Nowe zasoby w Repozytorium PK http://suw.biblos.pk.edu.pl/ Biblioteka Politechniki Krakowskiej lipinska@biblos.pk.edu.pl 60 <![CDATA[Badania eksploatacyjne zmian wartości cech diagnostycznych zarysu zewnętrznego kół elektrycznych zespołów trakcyjnych]]> Thu, 30 Jun 2022 14:52:23 +0200 Grzywna, Maciej; Szkoda, Maciej
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
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<![CDATA[Struktura zanieczyszczeń pyłowych w Polsce na podstawie zautomatyzowanych pomiarów krótkoterminowych]]> Thu, 30 Jun 2022 07:21:38 +0200 Szwed, Mirosław; Kozłowski, Rafał; Żukowski, Witold; Mbengue, Saliou; Suchánková, Lenka; Prokeš, Roman
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Przedstawiono wyniki analiz jakości powietrza opartych na automatycznych, krótkookresowych pomiarach pyłu w trzech punktach pomiarowych na terenie południowej Polski. Dokonano również analizy materiałów węglowych oraz składu chemicznego zdeponowanych na powierzchni filtrów cząstek stałych. Wykazano zróżnicowaną zawartość pyłu PM2.5, PM10 oraz różne postacie węgla w zależności od lokalizacji poboru próbek.]]>
<![CDATA[Stacje mieszkaniowe z sercem. Kompleksowe rozwiązania z oferty Herz]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 14:57:54 +0200 Muniak, Damian
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Stacje mieszkaniowe – zwane też logotermami lub stacjami wymiennikowymi – są centralami dystrybucyjno-regulacyjnopomiarowymi, dostarczającymi zarówno czynnik do instalacji ogrzewczej, jak i przygotowującymi ciepłą wodę użytkową. Co istotne – parametry czynników do obu instalacji ustalane i regulowane są lokalnie, w stacji, dając możliwość dopasowania ich do potrzeb użytkowników. Do stacji podłączyć należy jedynie sieć ciepła technologicznego (ewentualnie – sieć ogrzewczą) i przewód wody zimnej. Możliwość zabudowy urządzeń do pomiaru zużytej wody i pobranego ciepła sprawia, że jest to rozwiązanie kompleksowe. Integracja taka upraszcza ponadto kwestie serwisowe i ewentualne przeglądy i naprawy, obniżając koszty i czas pracy instalatorów na budowie. Ponadto zwiększa to niezawodność systemu. ]]>
<![CDATA[Experimental investigations on transmission of whole body vibration to the wheelchair user's body]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 14:52:40 +0200 Chwalik-Pilszyk, Gabriela; Ziemiański, Daniel; Kozień, Marek S.
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The article presents the results of research on the influence of whole body vibrations (WBVs) on a person moving in a wheelchair. The tests were carried out using an electrohydraulic shaker for a kinematic harmonic excitation with a constant amplitude and frequencies, respectively, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 Hz. The accelerations caused by vibrations were measured with three-axis accelerometers at three measuring points: on the seat, chest, and head of the examined person. The research included frequency and statistical analyses of vibrations. The analyses were focused on the course of the transition functions over frequency. The range of the disabled person’s exposure to the negative factor which is WBVs was assessed. ]]>
<![CDATA[New photovoltaic emulator designed for testing low-power inverters connected to the LV grid]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 14:47:35 +0200 Korasiak, Przemysław; Jaglarz, Janusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Assessing the performance of photovoltaic systems, in particular dedicated DC/AC inverter devices, requires using of photovoltaic panels operating under natural environmental conditions, such as variations of solar radiation intensity, the temperature and wind speed. Environmental testing is obviously very troublesome, inconvenient and limited. An alternative solution is to use a device that emulates the output photovoltaic panel curves in variable weather conditions, which allows carrying out all necessary tests at the laboratory. This paper presents a new photovoltaic emulator (PVE), mimicking the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels. The proposed PVE is designed and constructed at the renewable energy laboratory for testing low-power PV inverters connected to the LV grid. A novelty of this solution is the method for shaping emulated current-voltage characteristics I-V. The concept of this method assumes autonomous regulation of slopes and shapes of emulated curve fragments. This allows obtaining the desired shapes of the output characteristics for a wide range of both voltages and currents. The proposed PVE is not a pulse device it belongs to linear analogue circuits. In order to confirm the assumed concept a prototype is designed and constructed, laboratory tests were conducted. Satisfactory results are obtained confirming the correctness of the adopted concept. A high compliance of the emulated characteristics was found in comparison to the characteristics of the selected commercial photovoltaic module. Very good results of dynamic tests and energy efficiency measurements were achieved. ]]>
<![CDATA[Wybrane zagadnienia z dziedziny architektury i urbanistyki w okresie 50-letniej działalności Wydziału Architektury Politechniki Krakowskiej]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 14:45:30 +0200 rodzaj: książka
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<![CDATA[Advances in the control schemes for MR actuators]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:39:58 +0200 Mendes, Gabriel; Gołdasz, Janusz
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Magnetorheological (MR) actuators are known semi-active devices. In the essence, the hardware incorporates a valve being a solenoid with a flow channel. Supplying the current to the solenoid’s coil induces the magnetic field in the channel. As a results, the fluid transitions from a near-Newtonian one to a pseudo-solid. In the paper we show that significant improvements in the MR actuator dynamics can be achieved by exploring flux feedback control systems rather than current feedback ones. The flux-based approach would improve the system’s response time and its bandwidth as well as minimize the contribution of the eddy currents. Thus, numerical simulations have been carried out to test the original hypothesis. The obtained data (from co-simulations) prove that the proposed approach delivers good results although further research is required on further optimizing the controller’s gains and prior to building a real prototype.]]>
<![CDATA[Assessment of the possibility of transforming post-industrial areas into housing purposes]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:11:42 +0200 Adamkiewicz, Dagmara; Radziszewska-Zielina, Elżbieta; Szewczyk, Bartłomiej
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
