600 °C) hydrogen-containing environment on the microstructure and tendency to brittle fracture of YSZ–NiO(Ni) materials for solid oxide fuel cell anodes has been studied. To assess the crack growth resistance of the ceramics, the Vickers indentation technique was adapted, which allowed estimating the microhardness and fracture toughness of the material in the complex. The requirements for high porosity of the anodes to ensure functional properties show that the strength may be an insufficient characteristic of the bearing capacity of the anode. More structurally sensitive characteristics are needed to assess its crack growth resistance. The average levels of microhardness of YSZ–NiO ceramics in the as-sintered state and YSZ–NiO(Ni) cermets (2.0 GPa and 0.8 GPa, respectively) and their fracture toughness (3.75 MPa·m1/2 and 2.9 MPa·m1/2, respectively) were experimentally determined. It was found that the microstructure of YSZ–NiO(Ni) cermet after redox treatment is formed by a YSZ ceramic skeleton with refined Ni-phase grains combined in a network, which provides increased electrical conductivity. Along with higher porosity of the cermet, its fracture toughness is not lower than that of the one-time reduced cermet due to the implementation of the bridging toughening mechanism of fracture. The proposed treatment method allowed forming the microstructure of the anode material, resistant to crack propagation under mechanical load. The propensity of the anode material to brittle fracture on the basis of evaluation of its crack growth resistance and analysis of the microstructure and fracture micromechanism was substantiated. This result is interesting from a theoretical point of view. From a practical point of view, the developed technique allows determining the conditions of redox treatment in the technology of manufacturing fuel cell anodes]]>
<![CDATA[Morphology adjustment of pure and doped g-C3N4 by mercapto group-induced assembly towards enhanced photocatalysis]]> Thu, 07 Jan 2021 11:55:50 +0100 Chen, Ling ; Liu, Yumeng ; Matras-Postolek, Katarzyna ; Yang, Ping
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Abstrakt: Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nano-materials with different morphologies were prepared inthis study by two-steps through controlling the mercapto group-induced assembly. Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS)-decorated SiO2nanospheres were employed as hard templates to produceg-C3N4in the first step. Different morphologies of g-C3N4, such as hollow spheres, nanotubes andquasi-belts, were created in the second step by controlling the concentration of etching agents,reaction time, and process. During the etchingprocess, the mercapto groups in MPS can induce theassembly of g-C3N4and play a crucial role of tuning the morphologies of g-C3N4,whichisthekeypoint for morphology adjustment. To enhance photolysis activity, cobalt-, boron-, and carbon-dopedg-C3N4were further prepared to tune the band gap and absorption in visible light. The morphologiesof doped samples changed after doping. In addition, carbon self-doped g-C3N4exhibited the bestphoto-redox activity due to increased visible light absorbance, electrical conductivity, and narrowband gap.]]>
<![CDATA[Impact of flax fiber reinforcement on mechanical properties of solid and foamed geopolymer concrete]]> Thu, 07 Jan 2021 08:56:24 +0100 Korniejenko, Kinga; Łach, Michał; Hebdowska-Krupa, Maria; Mikuła, Janusz
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Abstrakt: The main objective of this study is to develop the advanced composites for civil engineering applications as material for the building industry, especially for an insulation purpose. The research processes include several steps. Firstly, the prototype elements, such as bricks and elevation elements were performed from eco-friendly composite -flax fiber reinforced geopolymer. The elements were designed to take into consideration for environment. Geopolymers are environmentally friendly, sustainable, and resource efficient, including energy demand. Next, the wall was built from these elements and exposed during the three months in a relevant environment. The main conclusion of the research is that the kind of fibers is important for the mechanical properties of the composite, including the fact that for those different fibers could be more beneficial for different raw materials, giving higher strength properties. The significant influence on the mechanical properties of the composites has the adhesion between fiber and material used as a matrix. The adhesion depends among others on the previous treatment of the fibers.]]>