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<![CDATA[Beton z dodatkiem granulatu gumowego do wykonywania przegród wibroizolacyjnych do ochrony środowiska przed drganiami]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 07:45:31 +0200 Tatara, Tadeusz; Kowalska-Koczwara, Alicja; Gruszczyński, Maciej
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W artykule omówiono badania surowców, dodatków i domieszek chemicznych, służących do zaprojektowania składu mieszanek betonowych do wykonania przegród w gruncie (palisady i ściany szczelinowe) o zwiększonej wibroizolacyjności w porównaniu z rozwiązaniami stosowanymi obecnie oraz zamieszczono wyniki badań właściwości betonów referencyjnych, a także z dodatkiem granulatu gumowego. Badania wykonano w laboratorium Katedry Inżynierii Materiałów Budowlanych Politechniki Krakowskiej w ramach realizacji projektu: Innowacyjna konstrukcja przegród wibroizolacyjnych do ochrony środowiska przed drganiami transportowymi i z podobnych źródeł.]]>
<![CDATA[Pomiar sił sprężających w elemencie kablobetonowym]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 07:41:25 +0200 Walczak, Rafał; Derkowski, Wit
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W pracy krótko przedstawiono i porównano dostępne metody pomiaru sił sprężających w istniejących konstrukcjach betonowych. Opisano badanie przeprowadzone na kablobetonowej prefabrykowanej belce podsuwnicowej, zdemontowanej z istniejącej konstrukcji po ponad 55 latach użytkowania. Przedstawiono wyniki pomiaru siły sprężającej metodą niszczącą i seminiszczącą, które porównano z obliczoną wartością siły według Eurokodu 2. Poszczególne metody określenia siły sprężającej wykazały zadowalającą zgodność.]]>
<![CDATA[Plant and herbal extracts as ingredients of topical agents in the prevention and treatment radiodermatitis: a systematic literature review]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 07:37:29 +0200 Kulawik-Pióro, Agnieszka; Goździcka, Weronika Joanna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Background: The use of herbal extracts as the source of antioxidant substances capable of neutralizing free radicals and providing protection from ionizing radiation appears to be an alternative therapy for radiodermatitis. As concerns the prevention and treatment of side effects, a lot of recommendations are based on proper experience of radiotherapy centers. We summarize recent research aiming at reducing radiation-induced skin injuries by use of proper skin care, using topical preparations with herbal extracts including onco-cosmetics. Methods: This article is limited to a critical analysis of scientific and professional literature. It concerns preparations in different physicochemical forms, e.g., gels, emulsions, ointments. We stress the connection between the type of applied skin care (type of preparation, its composition, the dose), the properties of the herbal extract and the evaluation of its efficiency in preventing and treating radiation reaction on skin. Conclusions: Herbal extracts can be added to recipes because they are part of a category of cosmeceutical supplements and can be introduced into preparations without prescription. The effectiveness evaluation for herbal extracts in radiotherapy is not an easy task since there are no strict guidelines. Studies should be preceded by the analysis of herbal extracts and recipe in terms of physicochemical, dermatological and performance characteristics.]]>
<![CDATA[Shaping the optimal technology for servicing the long-distance deliveries of packaged cargo by road transport]]> Tue, 28 Jun 2022 07:34:29 +0200 Naumov, Vitalii; Shulika, Olha; Orda, Oleksandra; Vasiutina, Hanna; Bauer, Marek; Oliskevych, Myroslav
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The concept of sustainable transportation of goods as the primary paradigm for designing contemporary logistics systems assumes the use of energy-efficient and affordable modes of transport in a way that guarantees the most cost-efficient variant of the delivery scheme. That especially applies to road transport deliveries, where the number of alternatives for organizing the transportation process is numerous and the choice of the optimal solution is complicated by the multiple stochastic influences of the environment on the technological processes. In this paper, we contribute to solving the problem of shaping the sustainable delivery schemes by proposing an approach to shape the complete set of alternative transport and technological schemes for the packaged cargo delivery by road transport. The developed mathematical model allows estimating the efficiency of each alternative delivery scheme for the given request and choosing the best variant that minimizes the total costs of all participants in the delivery process. The proposed algorithms are implemented in the C# programming language within the frame of a class library for modeling transport delivery processes. A case of transport processes for Delivery Ltd (Kharkiv, Ukraine) is applied to illustrate the procedure of using the developed approach to choose the optimal transport and technological schemes for long-distance deliveries. As the result of simulating the goods transportation processes, we show the regression models that represent dependencies of the total costs for the implementation of a delivery scheme from the parameters of demand for the transportation of goods. These regression models allow estimating the most efficient delivery schemes based on the functional analysis of the obtained dependencies for the given demand parameters.]]>
<![CDATA[An actively controlled two-terminal network implementing a given linear nonconvolution-type immittance operator]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 14:30:45 +0200 Siwczyński, Maciej; Jaraczewski, Marcin; Hawron, Konrad
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper is a study on the synthesis of digital filters used to control active or self-excited systems. The active two-terminal branch implements a nonconvolution-type immittance operator, which generates a current waveform depending on the given impedance or admittance operator. In this article, for the first time, the method of how to construct immittance operators for linear time-variant (nonconvolution-type) two-terminal circuits, over discrete time, is presented. These operators are useful when calculating periodic steady-state signals of a parametric circuit. The formula for the duty cycle is derived based on the current generated by this branch, assuming a known branch voltage or vice versa. This formula allows us to make a direct calculation of the duty-cycle in an analytical manner and does not refer to any auxiliary signals, e.g., sawtooth signals, or to any control systems, e.g., PI controller. The determined duty-cycles allow us to select the appropriate switching frequency and voltage value for the switched voltage source. With this method, it is also possible to assess the parameters of the current signal that would be generated in the actual active filter branch due to the calculated PWM voltage. The presented method can be an alternative to commonly used PI controllers in feedback for controlling active power filters/inverters.]]>
<![CDATA[Wilanowska kolekcja roślin egzotycznych w świetle inwentarzy z 1856 i 1857 roku]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 13:29:35 +0200 Kuśmierski, Jacek
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The Potocki family contributed greatly to Wilanów gardens in two fundamental aspects: they developed the landscape arrangement of the palace and park, and they created a large collection of glasshouse and orangery plants. Exotic plants were grown in the garden grounds in an orangery, a conservatory for fig trees, two hothouses, a glasshouse and two conservatories for pineapples. Until now, the species composition of the plant collection was known only from fragmentary information in the press covering garden exhibitions, in which Countess Aleksandra Potocka was actively involved. The missing information was found in two previously unknown inventories of 1856 and 1857 kept in the collection of the Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw (AGAD). They contain lists of glasshouse and orangery plants prepared by the inspectors of the Wilanów gardens. The aim of the present research was to identify the reasons and conditions for the preparation of these inventories, and to characterize the plant species mentioned therein. Manuscripts were rewritten and decoded, and then analysed for historical aspects and detailed botanical information. The precise historical context of both documents was established after the comparison of historical plant names with the modern nomenclature, and a total of 763 plant species and varieties were identified. Most of these plants are native to tropical and subtropical regions of North America, South America or Asia. The extraordinary diversity and richness of the Wilanów collection of exotic plants indicates that the owners of the estate at that time, Count August Potocki and his wife Aleksandra, had a huge interest in botany and provided versatile forms of patronage to gardens.]]>
<![CDATA[Composite and monolithic DFOS sensors for load tests and long-term structural monitoring of road infrastructure]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 13:22:24 +0200 Sieńko, Rafał; Bednarski, Łukasz; Howiacki, Tomasz; Zuziak, Katarzyna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS) is a versatile measurement technology, especially useful to monitor linear structures including road infrastructure. It allows measuring strains, displacements or temperatures continuously in a geometrical sense, so all local events (e.g. cracks or sinkholes) can be detected directly. The article summarises the newest achievements related to composite and monolithic DFOS sensors created especially for civil engineering and geotechnical applications. The design of the sensors supported by theoretical background and practical applications are discussed in relation to road embankments and asphalt layers. These successful applications of composite and monolithic DFOS sensors are the first of such types in the world.]]>
<![CDATA[Mechanical strength and chloride ions’ penetration of alkali-activated concretes (AAC) with blended precursor]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 10:50:00 +0200 Duży, Patrycja; Choinska, Marta; Hager, Izabela; Amiri, Ouali; Claverie, Jérôme
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of hardened alkali-activated concrete, which is considered an eco-friendly alternative to Portland cement concrete. In this paper, the precursors for alkali-activated concrete preparations are blends of fly ash and ground-granulated blast-furnace slag in three slag proportions: 5%, 20%, and 35%, expressed as a percentage of fly ash mass. Thus, three concretes were designed and cast, denominated as AAC5, AAC20, and AAC35. Their physical and mechanical characteristics were investigated at 28 and 180 days, as well as their properties of chloride ion transport. The modified NT BUILD 492 migration test was applied to determine the chloride ions’ penetration of the alkali-activated concretes. Improvement of mechanical strength and resistance to chloride aggression was observed with ground-granulated blastfurnace slag content increase in the compositions of the tested concretes. Mercury intrusion porosimetry tests provided insight into the open pore structures of concretes. A significant decrease in the total pore volume of the concrete and a change in the nature of the pore diameter distribution due to the addition of ground granulated blast furnace slag were demonstrated.]]>
<![CDATA[Position paper introducing a sustainable, universal approach to retrofitting residential buildings]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 10:31:47 +0200 Fedorczak-Cisak, Małgorzata; Bomberg, Mark; Yarbrough, David W.; Lingo, Lowell E.; Romanska-Zapala, Anna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Protests during the 2021 Climate Conference in Glasgow exemplified our dilemma. The establishment perpetuates old thinking, while young people demand a new approach to mitigate the impact of climate change. The authors agree with the young people, and as a solution we propose to replace the current fragmentary approach with a new holistic one. The passive house approach that was conceptualized by the University of Illinois and built in Canada in 1977 showed us that energy consumption can be reduced about half of that used in the traditional design. Seventeen years later, a European passive house was built in Darmstadt. In 2008, a demonstration house in Syracuse, NY, showed that integrated passive measures produced energy use by about half of the NY state code for 2004. At the same time, some advanced houses in the USA showed total energy use of about 70 kWh/(m2∙y). In 2008, at the first Building Enclosure Science and Technology Conference, two equally important objectives for 2030 were proposed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: (1) a 90% reduction of energy use in new buildings and (2) 50% for the retrofitting of existing buildings, i.e., to the level achieved in the 1980s. The first objective has recently been achieved in small buildings while the large residential buildings remain on the level obtained in the 2000s. Yet, the retrofitting of existing buildings (the second objective) has been a dismal failure. This paper acknowledges progress in hydronic heating and cooling involving electric heat pumps and hybrid solar panels, building automatics used for operation of HVAC, and modification of air distribution systems that comes from experience with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Furthermore, it highlights that to accelerate energy efficiency and carbon emission reductions, there must be broad public-private educational programs with demonstrations of a new generation of retrofitting. Economically and ecologically retrofitted buildings will create a new approach to real estate investment.]]>
<![CDATA[Greenery design in areas under heritage conservation, on the example of selected Krakow sites]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 10:26:27 +0200 Zachariasz, Agata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The objective of this paper is to present greenery design processes in publicly accessible heritage areas. This subject concerns sites under conservation via monument protection forms and new sites built in areas protected by provisions for urban complexes. Cases from Krakow, a city considered a monument by UNESCO, were analyzed. The temporal scope of the study was the last twenty-two years. The study was based on an investigation of the literature and analytical methods. The findings produced a review of design activity, as well as controversial and divisive matters. The discussion and conclusions feature an assessment of the activity investigated, which served to supplement general guidelines for the conservation approach model under current legal, environmental and social conditions. Design standards were also discussed.]]>
<![CDATA[In search of periodicity in the annual precipitation in Europe (1881–2020)]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 09:52:42 +0200 Walanus, Adam; Twardosz, Robert; Cebulska, Marta; Płachta, Arkadiusz
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: A new method of searching for periodicity has been developed on the basis of extensive spatio-temporal data. The result, however, produces little more than doubts. The standard Fourier analysis indicates some periods, namely 3.7-, 7.0-, 8.8-, and 17.5-year periods, and these periodic signals are distributed relatively consistently over some regions of Europe. However, the expectations that the exact harmonic 8.8 years of 17.5 years, and not so exact 3.7 years of 7.0 years will be present at the same or close stations are not fulfilled.]]>
<![CDATA[Use of historical painting concepts by modern methods in the restoration of architectural monuments]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 09:49:15 +0200 Baiandin, Serhii; Ivashko, Yulia; Dmytrenko, Andrii; Bulakh, Iryna; Hryniewicz, Małgorzata
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The article presents a scientific overview of examples of monumental painting in recreated and restored objects in recent decades. Examples of monumental painting in the figurative concept of Kyivan Rus fresco, baroque painting and academic painting of the period of classicism and historicism of the 19th century are selected. The technologies of such monumental painting are described, while preserving the figurative concept, but on the basis of modern materials and technologies, which makes such paintings more resistant to negative external influences and more durable. The article is illustrated by the works of recent years by the authors S. Baiandin and Y. Huzenko.]]>
<![CDATA[Badania numeryczne języka rozdzielczego poniżej jazu na stopniu wodnym Januszkowice na rzece Odrze]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 09:44:06 +0200 Filipczyk, Janusz Michał; Mokwa, Marian; Kędzia, Dawid; Krasodomski, Jerzy; Dorada, Paweł; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: W pracy przedstawiono wyniki dwuwymiarowych badań modelowych języka rozdzielczego poniżej jazu na stopniu wodnym Januszkowice. Praca jest wynikiem projektu realizowanego przez PBW Inżynieria z Wrocławia celem poprawy warunków korzystania z wód i przeprowadzania przepływów powodziowych na rzece Odrze.]]>
<![CDATA[Instalacja oświetleniowa kompleksu biurowego jako źródło zanieczyszczenia świetlnego]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 08:41:32 +0200 Ściężor, Tomasz; Czaplicka, Anna
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Kompleksy biurowe zajmują coraz większą powierzchnię we współczesnych miastach. Obszary przez nie zajmowane są, jednocześnie, jednymi z najlepiej oświetlonych elementów urbanistycznych. Jest to związane zarówno z oświetleniem wewnętrznym pomieszczeń biurowych, jak też oświetleniem zewnętrznym parkingów lub dojazdów. Ponadto, z tego typu obiektami związane jest zawsze oświetlenie reklamowe. Prowadzone prace remontowe w jednym z tego typu kompleksów w Krakowie pozwoliły na przeprowadzenie unikalnych badań pozwalających stwierdzić, jak różne składowe jego oświetlenia wpływają na poszczególne kategorie zanieczyszczenia świetlnego. Stwierdzono prawidłową konstrukcję wszystkich źródeł światła. W części kompleksu stwierdzono występowanie zjawisk nadmiernego oświetlenia oraz olśnienia, związanego z panelami reklamowymi. Głównym jednak problemem jest odbijanie światła, o zbyt dużym natężeniu, przez jasne nawierzchnie, zwłaszcza traktów pieszych, co wpływa znacząco na jasność łuny świetlnej Krakowa.]]>
<![CDATA[Badania kinetyczne i reologiczne kompozytów stomatologicznych nowej generacji]]> Mon, 27 Jun 2022 08:28:55 +0200 Topa-Skwarczyńska, Monika; Noworyta, Małgorzata; Ortyl, Joanna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Obecnie handlowo dostępne wypełnienia stomatologiczne otrzymywane są zazwyczaj na drodze fotopolimeryzacji rodnikowej, co powoduje często duży skurcz polimeryzacyjny otrzymywanych kompozytów. Skurcz polimeryzacyjny jest bardzo niepożądany w wypełnieniach stomatologicznych, gdyż może prowadzić do powstawania ubytków wtórnych. W tej pracy przedstawiono nowe światłoutwardzalne kompozyty dentystyczne otrzymane na drodze jednoczesnej fotopolimeryzacji kationowej oraz rodnikowej. Przeprowadzono badania kinetyki procesu fotopolimeryzacji techniką Real-Time FT-IR. Dokonano także pomiarów reologicznych z wykorzystaniem modułowego reometru kompaktowego MCR302e, w celu określenia skurczu polimeryzacyjnego badanych kompozytów.]]>
<![CDATA[Design of cement-slag concrete composition for 3D printing]]> Fri, 24 Jun 2022 13:08:07 +0200 Dvorkin, Leonid; Marchuk, Vitaliy; Hager, Izabela; Maroszek, Marcin
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The article presents a set of experimental-static models of the properties of fine-grained concretes on a cement–slag binder and quartz sand with the addition of a hardening accelerator made on a 3D printer. The influence of the factors of the composition of the mixture and the effects of their interaction on the studied properties of concrete was established. By analyzing the models, the influence of the factors of mixture composition on the studied properties was ranked. The nature and degree of interrelation of individual properties of concrete are shown. A method for calculating the optimal compositions of concrete for a 3D printer, providing the specified properties at a minimum cost, is proposed.]]>
<![CDATA[Analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the future of public transport: example of Warsaw]]> Fri, 24 Jun 2022 09:54:33 +0200 Bauer, Marek; Bauer, Kinga
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The COVID-19 pandemic is completely changing the transport customs of city residents. It has decreased the number of travels and has affected changes in the division of transport means. This article presents a case study of the city of Warsaw, attempting to describe the process of changes in the use of public transport in daily trips in the following months of the pandemic. Statistical data on the public transport offer, number of passengers, and tickets sold in 2017-2021, which are available in monthly and annual bulletins issued by the public transport organizer, were used. The knowledge base was supplemented with the results of surveys conducted among the city’s residents. The obtained data were organized and analyzed using descriptive statistics methods. The study findings reveal that the lower use of public transport for travel during the COVID-19 pandemic is mainly due to the imposed limits on the number of passengers and is also linked to changes in the structure of the tickets purchased, especially a significant decrease in the sale of long-distance tickets, which implies the loss of a significant number of most valuable, regular users. It was also observed that the appraisal of public transport did not deteriorate, which allowed to expect with optimism the return of passengers after the pandemic. Therefore, a package of possible steps to be taken to restore confidence in public transport and to enable return of lost passengers is presented. The results of the analyses show how easily passengers can be lost and why it is so important to ensure the functioning of public transport even in crisis situations such as a pandemic. These results can also be applied in transport policy updates.]]>
<![CDATA[Historical timber health resort architecture. Contemporary condition and state of conservation]]> Fri, 24 Jun 2022 09:43:17 +0200 Węcławowicz-Bilska, Elżbieta; Wdowiarz-Bilska, Matylda; Kráľová, Eva; Vaščák, Martin; Kryvoruchko, Yuriy
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Paper discusses present the types of conservation measures used to protect historical timber health resort architecture in spa towns. The subject is presented on the example of historical wooden buildings in the Polish, Slovak and Ukrainian health resorts. The approach to conservation the historical substance and preserving the architectural expression of the object is presented on the individual examples of historic buildings, mainly spa villas. Efforts towards renewing damaged, transformed and ruined buildings can contribute to maintaining the value of the cultural landscape of localities, the identity of health resorts and their educational value.]]>
<![CDATA[Spatial distribution and land development parameters of shopping centers based on GIS analysis: a case study on Kraków, Poland]]> Fri, 24 Jun 2022 09:39:13 +0200 Blazy, Rafał; Łabuz, Rita
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The progressive development of shopping centers in the world affects the urban structure of cities. These facilities are constantly evolving, which also entails changes in the way their vicinity is shaped. In this context, this article deals with the trend in the way of locating and developing shopping center areas, showing the changes taking place over the years. The subject of investigations are the areas of Kraków’s shopping centers - their spatial distribution and the way the land is developed. The aim of the research was to characterize and assess the spatial development of the analyzed shopping centers, to determine the trends in the location and characteristic urban indicators. This made it possible to verify whether possible changes in the way new investments of this type are shaped should be sought in order to improve the quality of the urban environment. To assess the spatial distribution of shopping centers, standard deviation ellipse analysis was used, as well as the nearest neighbor method. In order to determine the parameters of development of shopping centers, basic urban indicators were used, i.e., building plot ratio (BPR), floor area ratio (FAR), and green plot ratio (GPR). Spatial analysis was performed using QGIS software. Studies have shown that brownfield investments are scattered along the north–south axis of the city, while greenfield investments are located at a greater distance from its central area. Over the years, there has been a gradual concentration of shopping centers, but they are still characterized by dispersion. The results of analyses of changes in the land development of their areas indicate that over the years there has been an imperceptible trend of creating objects occupying an increasing part of the investment plot. In turn, the share of total leaf area of greenery is slightly reduced. With the increase in distance from the city center, indicators regarding the floor area and gross floor area of shopping centers are clearly decreasing. On the other hand, the share of greenery increases mildly, although this index remains at a level not exceeding 20%. These results indicate the need to take action to enforce a greater share of greenery within the areas of shopping centers and the need to care for the quality of their surroundings in order to ensure sustainable spatial development of the city.]]>
<![CDATA[Benefits, inconveniences, and facilities of the application of rain gardens in urban spaces from the perspective of climate change – a review]]> Fri, 24 Jun 2022 09:34:02 +0200 Bąk, Joanna; Barjenbruch, Matthias
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The need to support existing sewage systems is obvious due to the noticeable consequences of climate change, such as extreme rainfall, which is causing more urban flooding. It is believed that these phenomena will intensify in the long-term, and that sewage systems will be overloaded with stormwater. Consequently, cities will need more opportunities to protect themselves from flooding. Moreover, longer periods of drought will increase the temperatures in towns. The use of blue and green infrastructure is being used to adapt to climate change and to limit its effects in cities. However, it is important not to apply these solutions indiscriminately. They have obvious advantages, but are also limited in their uses. Facilities are also being developed for the design and construction of green infrastructure. This article presents the benefits of using rain gardens in urban spaces and in relation to other forms of blue-green infrastructure; it also explored the problems that may occur while using them. More important facilitations in the implementation of rain gardens into urban fabrics are discussed, particularly in the context of the existing inconveniences. A holistic approach to the issue was applied addressing technical, economic, environmental, and social aspects.]]>
<![CDATA[Simulation of PLC effect using regularized large-strain elasto-plasticity]]> Fri, 24 Jun 2022 09:25:31 +0200 Mucha, Marzena; Wcisło, Balbina; Pamin, Jerzy
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The purpose of this paper is to develop a constitutive description and to numerically simulate a propagating instability phenomenon called the Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) effect, which is observed for metallic materials. It manifests itself by moving plastic shear bands in the sample and serrations in the stress-strain diagram. In this paper, the PLC is modeled by geometrically non-linear thermo-visco-plasticity with the hardening function of the Estrin-McCormick type to reproduce a serrated response. To regularize softening, which in this model comes from thermal, geometrical and strain-rate effects, the viscosity and heat conductivity are incorporated. Plasticity description can additionally include degradation of the yield strength, and then the model is enhanced by higher-order gradients. Simulations are performed using AceGen/FEM. Two tensioned specimens are tested: a rod and a dog-bone sample. The first specimen is used for general verification. The results obtained for the second specimen are compared with the experimental results. Studies for different values of model parameters are performed. The results of the simulations are in good agreement with the experimental outcome and the sensitivity to model parameters is in line with the expectations for the pre-peak regime. In the presented tests, the gradient enhancement does not significantly influence the results.]]>
<![CDATA[Conservation of 19th century defensive structure. The case of Fort Swoszowice in Cracow, Poland]]> Fri, 24 Jun 2022 09:19:38 +0200 Gyurkovich, Jacek; Dudzic-Gyurkovich, Karolina; Suchoń, Filip; Olesiak, Justyna; Boba-Dyga, Bożena; Stawiarski, Jacek
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper discusses the issues associated with conservation of selected elements of the existing military object. The subject was presented on the case of Fort Swoszowice, which is the late 19th century defensive structure recently renovated and adapted to new function. Fort Swoszowice belongs to the system of fortifications that were built in concentric rings around the city of Cracow during Austro-Hungarian monarchy. After decades of neglection, the fortifications are getting more attention as important parts of the cultural heritage of the city. One group of problems associated with conservation of the structure addressed the technical condition of the materials: concrete, brick and metal elements, which showed the signs of deterioration due to lack of proper conservation. The other group of problems were connected with military purpose of the building. The descriptive methodology was chosen as the most appropriate for the case study. The archival maps and manuals were studied in order to get knowledge on the conditions specific for the military structure. Furthermore, the conservation and restoration procedures are described, with emphasis on the factors that determine the identity of the building. Finally, the result is presented, which show that conservation based on diagnosis of the existing conditions and recognition of the archival resources can help in restoration in accordance with the original state and adaptation to a new function.]]>
<![CDATA[Review: A survey on configurations and performance of flow-mode MR valves]]> Fri, 24 Jun 2022 09:11:48 +0200 Gołdasz, Janusz; Sapiński, Bogdan; Kubík, Michal; Macháček, Ondřej; Bańkosz, Wojciech; Sattel, Thomas; Tan, Aditya Suryadi
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Magnetorheological (MR) actuators are semi-active devices controlled by magnetic stimuli. The technology has been commercialized in the automotive industry or high-quality optical finishing applications. It harnesses the rheology of smart fluids to result in the unique application of the material. By a wide margin, the most common example of an MR actuator is a flow-mode single-tube housing with a control valve (electromagnet with a fixed-size air gap filled with the MR fluid) operating in a semi-active vibration control environment. The analysis of the prior art shows that the developed configurations of MR valves vary in size, complexity, the ability to generate adequate levels of pressure, and the interactions with the MR fluid’s rheology resulting in various performance envelopes. Moreover, miscellaneous testing procedures make a direct valve-to-valve comparison difficult. Therefore, in this paper we present a detailed and systematic review of MR control valves, provide classification criteria, highlight the operating principle, and then attempt to categorize the valves into groups sharing similarities in the design and performance envelope(s). Moreover, a simple performance metric based on the shear stress calculation is proposed, too, for evaluating the performance of particular valving prototypes. In the review, we discuss the key configurations, highlight their strengths and weaknesses and explore various opportunities for tuning their performance range. The review provides complementary information for the engineers and researchers with a keen interest in MR applications, in general. It is an organized and and critical study targeted at improvements in the categorization and description of MR devices.]]>
<![CDATA[Simulating local fields in carbon nanotube-reinforced composites for infinite strip with voids]]> Fri, 24 Jun 2022 08:58:04 +0200 Nasser, Mohamed M. S.; Kalmoun, El Mostafa; Mityushev, Vladimir; Rylko, Natalia
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: A numerical simulation of the thermal properties is conducted for an isotropic and homogeneous infinite strip composite reinforced by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and containing voids. The CNTs can be uniformly or randomly distributed but are non-overlapping. We model the CNTs as thin perfectly conducting elliptic inclusions and assume the voids to be of circular shape and act as barriers to heat flow. We also impose isothermal conditions on the external boundaries by assuming the lower infinite wall to be a heater under a given temperature, and the upper wall to be a cooler that can be held at a lower fixed temperature. The mathematical model, which takes the form of a mixed Dirichlet–Neumann problem, is solved by applying the boundary integral equation with the generalized Neumann kernel. We illustrate the performance of the proposed method through several numerical examples including the case of the presence of a large number of CNTs and voids.]]>
<![CDATA[Municipal power plan optimisation accounting for environmental footprints]]> Thu, 23 Jun 2022 13:10:35 +0200 Varbanov, Petar Sabev; Wang, Bohong; Klemeš, Jiri Jaromir; Kabli, Mohammad Reda; Shahzad, Khurram; Ocłoń Paweł
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper presents a model for municipal power planning, incorporating renewable power generation sources and energy storage facilities. It proposes a prototyping model architecture including photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and battery power storage, linked to the municipal power demands and interacting with the power grid. The planning model minimises the total system cost, comparing the pure monetary cost minimisation and accounting for the eco-cost related to the Greenhouse Gas and Water Footprints. The provided case study illustrates the economic feasibility of renewables integration, accounting for the eco-cost, maximising the use of photovoltaic panels. Adding the eco-cost minimises the footprints further and achieves a simultaneous reduction of total cost and footprints by approximately 25% and 39%. The sensitivity of the cost and footprints towards the life span of batteries was found marginal – compensated by increased power export to the grid, while the eventual life span reduction of wind turbines exerts a significant influence on the system performance in terms of cost and footprints – up to 40% compared to the base case. The sensitivity to the land availability for PV panels has also been found significant, obtaining cumulative reductions of the cost and footprints of 39% for cost and 50% from the benchmark case. The proposed method lays the foundation for a comprehensive energy planning method for municipalities to further include the social pillar of sustainability.]]>
<![CDATA[Analiza katastrof budowlanych w Polsce, w latach 2004-2019]]> Thu, 23 Jun 2022 12:10:24 +0200 Drozd, Wojciech
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: Artykuł stanowi próbę przeprowadzenia analizy katastrof budowlanych, które miały miejsce w Polsce, w latach 2004-2019.]]>
<![CDATA[Wpływ niepewności pomiarowych na wyznaczanie współczynników wnikania ciepła z użyciem metody optymalizacyjnej]]> Thu, 23 Jun 2022 10:42:54 +0200 Prończuk, Mateusz
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: W niniejszej pracy przedstawione zostały wyniki analizy numerycznej wpływu nie-pewności pomiarowych na dokładność wyznaczania współczynników wnikania ciepła z użyciem metody optymalizacyjnej. Najważniejszą zaletą tej metody jest brak konieczności pomiaru temperatury ścianki do wyznaczenia wartości współczynników wnikania ciepła. Jej istota polega na założeniu ogólnych postaci równań kryterialnych opisujących zależność liczby Nusselta od liczb Reynoldsa i Prandtla, oraz dobór parametrów tych równań z użyciem algorytmów optymalizacyjnych. W pracy badano wpływ ilości pomiarów oraz niepewności pomiaru temperatury i natężeń przepływu czynnika w rurach oraz przestrzeni międzyrurowej wymiennika ciepła. Do symulacji wyników pomiarów zastosowano szum gaussowski o założonej wartości odchylenia standardowego i określono przedziały ufności wyznaczania współczynników wnikania ciepła dla analizowanych niepewności.]]>
<![CDATA[Prediction of abrasive waterjet machining parameters of military-grade armor steel by semi-empirical and regression models]]> Thu, 23 Jun 2022 08:22:48 +0200 Rammohan, Soundarapandian; Thirumalai Kumaran, Sundaresan; Uthayakumar, Marimuthu; Korniejenko, Kinga; Nykiel, Marek; Velayutham, Arumugam
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: Rolled homogeneous armor steel (RHA) with a high tensile strength, toughness, and hardness is often used in military combat vehicles. RHA is a high-strength low alloy steel suitable for all battlefield usage in military vehicles. The present work examines the prediction output responses in the material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness (Ra), and kerf angle (Ka) for the AWJM of armor steel using regression and semi-empirical models. The AWJM trials were performed using an L27 factorial design with each process variable set to three levels, namely, the standoff distance (SOD), jet traversing speed (JT), and jet water pressure (P). A regression model was constructed using the response surface method (RSM) and data from the trials. Through dimensional analysis and with Buckingham’s π-theorem, a semi-empirical model was built using both the experimental data and material property data. Predictions made by the models were proportionate with the results of the experiments under the same conditions. Microscopic investigations on MRR and Ra were performed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The optimal values of the output responses of the machined armor steel plate were obtained with higher MRR = 298.92 mm3/min, lower Ka = 0.651°, and lower Ra = 2.23 µm. The present work established that semi-empirical models accurately predict the output responses in the AWJM of armor steel.]]>
<![CDATA[Wpływ odległości kamery na wyznaczanie średnicy zastępczej pęcherza gazowego z użyciem metody cieniograficznej]]> Thu, 23 Jun 2022 08:00:16 +0200 Luty, Przemysław; Prończuk, Mateusz; Bizon, Katarzyna
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
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<![CDATA[Termiczna utylizacja maseczek chirurgicznych w piaskowym złożu fluidalnym]]> Thu, 23 Jun 2022 07:55:21 +0200 Leski, Krystian
rodzaj: materiały konferencyjne w książce
Abstrakt: W niniejszej pracy zbadano proces termicznej utylizacji jednorazowych maseczek chirurgicznych, których produkcja znacząco wzrosła po wybuchu pandemii COVID-19. Nagły wzrost ilości odpadowych tworzyw sztucznych od roku 2019 pochodzących także z innych źródeł środków ochrony osobistej, tj. fartuchów czy rękawiczek ochronnych wymagał zastosowania odpowiednich metod ich utylizacji. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczących spalania maseczek chirurgicznych w złożu fluidalnym utworzonym z ziaren piasku kwarcowego. Za pomocą analizy gazów spalinowych w podczerwieni stwierdzono, że w temperaturze 750°C około 95% węgla zawartego w maseczkach chirurgicznych ulega konwersji do CO2. Pozostałe 5% węgla ulega konwersji do CO i produktów organicznych.]]>
<![CDATA[Czy w Wiśniczu była przestrzeń ceremonialna?]]> Tue, 21 Jun 2022 17:26:45 +0200 Szlezynger, Piotr
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
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<![CDATA[Elementy nowatorskie i tradycyjne w kompozycji urbanistycznej wybranych renesansowych założeń miejsko-rezydencjonalnych w Polsce]]> Tue, 21 Jun 2022 16:55:33 +0200 Motak, Maciej
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
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<![CDATA[Powder bed fusion]]> Tue, 21 Jun 2022 14:31:32 +0200 Wyszyński, Dominik; Grabowski, Marcin
rodzaj: rozdział/fragment książki
Abstrakt: Methods, properties, and characteristics provides a detailed guide to polymers for 3D printing, bridging the gap between research and practice, and enabling engineers, technicians and designers to utilise and implement this technology for their products or applications.]]>
<![CDATA[Influence of alkaline earth metals on structure formation and magnesium alloy properties]]> Tue, 21 Jun 2022 14:30:47 +0200 Shalomeev, Vadym; Tabunshchyk, Galyna; Greshta, Viktor; Nykiel, Marek; Korniejenko, Kinga
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: The main aim of this work is to improve the structure and properties of the magnesium alloy ML5 by modifying it with alkaline earth metals (ALM). The separate and joint influence of calcium and barium on the macrostructure and microstructure of the alloy of Mg-Al-Zn system was investigated. The qualitative and quantitative estimation of the structural components was carried out. Alkali earth metals were included in complex intermetallic phases and serve as additional crystallization centers. Modification of magnesium alloys with alkaline earth metals is established in an amount of 0.05 to 0.1 wt. % increased the bulk percentage of intermetallic phases by ~1.5 times, shifting them towards smaller size groups while simultaneously forming spherical intermetallic phases located in the grain centre and serving as additional crystallization centers. In this case, grain size reduction and significant refinement of the alloy structural components were provided. The dependency of the separate and joint influence of alkali earth metals on the castings complex of properties of the magnesium alloy has been established. Thus, a separate modification of the ML5 alloy provided the maximum level of its strength and ductility with the addition of 0.1% Ca or Ba. The modification of the complex (0.1% Ca + 0.1% Ba) of the magnesium alloy decreased the dimensions of its structural components 1.5 times and increased the strength of the alloy by 20%, the ductility by 2 times and the long-term heat resistance 1.5 times due to the formation of the intermetallic phases of the complex composition. Linear dependences were obtained that describe the influence of the characteristics of the structural components of the modified magnesium alloy on its mechanical properties. The developed technology for modifying cast magnesium alloys with alkaline earth elements provides an improvement in casting quality and allows the reliability and durability of responsible casting operation.]]>
<![CDATA[Stał dwór szlachecki]]> Tue, 21 Jun 2022 13:43:05 +0200 Tutak, Melania; Gaj, Ewa; Mikulec, Aleksandra; Polańska, Klaudia; Symołon, Beata Anna; Ściężor, Tomasz; Ulman, Andrzej
rodzaj: książka
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<![CDATA[Wpływ parametrów tworzenia mieszanki wodorowo-powietrznej na przebieg procesu spalania w silniku z zapłonem iskrowym : praca doktorska]]> Tue, 21 Jun 2022 13:31:40 +0200 Rodak, Łukasz
rodzaj: rozprawa doktorska
Abstrakt: Praca dotyczy rozwiązania naukowego celu badawczego, jakim jest opracowanie i weryfikacja koncepcji nowatorskiego systemu zasilania i spalania mieszanki wodorowo-powietrznej w tłokowym silniku spalinowym z zapłonem iskrowym, który umożliwi kontrolę przebiegu spalania tej mieszanki. Opracowana koncepcja, polegająca na dostarczaniu wodoru w trakcie procesu sprężania ładunku i spalania, stwarza możliwość wydzielenia większej ilości ciepła ze spalania stechiometrycznej mieszanki wodorowo-powietrznej w cylindrze tłokowego silnika spalinowego. W stosunku do istniejących rozwiązań, w których do zasilania silników stosowano wyłącznie ubogą mieszankę wodorowo-powietrzną, pozwoli to na osiągnięcie większej mocy jednostkowej silnika. Pracę zrealizowano w kolejnych etapach, obejmujących zarówno badania modelowe, jak i badania doświadczalne. Pierwszym etapem badań, były analizy teoretyczne dotyczące procesu spalania mieszanki wodorowo-powietrznej. Obejmowały one analizę literaturową, która wykazała potencjał rozwojowy silników zasilanych wodorem i pozwoliła na opracowanie koncepcji własnego, innowacyjnego systemu spalania wodoru w silniku tłokowym. Drugim etapem było przeprowadzenie symulacyjnych badań modelowych systemu spalania w komorze izochorycznej oraz ich weryfikacja podczas badań doświadczalnych. Kolejnym etapem prowadzonych badań naukowych było przeprowadzenie badań symulacyjnych systemu spalania tłokowego silnika spalinowego, zasilanego mieszanką wodorowo-powietrzną, według opracowanej koncepcji, przy zastosowaniu programu KIVA 3V, uznanego narzędzia inżynierskiego stosowanego do modelownia złożonych procesów zachodzących w maszynach cieplnych. Finalnym etapem realizacji pracy była weryfikacja opracowanej koncepcji innowacyjnego systemu spalania mieszanki wodorowo-powietrznej, przeprowadzona na rzeczywistym obiekcie badawczym, jakim był doświadczalny silnik spalinowy. Tak przyjęta metodyka, umożliwiała bieżące korzystanie z wniosków płynących z poszczególnych etapów prac, do weryfikacji kolejnych etapów badań naukowych. Wyniki przeprowadzonych badań symulacyjnych oraz badań doświadczalnych potwierdziły osiągnięcie postawionego w pracy naukowego celu badawczego, a przedstawione w pracy wnioski mogą być przyczynkiem do prowadzenia dalszych prac badawczo rozwojowych w obszarze zastosowania wodoru, jako nowego nośnika energii.]]>
<![CDATA[Experimental and numerical study on vibrations of a helical pipe with fluid flow]]> Tue, 21 Jun 2022 10:24:09 +0200 Czerwiński, Andrzej; Łuczko, Jan
rodzaj: artykuł w czasopiśmie
Abstrakt: This paper presents the results of a study of the dynamics of a spiral tube with fluid flow. A copper helical pipe fixed at both ends is chosen for the study. The influence of the flow velocity on the natural frequencies of the system is investigated using a linear model. Experimental results confirmed the adequacy of the model assuming the pipe centreline to be extensible. The analysis of the natural vibration modes of the spiral tube and the effect of flow on the change in the shape of the modes is carried out. Underlying the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a pipe conveying pulsating fluid flow is a nonlinear model. The effects of pulsation frequency, pulsation amplitude and the flow velocity on the system's vibrations are examined. Time histories, phase portraits, motion trajectories, vibration modes and spectra are analysed, also in the form of spectrograms as a function of the pulsation frequency. It was verified that resonance vibrations are excited particularly in the natural vibration ranges. The results of numerical simulations and experimental observation show the spatial character of vibrations with significant amplitudes, showing their increasing complexity at higher excitation frequencies. ]]>